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Chapter 12:

Structural Analysis 7th Edition in SI Units

Russell C. Hibbeler

General Principles & Definition

Moment distribution is a method of
successive approximations that may be
carried out to any desired degree of
accuracy
The method begins by assuming each joint
of a structure is fixed
By unlocking and locking each joint in
succession, the internal moments at the
joints are distributed & balanced until the
joints have rotated to their final or nearly
final positions

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

Member stiffness factor
4 EI
K
L

Joint stiffness factor

The total stiffness factor of joint A is
K T K 4000 5000 1000 10000

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

Distribution Factor (DF)
That fraction of the total resisting moment
supplied by the member is called the
distribution factor (DF)
Mi
K i
DFi

M Ki
K
DF
K

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

Member relative stiffness factor
Quite often a continuous beam or a frame will
be made from the same material
E will therefore be constant
I
KR
L

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

Carry-over (CO) factor
4 EI
2 EI
M AB
A ; M BA
A
L
L
Solving for and equating these eqn,
M BA 0.5M AB
The moment M at the pin induces a moment
of M = 0.5M at the wall
In the case of a beam with the far end fixed,
the CO factor is +0.5
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

Carry-over (CO) factor
the same direction

Consider the

6
4
E
(
120
)(
10
)
beam
K BA
4 E ( 40)(106 )mm 4 / m
3
4 E ( 240)(10 6 )
K BC
4 E (60)(106 )mm 4 / m
4
4 E (40)
DFBA
0.4
4 E (40) 4 E (60)
4 E (60)
DFBC
0.6
4 E (40) 4 E (60)

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

4 E (40)
0
4 E (40)
4 E (60)

0
4 E (60)

DFAB
DFCB

Note that the above results could also have

been obtained if the relative stiffness factor
2
wL
is used
( FEM ) BC
8000kNm
( FEM ) CB

12
wL2

8000kNm
12

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

We begin by assuming joint B is fixed or
locked
The fixed end moment at B then holds span
BC in this fixed or locked position
To correct this, we will apply an equal but
opposite moment of 8000Nm to the joint
and allow the joint to rotate freely

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

As a result, portions of this moment are
distributed in spans BC and BA in
accordance with the DFs of these spans at
the joint
Moment in BA is 0.4(8000) = 3200Nm
Moment in BC is 0.6(8000) = 4800Nm
These moment must be carried over since
moments are developed at the far ends of
the span
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

General Principles & Definition

Using the carry-over factor of +0.5, the
results are shown
The steps are usually presented in tabular
form
CO indicates a line where moments are
distributed then carried over
In this particular case only one cycle of
moment distribution is necessary
The wall supports at A and C absorb the
moments and no further joints have to be
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7 Edition
balanced to satisfy joint equilibrium
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
th

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 12.2
Determine the internal moment at each support of the
beam. The moment of inertia of each span is indicated.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
A moment does not get distributed in the overhanging
span AB
So the distribution factor (DF)BA =0
Span BC is based on 4EI/L since the pin rocker is not at
the far end of the beam

K BC

4 E (300)(10 6 )

300(10 6 ) E
4

K CD

4 E (240)(10 6 )

320(10 6 ) E
3

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
DFBC 1 ( DF ) BA 1 0 1
DFCB

300 E

0.484
300 E 320 E

DFCD 0.516;

DFDC 0

( FEM ) BC

wL2

2000 Nm
12

( FEM ) CB

wL2

2000 Nm
12

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
The overhanging span requires the internal moment to
the left of B to be +4000Nm.
Balancing at joint B requires an internal moment of
4000Nm to the right of B.
-2000Nm is added to BC in order to satisfy this condition.
The distribution & CO operations proceed in the usual
manner.
Since the internal moments are known, the moment
diagram for the beam can be constructed.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
The previous e.g. of moment distribution, we
have considered each beam span to be
constrained by a fixed support at its far end
when distributing & carrying over the
moments
In some cases, it is possible to modify the
stiffness factor of a particular beam span &
thereby simplify the process of moment
distribution
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
Member pin supported at far end
As shown the applied moment M rotates end
A by an amt
To determine , the shear in the conjugate
beam at A must be determined
1 M 2
V ' A ( L)
L L 0
2 EI 3
3L
3EI
V 'A
M

EI
L
M B' 0

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
Member pin supported at far end (contd)
The stiffness factor in the beam is
3EI
K
L

The CO factor is zero, since the pin at B does

not support a moment
By comparison, if the far end was fixed
supported, the stiffness factor would have to
be modified by to model the case of having
the far end pin supported
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
The bending-moment diagram for the beam
will also be symmetric
To develop the appropriate stiffness-factor
modification consider the beam
Due to symmetry, the internal
moment at B & C are equal
Assuming this value to
be M, the conjugate
beam for span BC is shown
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
M L
M C ' 0 - V ' B ( L)
L 0
EI 2
ML
2 EI
V 'B
M

2 EI
L
2 EI
K

Moments for only half the beam can be

distributed provided the stiffness factor for
the center span is computed
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
Consider the beam as shown
The conjugate beam for its center span BC is
shown
moment at B is equal but opposite to that at
C

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications
Assuming this value to be M, the slope at
each end is determined as follows:
M C' 0
1

2

ML
V 'B
6 EI
6 EI
K
L
- V ' B ( L)

