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DYNAMIC GOVERNANCE

IN SINGAPORE

Kuliah 5 GSPKN MAKSI

Dynamic Governance
How the chosen paths, policies, institutions, and structures adapt to
an uncertain and fast changing environment so that they remain
relevant and effective in achieving the long-term desired outcomes
of society.
1. Characteristics of Dynamic Institutions
.
Energetic and quick executions in pursuing goals
.
Entrepreneurial, innovative and fresh ideas in handling issues
.
Effective and adaptable in continuously responding to changing
conditions
2. Need for Dynamism
.
Uncertain and unpredictable global environment
.
Rapid technological developments
.
Peers and competitors are moving fast and frequently

Three critical governance


capabilities
1. Thinking ahead the ability to perceive early
signals of future developments that may affect
a nation in order to remain relevant to the
world;
2. Thinking again the ability and willingness to
rethink and remake currently functioning
policies so that they perform better;
3. Thinking across the ability and openness to
cross boundaries to learn from the experience
of others so that new ideas and concepts may
be introduced into an institution.

Framework for Dynamic Governance


System

Singapores government action

i. building the
economy,

ii. managing
population
growth and the
labor market,

v. building up
security and
defense

iii. building up
physical
infrastructure,

iv. building
social systems
and practices

Cultural Foundations: Inculcating


Principles of Governance

Understanding Culture
Values and Beliefs that Shaped a Nation
Three key beliefs drive public sector policy making in
Singapore:
1. the belief that a strong economy is fundamental to
the viability of all other policies, and that continued
economic growth is the number one priority
2. the belief that state is central to Singapores longterm stability
3. the belief that policy makers must be futureoriented to be effective

Cultural Foundations: Inculcating


Principles of Governance
Singapores institutional culture is based on five core
values:
(i) honesty and integrity,
(ii) people as the main resource,
(iii) results orientation,
(iv) self reliance, and
(v) domestic stability.

Principles:
Governance

Defining

Public Sector Governance Principles in a Political


Context

Socialization and the Transmission of Culture and


Values

Implications

and

and

Establishing

Challenges

of

Good

Singapores

Policy Execution: Developing and


Implementing Paths

Policy Execution: Developing and


Implementing Paths
Main Activities of Policy Execution
1. Identifying issues for policy review
a. Reacting to external crisis or policy consequences
b. Identifying improvement opportunities
c. Surfacing issues from consideration of future scenarios
d. Identifying and sponsoring strategic issues
e. Learning from leadership exposure to different views and
practices
2. Influencing design of policy options
a. Setting standards for policy analysis and design
b. Recommending courses of action through staff analysis and
papers
c. Studying policy options through inter-agency project teams
d. Engaging external advisers and experts

Policy Execution: Developing and


Implementing Paths
Main Activities of Policy Execution
3. Implementing policy decisions
a. Selecting key leaders
b. Structuring an appropriate organization
c. Planning major strategies and the resources needed
d. Initiating projects, processes and programs
e. Monitoring progress and gathering feedback

Policy Adaptation: Embedding Learning


and Adjusting Paths

Policy adaptation
Public Transportation and Car
Ownership Policy
Managing Usage: Road Congestion
Pricing
Electronic Road Pricing: Harnessing
Technology for Real Time Congestion
Pricing
Quotas for Car Ownership and the
Certificate of Entitlement
Catering to Part-Time Car Users: The
Weekend Car Scheme
Lessons Learnt from the
Experimentation and Innovation in
Road Transportation

Policy adaptation
Health Care Policy
Introducing Co-payment for Health
Care Services
Differentiating Health Care Services
through a Tiered System
Providing Information and Introducing
Competition in Service Delivery
Going beyond Inpatient Treatment to
Structured
Disease Management
Exploring Emerging Health Care Policy
Issues
Patterns of Learning and Policy
Adaptation in Health Care

PEOPLE AS KEY TO DYNAMIC


GOVERNANCE

Process Innovation: Creating Agile Structures


and Systems

People and processes are the main drivers of dynamic governance.


For dynamic governance to be effectively institutionalized, organizational
processes must be designed and implemented so that the governance system
can still continue to function even when there is a change in leadership
Organizational capabilities are embedded in processes that coordinate, combine
and integrate the performance of various workers and units, enable learning and
absorption of new knowledge, and induce continuous reconfiguration and
transformation.
Processes define the required input resources, the tasks needed to be performed,
the people responsible for performing the tasks, the required output, how the
tasks and people performing them are to be coordinated and integrated to
produce the required output, the rules governing its performance and
management, and the customers who are to receive the output. They also define
how quality and performance are measured, how errors are detected and
corrected, and how improvements and changes are made.
There are 3 major organizational process created the capacity to continue
transform (learn, improve, adapt): anticipating the future, allocating financial
resources, applying systemic discipline.

Creating Processes for Dynamic


Governance
Purpose
Reframin
g
Leadershi
p
Perceptio
n

Processes

Practices

Anticipatin
g the
Future

Creating Scenarios
Crafting Strategies

Renewing
Organzatio
nal
Activities

Allocating
Financial
Resources

Aligning Budget
Assessing Value

Redesignin
g
Structural
Linkage

Applying
Systemic
Discipline

Enabling
Integration
Engaging Change
Enhancing Service

Sustaining Dynamic Governance:


Lessons and Challenges
Key Lessons and Principles:
1.Good Governance is Dynamic, but Not Without Weaknesses
2.Effective Political and Public Sector Leadership are Both Needed for
Good Governance
3.Continual Learning and Effective Execution are the Key Drivers for
Dynamism
4.Dynamism is not Merely about Speed in Problem-Solving; Even More
Important is the Speed in Perceiving and Capturing New Opportunities
5.Dynamism is the Result of Building a Holistic Governance System with
a Strong Cultural Foundation of Values and Principles, and an Adaptable
Structure of Critical Institutional Capabilities
6.Dynamic Governance Capabilities are Created by Able People,
Stimulated by Agile Processes and Expressed in Adaptive Policies
7.Public Institutions Played a Crucial Role in Effective Dynamic
Governance by Designing and Implementing Policies to Achieve Results
8.The Cumulative Effects of Systemic Improvements were Substantial,
Even If Individual Policy Changes were only Incremental