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PART 8:

BUILDING
SERVICES
SECTION 3: AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND
MECHANICAL VENTILATION

APPLICATION FACTORS (GENERAL)

HOTEL GUEST ROOM:

In ideal circumstances, each guest room in a


hotel or motel should have an air conditioning system that enables the
occupant to select heating or cooling as required to maintain the room at
the desired temperature. The range of temperature adjustment should be
reasonable but, from the energy conservation view point, should not
permit wasteful overcooling or overheating. Guest room systems are
required to be available for operation on a continuous basis. The room may
be unoccupied for most of the day and therefore provision for operating at
reduced capacity, or switching off, is essential. Low operating noise level,
reliability and ease of maintenance are essential. Treated fresh air
introduced through the system is generally balance with the bathroom
extract ventilation to promote air circulation into the bathroom. In tropical
climates, where the humidity is high an all-air system with individual room
reheat (and/or re-cool) may be necessary to avoid condensation problems.
Fan coil units are generally found to be most suitable for this kind of
application with speed control for fan and motorised/modulating valve for
chilled water control for cooling

(GENERAL)

Restaurants, cafeteria, bars and night-clubs:

Department stores/shops:

Theatres/Auditoria: Characteristics of this type of application are

Such
applications have several factors in common; highly variable loads, with high
latent gains (low sensible heat factor) from occupants and meals, and high odour
concentrations (body, food and tobacco smoke odours) requiring adequate
control of fresh air extract volumes and direction of air movement for avoidance
of draughts and make up air requirements for associated kitchens to ensure an
uncontaminated supply. This type of application is generally best served by the
all-air type of system preferably with some reheat or return air bypass control to
limit relative humidity. Either self-contained packaged units or split systems ,or
air-handling unit served from a central chilled system may be used. Sufficient
control flexibility to handle adequately the complete range of anticipated loads is
essential.
For small shops and stores unitary split
type air conditioning systems offer many advantages, including low initial cost,
minimum space requirement and ease of installation. For large department stores
a very careful analysis of the location and requirement of individual department
is essential as these may vary widely, for example, for lighting departments, food
halls, restaurants, etc. Some system flexibility to accommodate future changes
may be required.
buildings generally large in size, with high ceiling, low external loads, and high
occupancy producing a high latent gain and having low sensible heat factor.
These give rise to the requirements of large fresh air quantities and low operating
noise levels. Theatres and auditoria may be in use only a few hours a day.

APPLICATION FACTORS (SPECIAL)

Hospitals/Operating theatres:

The main difference in application

compared with other applications are:

a) Restriction of air movement between various departments and control of air


movement within certain departments, to reduce the risk of airborne cross
infection;

b) Specific need for the ventilation and filtration equipment to dilute and/or
remove particulate or gaseous contamination and airborne microorganisms;

c) Close tolerances in temperatures and humidities may be required for various


areas

d) The design should allow for accurate control of environmental conditions

Computer rooms:

The relative humidity may be controlled within + 5 percent in the range 40 percent
to 60 percent.

Manufacturers normally prescribe specific conditions to be maintained. Typical


conditions are air dry-bulb: 21 1.6C;

The equipment in computer rooms generates heat and


contains components that are sensitive to sudden variations of temperature and
humidity. These are sensitive to the deposition of dust

relative humidity 50 5 percent; and

filtration 90 percent down to 10 microns.

Residential buildings:

Very few residences are air conditioned. Some


individual houses have unitary systems comprising of window/split air conditioners.
Some large houses have VRV based splits and some luxury block of flats are
provided with air-water systems.

NOISE AND VIBRATION CONTROL

Noise is unwanted sound. All ventilating and air conditioning systems will
produce noise, and this may cause annoyance or disturbance in:

a) the spaces being treated;

b) other rooms in the building;

c) the environment external to the building

Types of Noise in Building:

Externally Created Noise: Reduction of externally created noise is mainly


dealt with by choice of building profile and window construction. The air
conditioning designer should, however, ensure that noise does not enter
via air inlets or exhausts

Generated Noise:

Transmitted Noise: Noise transmitted through the building structure is


particularly acute in modern frame and reinforced concrete buildings.
Such noise can be controlled by isolating the machines from the
structures, and from pipe work connected to the building, by suitable
mountings and pipe couplings.

Intermittent Noise: Such noise arises from the stopping and starting of
equipment, and the opening and closing of valves and dampers

NOISE AND VIBRATION CONTROL

The source of noise in the air conditioning system could be from the
following:

a) Chillers,

b) Pumps,

c) Pipe supports,

d) Ducts,

e) External noise in filteration though openings,

f) Fans,

g) Air noise through ducts, and

h) Compressors.

NOISE CONTROL

From Room Air Conditioners (RAC): The following measures should be


adopted:

a) Selection of RAC which has the least noise at various fan speeds.

b) Install it at a serviceable height.

c) Install preferably in a wall or on a rigid window.

d) Provide only necessary slope as specified by the manufacturer, to


avoid any unusual noise from the compressor because of tilting.

e) Install it preferably in the middle portion of the wall/window to avoid


additional directivity

(do not install at the end of a wall).

f) Ensure all leaks are sealed properly.

g) Avoid condenser facing any high noisy areas, such as road/factory to


avoid any such noise predominantly entering into the room.

h) Do not provide any props at the back side bottom of the air
conditioner unless specified by the manufacturer.

j) Prepare the opening to suit the chassis with wooden frame of


adequate rigidity and thickness.

From Split Air Conditioner/Furred Inn: The following measures should be


adopted:

a) Install the evaporator only on a rigid wall/ ceiling or on a pedestal.

b) Avoid installation over wooden/gypsum board partition. Should a need


arise anchor the evaporator rigidly by using mild steel frame work from
the roof to avoid vibration.

c) Provide proper u trap in the condensate water line to ensure a good


water seal, which will also avoid sound penetration into the room from
outside.

d) If the capillary is in the evaporator, ensure that flow noise is avoided.

e) Ensure proper return air entry back to the coil, since blowers working
at higher static pressure will create higher noise.

f) Select the condensers with top/side discharge depending upon


location to avoid nuisance to neighbours.

g) Place condensers on rigid platform, properly supported propped and


fixed firmly.

h) Ensure all screws, bolts and nuts are firmly tightened since stiffening
is more advantageous in higher frequencies for vibration reduction.

Air Handling Units (Floor Mounted and Ceiling Suspended): The following
measures should be adopted:

a) Selected indoor machine for specific air quantity and static pressure.

b) Suspend the indoor machine and ducts without touching the members
of the false ceiling or partitions.

c) Ensure that ducts/duct supports do not touch the evaporator.

From Plenum Chamber The following measures should be adopted/considered:

a) If possible and if pressures allow, expand the air to a plenum chamber (of 2.5 m/s for
normal office), which is acoustically lined inside.

b) Stiffening of the plenum body is very critical since it could create a drumming noise.

c) Plenum chambers with sound absorbing material are frequently used as silencers in air
conditioning and ventilating systems and in testing facilities to reduce flow velocity and
turbulence. The attenuation of these devices may be due to both dissipative and reactive
effects.

From Fans: To reduce fan noise, the following should be adopted:

a) Design the air distribution system for minimum resistance, since the sound generated by a
fan, regardless of type, increase by the square of the static pressure. Turbulence can increase
the flow noise generated by duct fittings and dampers in the air distribution systems
especially at low frequencies.

b) Examine the specific sound power levels of the fan designs for any given job. Different
fans generate different levels of sound and produce different octave band spectra. Select a
fan that will generate the lowest possible sound level, commensurate with other fan
selection parameters.

c) Fans with relatively few blades (less than 15) tend to generate tones, which may dominate
the spectrum. These tones occur at the blade passage frequency and its harmonies. The
intensity of these tones depends on resonance with the duct system, fan design, and inlet
flow distortions.

d) Select a fan to operate as near as possible to its rated peak efficiency when handling the
required quantity of air and static pressure. Also, select a fan that generates the lowest
possible noise but still meets the required design conditions for which it is selected. Using an
oversized or undersized fan, that does not operate at or near rated peak efficiency, may
result in substantially higher noise levels.

e) Design duct connections at both the fan inlet and outlet for uniform and straight airflow.
Avoid unstable, gusting, and swirling inlet airflow. Deviation from accepted applications can
severely degrade both the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of any fan and invalidate
manufacturers ratings or other performance predictions.

f) Select duct silencers that do not significantly increase the required fan total static pressure

From Chillers, Pumps and Pipes: Sizing and selecting a chiller is an


important aspect in noise control. The following guidelines may be
considered for noise control:

a) For roof top installation of chillers, these may be placed on beams


connected on the elevated levels of pillars on correctly chosen vibration
isolators.

b) Water cooled chillers have less vibration. However, if air cooled


chillers have to be chosen, choose them with fan of less speeds and
compressors must be jacketed without compromising their ventilation
requirement.

c) If much more silencing is required, plan a silencer on the exhaust of


the fans and also an acoustic enclosure around the chillers. Care must
be taken for the additional static demand in the fan

MECHANICAL VENTILATION (FOR NON AIR CONDITIONED AREAS)


AND EVAPORATIVE
COOLING
Ventilation:
It is the process of changing air in an enclosed space. A proportion of the air in the
space should be continuously withdrawn and replaced by fresh air drawn from outside to maintain the
required level of air purity. Ventilation is required to control the following:

a) Oxygen Content Prevent depletion of the oxygen content of the air;

b) Carbon dioxide and Moisture To prevent undue accumulation

c) Contaminants To prevent undue rise in concentration of body odours and other contaminants
such as tobacco smoke;

d) Bacteria To oxidize colonies of bacteria and fungus to prevent their proliferation.

e) Heat To remove body heat and heat dissipated by electrical or mechanical equipment or solar
heat gains

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

a) The climatic zone in which the building is located is a major consideration. An important
distinction that must be made is between hot dry and warm-moist conditions. Hot-dry work
situations occur around furnaces, forges, metal-extruding and rolling mills, glass forming
machines, and so forth. Typical warm-moist operations are found in textile mills, laundries, dye
houses, and deep mines where water is used extensively for dust control. Warm-moist
conditions are more hazardous than the hot-dry conditions.

b) Sitting (and orientation) of the building is also an important factor. Solar heat gain and high
outside temperature increase the load significantly; how significantly depends, on the
magnitude of these gains particularly in relation to other gains for example the internal load.

c) The comfort level required is another consideration. In many cases, comfort levels (as
understood in the context of Residential Buildings, Commercial Blocks, Office Establishments)
cannot be achieved at all and therefore, what is often aimed at will be acceptable working
conditions rather than comfort.

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF VENTILATION

Fresh Air Supply

Transfer of Heat/Moisture

Air Movement

Air Purity and Filtration

Removal of Particulate Matter from Air

Fire and Smoke Control

Removal of Fumes and Smells from Air

Industrial Ventilation:

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Industrial buildings form a major


application of mechanical ventilation. In industrial buildings, ventilation is
needed to provide the fresh air normally required for health and hygiene
and also, to mitigate thermal working conditions by assisting in removal of
surplus heat due to equipment, people and building heat gains.

a) A supply system would not be satisfactory without a complementary


exhaust system. Similarly any exhaust system would require for
complementary supply system.

b) Air should be supplied equitably through grilles, diffusers and such


other devices. Directional grilles, diffusers and nozzles designed
specifically to alleviate the thermal conditions should be considered.
Drafts should be avoided.

c) Ventilation systems may need to be supplemented by exhaust hoods


and canopies designed to capture the unwanted fumes or dust right at
the source irrespective of other air currents in the vicinity.

TYPES OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS

Mechanical Extract/Natural Supply

Mechanical Supply/Natural Extract

Combined Mechanical Supply and Extract

GENERAL VENTILATION

Car Parking Ventilation


Ventilation is essential, in car parking areas to take
care of pollution due to emission of carbon monoxide,
oxides of nitrogen, presence of oil and petrol fumes
and diesel engine smoke. These contaminants cause
undesirable effect like nausea, headache, fire hazards,
if applicable permissible limits for each of the
contaminants noted are exceeded.
The recommended ventilation rate will ensure that the
CO level will be maintained within 29 mg/m3 with
peak levels not to exceed 137 mg/m3.

EVAPORATIVE COOLING

Evaporative cooling is defined as the reduction of air dry-bulb


temperature by the evaporation of water.

When water evaporates into the air to be cooled, simultaneously


humidifying it, the process is called direct evaporative cooling.

When the air to be cooled is kept separate from evaporation process, and
therefore is not humidified as it is cooled, then the process is called
indirect evaporative cooling.

It is good practice to use 100 percent fresh air in the evaporative cooling.
Re-circulation is not recommended, as it will lead to continuous increase in
wet-bulb temperature of the air.

Two types of water distribution systems may be provided:

a) Once through or pump-less type.

b) Re-circulating or pump type. The first type is simpler and cheaper but
consumes more water, needs constant drainage and has lower efficiency
depending upon the temperature of water. The second type has higher
cooling efficiency due to re-circulate water approaching wet-bulb
temperature conserves water and can operate with intermittent
drainage. It is recommended to provide periodic bleed off or blow down
to remove accumulated mineral additions. This helps in reducing scaling
of pads also.

AIR CONDITIONING

UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER:

These are self-contained air


conditioning units comprising a compressor and evaporator with fans for
evaporator and air-cooled condenser. Unitary air conditioners are generally
installed in windows and, therefore, they are also known as window air
conditioners. It is designed to provide free delivery of conditioned air to an
enclosed space, room or zone.

Capacity: Most manufacturers supply in 3500 W, 5250 W and 7000


W

Suitability: Unitary air conditioners are suitable for bedrooms, office


cabins, general office area, hotel rooms and similar applications where
normal comfort conditions are required upto a distance of 6 m from
unitary air conditioner

Noise

Level:

Noise level of window air conditioner inside the


conditioned room should be as low as possible. However it should not
exceed 65 dBA for 5 250 W.

Location: Unitary air conditioners should be mounted preferably at


the window sill level on an external wall. There should not be any
obstruction to the inlet and discharge air of the condenser. Also while
deciding location of the window air conditioners, care should be taken to
ensure that the condensate water dripping does not cause nuisance.

Limitations

Room air conditioners are not generally recommended in the following situations:
a) The width of the area exceeds 6 m.
b) Area requiring close control of temperature and relative humidity.
c) Internal zones where no exposed wall is available for the installation of room air
conditioners.
d) Sound recording rooms where criteria for acoustics are stringent.
e) Special applications like sterile rooms for hospitals and clean room applications where
high filtration efficiency is desired.
f) Operation theatres where 100 percent fresh air is needed and fire hazard exists
depending on the type of anaesthesia being used.
g) Where required to comply with the recommended fresh air requirement for ventilation.

SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER:

Split air conditioner has an indoor unit and an outdoor


unit interconnected with refrigerant piping and power and control wiring. Indoor unit
comprises of a filter, evaporator and evaporator fan for circulation of air in the
conditioned space. Outdoor unit has a compressor, air-cooled condenser with condenser
fan housed in a suitable cabinet for outdoor installation. Split air conditioner includes
primary source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and means for
circulation and cleaning of air, with or without external air distribution ducting.
Various split air conditioners available may be categorised as under:
a) Exposed indoor unit, which is either a high
wall unit or a floor-mounted unit.
b) Furred-in units (ceiling suspended unit),
which is mounted in the ceiling and provided
with a duct collar and grille.
c) Ducted indoor unit, which requires ducting
for air distribution.

Suitability: Split air conditioners are suitable for wide range of applications including
residences, small offices, clubs, restaurants, showrooms, departmental stores, etc.
Location: Split air conditioner indoor unit is mounted within the air conditioned
space or above the false ceiling from where the air distribution duct is taken to the
conditioned space to distribute the air. Outdoor unit is mounted at the nearest open
area where unobstructed flow of outside air is available for air cooled condenser.
Installation: Ceiling suspended indoor units are provided with rubber grommet to
reduce vibration. Outdoor units are mounted on a steel frame in an open area so that
the fan of the air cooled condenser can discharge hot air to the atmosphere without
any obstruction. Care should be taken to ensure that free intake of air is available to
the outdoor air cooled condenser. Also precaution should be taken that hot air from
any other outdoor unit does not mix with the intake of the other outdoor air cooled
condenser.
Limitations

Split air conditioners are generally not recommended for:


a) For areas where fresh air is required for ventilation.
b) Where distance between indoor exposed unit or furred-in unit exceeds 5 m from
the outdoor unit for units up to 7 000 W (2 TR) capacity. For larger ducted split air
conditioners, the vertical distance between the indoor unit and the outdoor unit
should not exceed about 6 m or units with reciprocating compressors. The horizontal
distance between the indoor unit and outdoor unit should not exceed about 10 m for
reciprocating compressors.
c) Area requiring close control of temperature and relative humidity.
d) Sound recording rooms where criteria for acoustics are stringent.
e) Special applications like sterile rooms for hospitals and clean room applications
where high filtration efficiency is desired.
f) Large multi-storey buildings where multiplicity of the compressors may entail
subsequent maintenance problems.
g) Where the length of air distribution ducting may exceed about 20 m.