EI

L 5L 1 M

2
6
2
EI

6 EI
M

L

2

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

L
0
6

Example 12.4
Determine the internal moments at the supports of the
beam shown below. The moment of inertia of the two
spans is shown in the figure.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
The beam is roller supported at its far end C.
The stiffness of span BC will be computed on the basis of
K = 3EI/L
We have:

4 EI 4 E (120)(10 6 )
K AB

160(10 6 ) E
L
3
3EI 3E (240)(10 6 )
K BC

180(10 6 ) E
L
4

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
160 E
DFAB
0
160 E
160 E
DFBA
0.4706
160 E 180 E
180 E
DFBC
0.5294
160 E 180 E
180 E
DFCB
1
180 E
wL2 6000(4) 2
( FEM ) BC

12000 Nm
8
8
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
The forgoing data are entered into table as shown.
The moment distribution is carried out.
By comparison, the method considerably simplifies the
distribution.
The beams end shears & moment diagrams are shown.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

No sidesway
Application of the moment-distribution
method for frames having no sidesway
follows the same procedure as that given for
beam

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 12.5
Determine the internal moments at the joints of the frame
as shown. There is a pin at E and D and a fixed support at
A. EI is constant.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
By inspection, the pin at E will prevent the frame will
sidesway.
The stiffness factors of CD and CE can be computed using
K = 3EI/L since far ends are pinned.
The 60kN load does not contribute a FEM since it is
4 EI
4 EI
3EI
3EI
applied at
K ABjoint
B.; K BC
; K CD
; K CE
5

DFAB 0
DFBA

4 EI / 5

0.545
4 EI / 5 4 EI / 6

DFBC 1 0.545 0.455

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
DFCB

4 EI / 6

0.330
4 EI / 6 3EI / 5 3EI / 4

DFCD

3EI / 5
0.298
4 EI / 6 3EI / 5 3EI / 4

DFDC 1; DFEC 1

( FEM ) BC

wL2

135kNm
12

( FEM ) CB

wL2

135kNm
12

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
The data are shown in table.
The distribution of moments successively goes to joints
B & C.
The final moment are shown on the last line.
Using these data, the moment diagram for the frame is
constructed as shown.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
To determine sidesway and the internal
moments at the joints using moment
distribution, we will use the principle of
superposition
The frame shown is first held from sidesway
by applying an artificial joint support at C
Moment distribution is applied & by statics,
the restraining force R is determined
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
The equal but opposite restraining force is
then applied to the frame The moments in
the frame are calculated

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
Multistory frames
Multistory frameworks may have several
independent joints disp
Consequently, the moment distribution
analysis using the above techniques will
involve more computation

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
Multistory frames
The structure shown can have 2 independent
joint disp since the sidesway of the first story
is independent of any disp of the second
story

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
Multistory frames
These disp are not known initially
The analysis must proceed on the basis of
superposition
2 restraining forces R1 and R2 are applied
The fixed end moments are determined &
distributed
Using the eqn of eqm, the numerical values
of R1 and R2 are then determined
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
Multistory frames
The restraint at the floor of the first story is
removed & the floor is given a disp
This disp causes fixed end moment (FEMs) in
the frame which can be assigned specific
numerical values
By distributing these moments & using the
eqn of eqm, the associated numerical values
of R1 and R2 can be determined
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
Multistory frames
In a similar manner, the floor of the second
story is then given a disp
With reference to the restraining forces we
require equal but opposite application of R1
and R2 to the frame such that:
R2 C ' R' 2 C ' R"2
R1 C ' R'1 C ' R"1
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Moment distribution for frames:

Sidesway
Multistory frames
Simultaneous solution of these eqn yields the
values of C and C
These correction factors are then multiplied
by the internal joint moments found from
moment distribution
The resultant moments are found by adding
these corrected moments to those obtained
for the frame
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 12.6
Determine the moments at each joint of the frame shown.
EI is constant.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
First, we consider the frame held from sidesway
( FEM ) BC
( FEM ) CB

16(4) 2 (1)
(5)

16(1) 2 (4)
(5)

10.24kNm

2.56kNm

The stiffness factor of each span is computed on the basis

of 4EI/L or using relative stiffness factor I/L

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
The DFs and the moment distribution are shown in the
table.
The eqn of eqm are applied to the free body diagrams of
the columns in order to determine Ax and Dx
From the free body diagram of the entire frame, the joint
restraint R has a magnitude of
Fx 0; R 1.73kN 0.81kN 0.92kN

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
An equal but opposite value of R = 0.92kN must be
applied to the frame at C and the internal moments
computed.
We assume a force R is applied at C causing the frame
to deflect as shown.
The joints at B and C are temporarily restrained from
rotating.
As a result, the FEM at the ends of the columns are
determined.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
Since both B and C happen to be displaced the same
amount and AB and DC have the same E, I and L, the FEM
in AB will be the same as that in DC.
As shown we will arbitrarily assumed this FEM to be

( FEM ) AB ( FEM ) BA ( FEM ) CD ( FEM ) DC 100kNm

The moment distribution of the FEM is shown below.

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution
From the eqm, the horizontal reactions at A and D are
calculated.
For the entire frame, we require:

Fx 0; R ' 28 28 56kN

R=56kN creates the moments tabulated below

Corresponding moments caused by R = 0.92kN can be
determined by0.92
proportion
M AB 2.88

56.0

80 1.57kNm

M BA 4.79kNm; M BC 4.79kNm; M CB 3.71kNm

M CD 3.71kNm; M DC 2.63kNm
Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution
Structural Analysis 7th Edition
2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd