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Russell C. Hibbeler

Moment distribution is a method of

successive approximations that may be

carried out to any desired degree of

accuracy

The method begins by assuming each joint

of a structure is fixed

By unlocking and locking each joint in

succession, the internal moments at the

joints are distributed & balanced until the

joints have rotated to their final or nearly

final positions

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Member stiffness factor

4 EI

K

L

The total stiffness factor of joint A is

K T K 4000 5000 1000 10000

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Distribution Factor (DF)

That fraction of the total resisting moment

supplied by the member is called the

distribution factor (DF)

Mi

K i

DFi

M Ki

K

DF

K

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Member relative stiffness factor

Quite often a continuous beam or a frame will

be made from the same material

E will therefore be constant

I

KR

L

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Carry-over (CO) factor

4 EI

2 EI

M AB

A ; M BA

A

L

L

Solving for and equating these eqn,

M BA 0.5M AB

The moment M at the pin induces a moment

of M = 0.5M at the wall

In the case of a beam with the far end fixed,

the CO factor is +0.5

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Carry-over (CO) factor

The plus sign indicates both moments act in

the same direction

Consider the

6

4

E

(

120

)(

10

)

beam

K BA

4 E ( 40)(106 )mm 4 / m

3

4 E ( 240)(10 6 )

K BC

4 E (60)(106 )mm 4 / m

4

4 E (40)

DFBA

0.4

4 E (40) 4 E (60)

4 E (60)

DFBC

0.6

4 E (40) 4 E (60)

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

4 E (40)

0

4 E (40)

4 E (60)

0

4 E (60)

DFAB

DFCB

been obtained if the relative stiffness factor

2

wL

is used

( FEM ) BC

8000kNm

( FEM ) CB

12

wL2

8000kNm

12

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

We begin by assuming joint B is fixed or

locked

The fixed end moment at B then holds span

BC in this fixed or locked position

To correct this, we will apply an equal but

opposite moment of 8000Nm to the joint

and allow the joint to rotate freely

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

As a result, portions of this moment are

distributed in spans BC and BA in

accordance with the DFs of these spans at

the joint

Moment in BA is 0.4(8000) = 3200Nm

Moment in BC is 0.6(8000) = 4800Nm

These moment must be carried over since

moments are developed at the far ends of

the span

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Using the carry-over factor of +0.5, the

results are shown

The steps are usually presented in tabular

form

CO indicates a line where moments are

distributed then carried over

In this particular case only one cycle of

moment distribution is necessary

The wall supports at A and C absorb the

moments and no further joints have to be

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7 Edition

balanced to satisfy joint equilibrium

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

th

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 12.2

Determine the internal moment at each support of the

beam. The moment of inertia of each span is indicated.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

A moment does not get distributed in the overhanging

span AB

So the distribution factor (DF)BA =0

Span BC is based on 4EI/L since the pin rocker is not at

the far end of the beam

K BC

4 E (300)(10 6 )

300(10 6 ) E

4

K CD

4 E (240)(10 6 )

320(10 6 ) E

3

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

DFBC 1 ( DF ) BA 1 0 1

DFCB

300 E

0.484

300 E 320 E

DFCD 0.516;

DFDC 0

( FEM ) BC

wL2

2000 Nm

12

( FEM ) CB

wL2

2000 Nm

12

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

The overhanging span requires the internal moment to

the left of B to be +4000Nm.

Balancing at joint B requires an internal moment of

4000Nm to the right of B.

-2000Nm is added to BC in order to satisfy this condition.

The distribution & CO operations proceed in the usual

manner.

Since the internal moments are known, the moment

diagram for the beam can be constructed.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

The previous e.g. of moment distribution, we

have considered each beam span to be

constrained by a fixed support at its far end

when distributing & carrying over the

moments

In some cases, it is possible to modify the

stiffness factor of a particular beam span &

thereby simplify the process of moment

distribution

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

Member pin supported at far end

As shown the applied moment M rotates end

A by an amt

To determine , the shear in the conjugate

beam at A must be determined

1 M 2

V ' A ( L)

L L 0

2 EI 3

3L

3EI

V 'A

M

EI

L

M B' 0

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

Member pin supported at far end (contd)

The stiffness factor in the beam is

3EI

K

L

not support a moment

By comparison, if the far end was fixed

supported, the stiffness factor would have to

be modified by to model the case of having

the far end pin supported

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

Symmetric beam & loading

The bending-moment diagram for the beam

will also be symmetric

To develop the appropriate stiffness-factor

modification consider the beam

Due to symmetry, the internal

moment at B & C are equal

Assuming this value to

be M, the conjugate

beam for span BC is shown

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

Symmetric beam & loading (contd)

M L

M C ' 0 - V ' B ( L)

L 0

EI 2

ML

2 EI

V 'B

M

2 EI

L

2 EI

K

distributed provided the stiffness factor for

the center span is computed

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

Symmetric beam with asymmetric loading

Consider the beam as shown

The conjugate beam for its center span BC is

shown

Due to its asymmetric loading, the internal

moment at B is equal but opposite to that at

C

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Stiffness-Factor Modifications

Symmetric beam with asymmetric loading

Assuming this value to be M, the slope at

each end is determined as follows:

M C' 0

1

2

ML

V 'B

6 EI

6 EI

K

L

- V ' B ( L)

EI

L 5L 1 M

2

6

2

EI

6 EI

M

L

2

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

L

0

6

Example 12.4

Determine the internal moments at the supports of the

beam shown below. The moment of inertia of the two

spans is shown in the figure.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

The beam is roller supported at its far end C.

