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True or

False?
1. Women are more prone
to stress.

True or
False?
2. We can never control
STRESS.

True or
False?
3. STRESS can kill.

True or
False?
4. Drinking coffee can
alleviate STRESS.

True or
False?
5. The greater the level of
responsibility the greater
the potential level
of STRESS.

True or
False?
6.
Workplace stres

is the number
one cause of
staff 
absenteeism

True or
False?
7. You can go bald from
stress.

True or
False?

8. The number one reason
for STRESS in most
countries
is money.

True or
9. Initial effects of stress
False?
can make you strong
enough
to carry your
refrigerator

True or
False?
10. Too much stress can
give you a broken heart.

FACT
#1:

While it is a myth that stress can turn
hair gray, stress can cause hair loss.
In fact, telogen effluvium (hair loss)
can begin up to three months after a
stressful event.

FACT
#2:

Stress accounts
for 30% of all
infertility
problems

FACT
#3:
Stress can make acne worse.

FACT
#4:
• Laughing lowers stress
hormones and strengthens
the immune system by
releasing health-enhancing
hormones.

FACT
#5:

• Stress has been called “the silent
killer”. It contributes to 75% to 90%
of medical conditions, including the
six leading causes of death.: heart
disease, cancer, lung ailments,
accidents, liver cirrhosis, and
suicide.

FACT
#6:
A 2009 CNN poll reveals that the
number one reason for stress in most
countries is money.

FACT
#7:
Stress increases the risk of preterm labor and intrauterine
infection.

FACT
#8:
• Extreme or sudden emotional trauma
can lead to “broken heart
syndrome”(BHS), or stress
cardiomyopathy (severe heart
muscle weakness).

FACT
#9:
Women may be more prone to
emotional stress than men because
of their brain chemistry, say
scientists.

FACT #10:

Men are more likely than women to
develop certain stress-related
disorders, including hypertension,
aggressive behavior, and abuse of
alcohol and drugs.

WHAT IS STRESS ?

DEFINITION OF TERMS
• Stress is the body's reaction to a
change that requires a physical, mental
or emotional adjustment or response.
• Stress is caused by an existing stresscausing factor or "stressor.“
• Equilibrium is the state of balance
• Adaptation is the ability to adjust and
adopt new behaviors that allow us to
cope with change.

DEFINITION

S=P>R
Stress occurs when the pressure is greater than the resource

STRESS FEELINGS







Worry
Tense
Tired
Frightened
Elated
Depressed
Anxious
Anger

THE INDIVIDUAL
Everyone is
different, with
unique perceptions
of, and reactions to,
events. There is no
single level of
stress
that
is
Some are more sensitive owing to
optimal
for
all
experiences in childhood, the influence
people.
of teachers, parents and religion etc.

Most of the stress we
experience is selfgenerated. How we
perceive life whether an event
makes us feel
threatened or
stimulated,
encouraged or
discouraged, happy
or sad - depends to a
large extent on how
we perceive
ourselves.

The
The Stress
Stress Response
Response

Endocrine System
Stress response
controlled by the
Endocrine System.
Demands on the
physical or mental
systems of the body
result in hormone
secretion (Adrenaline,
testosterone)

GENERAL ADAPTATION
SYNDROME
• Alarm response
• Adaptation
• Exhaustion

ALARM RESPONSE
This is the “ Fight or Flight”
response that prepares the body for
immediate action.

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM RESPONSES
• Increased pupil dilation
• Perspiration
• Increased heart rate and blood
pressure
• Rapid breathing
• Muscle tenseness
• Increased mental alertness
• Increased blood sugar

ADAPTATION PHASE
If the source persists, the body prepares
for long-term protection, secreting
hormones to increase blood sugar levels.
This phase is common and not necessarily
harmful, but must include periods of
relaxation and rest to counterbalance the
stress response. Fatigue, concentration
lapses, irritability and lethargy result as
the stress turns negative.

EXHAUSTION
In chronic stress situations, sufferers
enter the exhaustion phase:
emotional, physical and mental
resources suffer heavily, the body
experiences ‘ adrenal exhaustion’
leading to decreased stress
tolerance, progressive mental and
physical exhaustion, illness and
collapse.

SYMPTOMS OF STRESS

PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
• Sleep pattern
changes
• Fatigue
• Digestion changes
• Loss of sexual drive
• Headaches
• Aches and pains
• Infections
• Indigestion

• Dizziness
• Fainting
• Sweating &
trembling
• Tingling hands &
feet
• Breathlessness
• Palpitations
• Missed heartbeats

MENTAL SYMPTOMS





Lack of concentration
Memory lapses
Difficulty in making decisions
Confusion
Disorientation
Panic attacks

BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS







Appetite changes - too much or too little
Eating disorders - anorexia, bulimia
Increased intake of alcohol & other drugs
Increased smoking
Restlessness
Fidgeting
Nail biting
Hypochondria

EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS
• Bouts of depression
• Impatience
• Fits of rage
• Tearfulness
• Deterioration of personal
hygiene and appearance

STRESS RELATED ILLNESSES
Stress is not the same as ill-health,
but has been related to such
illnesses as;
• Cardiovascular disease
• Asthma
• Diabetes

• Immune system disease






Digestive disorders
Ulcers
Skin complaints - psoriasis
Headaches and migraines
Pre-menstrual syndrome
Depression

TYPES OF STRESSORS

• External
• Internal

EXTERNAL
STRESSORS




Physical Environment
Social Interaction
Organisational
Major Life Events
Daily Hassles

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT



Noise
Bright Lights
Heat
Confined Spaces

SOCIAL INTERACTION



Rudeness
Bossiness
Aggressiveness by others
Bullying

ORGANISATIONAL



Rules
Regulations
“Red - Tape”
Deadlines

MAJOR LIFE EVENTS




Birth
Death
Lost job
Promotion
Marital status change

DAILY HASSLES
• Commuting
• Misplaced keys
• Mechanical breakdowns

INTERNAL
STRESSORS



Lifestyle choices
Negative self - talk
Mind traps
Personality traits

LIFESTYLE CHOICES
• Caffeine
• Lack of sleep
• Overloaded schedule

NEGATIVE SELF - TALK
• Pessimistic
thinking
• Self criticism
• Over
analysing

MIND TRAPS




Unrealistic expectations
Taking things personally
All or nothing thinking
Exaggeration
Rigid thinking

PERSONALITY TRAITS
• Perfectionists
• Workaholics

Work-related
Stress

WHY DO WE WORK ?
Work provides an
income and fulfils a
variety of other
needs; - mental and
physical exercise,
social contact, a
feeling of self-worth
and competence.

FACTORS INFLUENCING WORK
STRESS





Drive for Success
Working conditions
Overwork
Under-work
Uncertainty
Conflict

• Responsibility
• Relationships at
work
• Change at work

WORKING CONDITIONS
Physical and mental health is
adversely affected by unpleasant
working conditions, such as high
noise levels, lighting, temperature
and unsocial or excessive hours.

OVERWORK
Stress may occur
through an inability to
cope with the technical
or intellectual demands
of a particular task.
Circumstances such as
long hours, unrealistic
deadlines and frequent
interruptions will
compound this.

UNCERTAINTY
About the individuals work
role - objectives,
responsibilities, and
expectations, and a lack of
communication and feedback
can result in confusion,
helplessness, and stress.

CONFLICT

Stress can arise from work the individual
does not want to do or that conflicts with
their personal, social and family values.

RESPONSIBILITY

The greater the level of
responsibility the greater the
potential level of stress.

RELATIONSHIPS AT WORK

Good relationships with colleagues
are crucial. Open discussion is
essential to encourage positive
relationships.

CHANGES AT WORK
Changes that alter psychological,
physiological and behavioural
routines such as promotion,
retirement and redundancy are
particularly stressful.

COSTS
OF
STRESS
80% of all modern diseases have their origins in stress.
In the UK, 40 million working days per year are lost
directly from stress - related illness.
Costs in absenteeism to British industry is estimated at
£1.5 billion pounds per year.

Stress is not
what happens to
us. It's our
response TO
what happens.

Stress Management Strategies

• Ascertain sources of stress
• Assess at how you cope with stre
ss
• Avoid unnecessary stress
• Alter the situation
• Adapt to the stressor
• Accept the things you can’t chan
ge
• Allot time for fun and relaxation

Stress Management Strategy # 1: Ascertain sources of Stress
To identify your true sources of stress, look closely at
your habits, attitude, and excuses:
• Do you explain away stress as temporary (“I just have a
million things going on right now”) even though you
can’t remember the last time you took a breather?
• Do you define stress as an integral part of your work or
home life (“Things are always crazy around here”) or as
a part of your personality (“I have a lot of nervous
energy, that’s all”).
• Do you blame your stress on other people or outside
events, or view it as entirely normal and unexceptional?

Until you accept responsibility for the role you play in creating or
maintaining it, your stress level will remain outside your control.

Stress Management Strategy # 2: Assess how you cope with stress

Think about the ways you
currently manage and cope
with stress in your life.
If your methods of coping with
stress aren’t contributing to
your greater emotional and
physical health, it’s time to
find healthier ones.

Unhealthy ways of coping with stress:
These coping strategies may temporarily reduce
stress, but they cause more damage in the long
run:

• Smoking
• Drinking too much

Overeating
or
Undereating

• Using pills or drugs to relax

• Zoning out for hours in front
of the TV or computer

• Sleeping too much

• Withdrawing from friends, family,
and activities

• Procrastinating
• Filling up every
minute of
the day to avoid facing
problems
• Taking out your stress on
others (lashing out, angry
outbursts, physical violence)

Stress Management Strategy # 3: Avoid unnecessary stress

NO!

Learn how to say “no” – Know your
limits and stick to them. Whether in
your personal or professional life,
refuse to accept added
responsibilities when you’re close to
reaching them. Taking on more than
you can handle is a surefire recipe for
stress.

Avoid people who stress you out – If
someone consistently causes stress in
your life and you can’t turn the
relationship around, limit the amount
of time you spend with that person or
end the relationship entirely.

• Take control of your environment –
If the evening news makes you anxious,
turn the TV off. If traffic’s got you tense,
take a longer but less-traveled route. If
going to the market is an unpleasant
chore, do your grocery shopping online.

Stress Management Strategy # 4: Alter the situation
If you can’t avoid a stressful situation, try to alter it. Figure
out what you can do to change things so the problem
doesn’t present itself in the future. Often, this involves
changing the way you communicate and operate in your
daily life.
• Express your feelings instead of bottling them up. If
something or someone is bothering you, communicate your
concerns in an open and respectful way. If you don’t voice
your feelings, resentment will build and the situation will
likely remain the same.
• Be willing to compromise. When you ask someone to
change their behavior, be willing to do the same. If you both
are willing to bend at least a little, you’ll have a good
chance of finding a happy middle ground.

Be more assertive. Don’t take a backseat in your own
life. Deal with problems head on, doing your best to
anticipate and prevent them. If you’ve got an exam to
study for and your chatty roommate just got home,
say up front that you only have five minutes to talk.

Manage your time better. 
Poor time management can cause a lot
of stress. When you’re stretched too
thin and running behind, it’s hard to
stay calm and focused.
But if you plan ahead
And make sure you
don’t overextend
yourself, you can alter
the amount of stress
you’re under.

Time Management
• Make a list
What MUST be done
What SHOULD be done
What would you LIKE to do
• Cut out time wasting
• Learn to drop unimportant activities
• Say no or delegate

Stress Management Strategy # 5: Adapt to the stressor

• Look at the big picture. Take
perspective of the stressful situation. Ask
yourself how important it will be in the
long run. Will it matter in a month? A
year? Is it really worth getting upset
over? If the answer is no, focus your time
and energy elsewhere.
• Adjust your standards. Perfectionism
is a major source of avoidable stress.
Stop setting yourself up for failure by
demanding perfection. Set reasonable
standards for yourself and others, and
learn to be okay with “good enough.”

• Re-framing

Re-framing is a technique to change the way
you look at things in order to feel better about
them. There are many ways to interpret the
same situation so pick the one you like. Reframing does not change the external reality,
but helps you view things in a different light
and less stressfully.

Positive Thinking




Forget powerlessness,
dejection, despair, failure
Stress leaves us vulnerable to
negative suggestion so focus
on positives;
Focus on your strengths
Learn from the stress you are
under
Look for opportunities
Seek out the positive - make a
change.

Equip yourself
• Not having the knowledge makes you
more stressed.

Stress Management Strategy #6: Accept the things you can’t change
• Don’t try to control the uncontrollable. Many
things in life are beyond our control— particularly
the behavior of other people. Rather than stressing
out over them, focus on the things you can control
such as the way you choose to react to problems.
• Look for the upside. As the saying goes, “What
doesn’t kill us makes us stronger.” When facing
major challenges, try to look at them as
opportunities for personal growth. If your own poor
choices contributed to a stressful situation, reflect
on them and learn from your mistakes.

• Share your
feelings. Tal
k to a trusted
friend or
make an
appointment
with a
therapist..
Expressing what you’re going through can be very
cathartic, even if there’s nothing you can do to alter the
stressful situation

• Learn to forgive. 
Accept the fact
that we live in an
imperfect world
and that people
make mistakes.
Let go of anger
and
resentments. Free
yourself from
negative energy by
forgiving and
moving on.

Stress Management Strategy #7: Allot time for fun and relaxation

• Set aside relaxation time. Include rest
and relaxation in your daily schedule. Don’t
allow other obligations to encroach. This is
your time to take a break from all
responsibilities and recharge your batteries.

Connect with others. Spend time with positive people who
enhance your life. A strong support system will buffer you
from the negative effects of stress.

• Do something you enjoy every
day. Make time for leisure activities that
bring you joy, whether it be stargazing,
playing the piano, or working on your bike.

Humour
• Good stress reducer
• Applies at home and
work
• Relieves muscular
tension
• Improves breathing
• Pumps endorphins
into
the bloodstream – the
body’s natural
painkillers

Stress Management Strategy #8: Adopt a healthy lifestyle

• Eat a healthy diet. Well-nourished bodies
are better prepared to cope with stress, so
be mindful of what you eat. Start your day
right with breakfast, and keep your energy
up and your mind clear with balanced,
nutritious meals throughout the day.

• Drink plenty of water
If you’re looking for a
simple way to
unwind from your
stress-filled life, try
this: drink a glass
of water.

Reduce caffeine and sugar. The
temporary "highs" caffeine and
sugar provide often end in with a
crash in mood and energy. By
reducing the amount of coffee, soft
drinks, chocolate, and sugar snacks
in your diet, you’ll feel more
relaxed and you’ll sleep better.

Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and
drugs. Self-medicating with alcohol
or drugs may provide an easy escape
from stress, but the relief is only
temporary. Don’t avoid or mask the
issue at hand; deal with problems
head on and with a clear mind.

Exercise regularly. Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing the
effects of stress. Make time for at least 30 minutes of exercise, three times per week.
Nothing beats aerobic exercise for releasing pent-up stress and tension.

Benefits of Exercise
• Uses up excess energy
released by the ‘Fight or Flight’
reaction.
• Improves blood circulation
• Lowers blood pressure
• Clears the mind of worrying
thoughts
• Improves self image
• Makes you feel better about
yourself
• Increases social contact

Get enough sleep. 
Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well
as your body. Feeling tired will increase
your stress because it may cause you
to think irrationally.
Good stress reducer
Difficult to cope when tired
Wake refreshed after night’s
sleep
Plenty of daytime energy

Deep Breathing
Deep breathing is the first
recommended method in
stress management tips. It
can be done by doing some
steps, which are: take a deep
breath, hold it for a count of
ten, and release it slowly. To
perfect this exercise, you
will need two or more
minutes. It will be able to
take of the troubles in your
minds for a few minutes.

Music Tehrapy

Visualization and Imagery

Sensory Deprivation
Another method in stress management tips is through sensory
deprivation. To do this simple tip, you don’t need to use a
sensory deprivation tool. You just need to close your eyes for a
few minutes turns off the visual stimulation that can add to
stress.

Progressive Relaxation
• Systematically tensingrelaxing the muscles

Stretching
The remaining alternative in stress
management tips is stretching. It is
the practise to release the pressure
from your muscles.

Laugh Out Loud
In stress management,
laughing is a contagious
technique. You can start
with laugh out loud for
about 60 seconds. The first
15 seconds can be a fakelaughing for you, but the
end of the one-minute
period will make you feel
completely laughing at
something very funny.

Massage
Massage belongs to the recommended technique in stress
management tips as well. You can relieve your stress by having a
massage.

self-help group is a nonprofessional organization
formed by people with a common problem or
situation, for the purpose of pooling resources,
gathering information, and offering mutual support,
services, or care. they provide each other moral
support, information, and advice on problems relating
to some shared characteristic or experience.

Group counseling can help you:
• Discover that you're not alone in your struggles, thoughts,
and feelings
• Learn from other students facing similar problems
• Gain multiple perspectives on your concerns
• Feel more connected to others as group cohesion develops
• Become more aware of yourself through genuine feedback
from others
• Pick up new interpersonal skills that you can use in your
daily life
• Internalize the lessons you've learned by helping others in
the group
• Develop effective ways of building and maintaining
relationships

Group
Discussion:
1. What are the activities and pressures that
give you the most stress and why?
2. What do you do when stressed? How do you
cope up with stress?
3. Knowledge is power. Being equipped for the
job lessens the stress for the job. What do
you think you still need to learn in order to be
more efficient secretaryof your baranggay.
List atleast 3 topics (to be submitted as topic
suggestions for the next convention)