The stiffness of span BC will be computed on the basis of

K = 3EI/L

We have:

4 EI 4 E (120)(10 6 )

K AB

160(10 6 ) E

L

3

3EI 3E (240)(10 6 )

K BC

180(10 6 ) E

L

4

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

160 E

DFAB

0

160 E

160 E

DFBA

0.4706

160 E 180 E

180 E

DFBC

0.5294

160 E 180 E

180 E

DFCB

1

180 E

wL2 6000(4) 2

( FEM ) BC

12000 Nm

8

8

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

The forgoing data are entered into table as shown.

The moment distribution is carried out.

By comparison, the method considerably simplifies the

distribution.

The beams end shears & moment diagrams are shown.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

No sidesway

Application of the moment-distribution

method for frames having no sidesway

follows the same procedure as that given for

beam

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 12.5

Determine the internal moments at the joints of the frame

as shown. There is a pin at E and D and a fixed support at

A. EI is constant.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

By inspection, the pin at E will prevent the frame will

sidesway.

The stiffness factors of CD and CE can be computed using

K = 3EI/L since far ends are pinned.

The 60kN load does not contribute a FEM since it is

4 EI

4 EI

3EI

3EI

applied at

K ABjoint

B.; K BC

; K CD

; K CE

5

DFAB 0

DFBA

4 EI / 5

0.545

4 EI / 5 4 EI / 6

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

DFCB

4 EI / 6

0.330

4 EI / 6 3EI / 5 3EI / 4

DFCD

3EI / 5

0.298

4 EI / 6 3EI / 5 3EI / 4

DFDC 1; DFEC 1

( FEM ) BC

wL2

135kNm

12

( FEM ) CB

wL2

135kNm

12

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

The data are shown in table.

The distribution of moments successively goes to joints

B & C.

The final moment are shown on the last line.

Using these data, the moment diagram for the frame is

constructed as shown.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

To determine sidesway and the internal

moments at the joints using moment

distribution, we will use the principle of

superposition

The frame shown is first held from sidesway

by applying an artificial joint support at C

Moment distribution is applied & by statics,

the restraining force R is determined

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

The equal but opposite restraining force is

then applied to the frame The moments in

the frame are calculated

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

Multistory frames

Multistory frameworks may have several

independent joints disp

Consequently, the moment distribution

analysis using the above techniques will

involve more computation

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

Multistory frames

The structure shown can have 2 independent

joint disp since the sidesway of the first story

is independent of any disp of the second

story

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

Multistory frames

These disp are not known initially

The analysis must proceed on the basis of

superposition

2 restraining forces R1 and R2 are applied

The fixed end moments are determined &

distributed

Using the eqn of eqm, the numerical values

of R1 and R2 are then determined

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

Multistory frames

The restraint at the floor of the first story is

removed & the floor is given a disp

This disp causes fixed end moment (FEMs) in

the frame which can be assigned specific

numerical values

By distributing these moments & using the

eqn of eqm, the associated numerical values

of R1 and R2 can be determined

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

Multistory frames

In a similar manner, the floor of the second

story is then given a disp

With reference to the restraining forces we

require equal but opposite application of R1

and R2 to the frame such that:

R2 C ' R' 2 C ' R"2

R1 C ' R'1 C ' R"1

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Sidesway

Multistory frames

Simultaneous solution of these eqn yields the

values of C and C

These correction factors are then multiplied

by the internal joint moments found from

moment distribution

The resultant moments are found by adding

these corrected moments to those obtained

for the frame

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Example 12.6

Determine the moments at each joint of the frame shown.

EI is constant.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

First, we consider the frame held from sidesway

( FEM ) BC

( FEM ) CB

16(4) 2 (1)

(5)

16(1) 2 (4)

(5)

10.24kNm

2.56kNm

of 4EI/L or using relative stiffness factor I/L

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

The DFs and the moment distribution are shown in the

table.

The eqn of eqm are applied to the free body diagrams of

the columns in order to determine Ax and Dx

From the free body diagram of the entire frame, the joint

restraint R has a magnitude of

Fx 0; R 1.73kN 0.81kN 0.92kN

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

An equal but opposite value of R = 0.92kN must be

applied to the frame at C and the internal moments

computed.

We assume a force R is applied at C causing the frame

to deflect as shown.

The joints at B and C are temporarily restrained from

rotating.

As a result, the FEM at the ends of the columns are

determined.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

Since both B and C happen to be displaced the same

amount and AB and DC have the same E, I and L, the FEM

in AB will be the same as that in DC.

As shown we will arbitrarily assumed this FEM to be

The moment distribution of the FEM is shown below.

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

From the eqm, the horizontal reactions at A and D are

calculated.

For the entire frame, we require:

Fx 0; R ' 28 28 56kN

Corresponding moments caused by R = 0.92kN can be

determined by0.92

proportion

M AB 2.88

56.0

80 1.57kNm

M CD 3.71kNm; M DC 2.63kNm

Chapter 12: Displacement Method of Analysis: Moment Distribution

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

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