PACKAGED AIR CONDITIONER:

Packaged air conditioner is a selfcontained unit primarily for floor mounting, designed to provide
conditioned air to the space to be conditioned. It includes prime source of
refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and means for circulation
and cleaning of air, with or without external air distribution ducting. It may
also include means for heating, humidifying and ventilating air.

Suitability: Packaged units are suitable for wide range of applications


including offices, clubs and restaurants, showrooms and departmental
stores, and computer rooms, etc.

Capacity: It is manufactured in sizes of 17500 W, 26250 W, 35000 W


and 52500 W

Location: The packaged unit can be mounted within the air


conditioned space with discharge air plenum or in a separate room from
where the air distribution duct is taken to the conditioned space. While
deciding location for the packaged unit, provision must be kept for
proper servicing of the unit.

Installation:

The packaged units are normally mounted on a


resilient pad which prevents vibration of the unit from being transmitted
to the building.

Limitations

Packaged air conditioner are not generally recommended for:


a) Large multi-storey buildings where multiplicity of the compressors
may entail subsequent maintenance problems.
b) Where the length of air distribution ducting may exceed approx 20
m.
c) Where the vertical distance of air-cooled condenser from the
packaged unit exceeds about 10 m. The sum of horizontal and vertical
distances should be generally kept within 15 m.
d) Special applications like sterile rooms for hospitals and clean room
applications where high filtration efficiency is desired.
e) Operation theatres where 100 percent fresh air is needed and fire
hazard exists depending on the type of anaesthesia being used.

SYMBOLS, UNITS, COLOUR CODE AND IDENTIFICATION


OF SERVICES

DUCT WORK SERVICES COLOUR


CODES

PART 8:
BUILDING
SERVICES
SECTION 4: ACOUSTICS, SOUND
INSULATION
AND NOISE CONTROL

FORWARD

SCOPE : This section covers the acoustical, sound


insulation and noise control requirements in a building.
Emphasis laid on planning the building according to its
surroundings to reduce noise. Also sound insulation
aspects of various occupancies are covered.
This section was first published in 1970 and
subsequently revised in 1983.
There are two types of noises: Air-borne and Structureborne
To reduce intensity of air-borne noise, sound absorbent
materials may be used.
To reduce transmission of air-borne noise, sound
insulating panels may be used. These panels blocks
the passage of noise through them by virtue of their
mass and physical properties.
Structure-borne noise reduction is effected by corner

TERMINOLOGY

Ambient Noise: The sound pressure levels associated with a given


environment. Ambient noise is usually a composite of sounds from
near and far sources none of which are particularly dominant.
Audible Frequency Range: The range of sound frequencies
normally heard by the human ear. The audible range spans from 20
Hz to 20,000 Hz
A-Weighted Sound Pressure: Value of overall sound pressure,
measured in Pascal (Pa), after the electrical signal derived from a
microphone has been passed through an A-weighting network. The
A-weighting network modifies the electrical response of a sound
level meter with frequency in approximately the same way as the
sensitivity of the human hearing system.
Background Noise: The sound pressure levels in a given
environment from all sources excluding a specific sound source
being investigated or measured.
Break-in: Unwanted sound transmission into a duct from outside.
Break-out: Unwanted sound transmission from inside a duct to the
outside.
Facade Level: Sound pressure level measured 1 m to 2 m in front
of the faade.

TERMINOLOGY

Broad Band Noise: Spectrum consisting of a large


number of frequency components, none of which is
individually dominant.
Cross-Talk: Unwanted sound transmission between
one room and another room or space via a duct.
Decibels: Ten times the logarithm (to the base 10) of
the ratio of two mean square values of sound
pressure, sound power or sound intensity. The
abbreviation for decibels is dB.
Pink Noise: Sound with an uninterrupted frequency
spectrum and a power which is steady within
frequency band and proportional to centre frequency.
An example is constant power level per octave band.
Pure Tone: A sound emitted at a single frequency.

PLANNING AND DESIGN


AGAINS OUTDOOR NOISE

Planning against noise should be an integral part of


town and country planning proposals, ranging from
regional proposals to detailed zoning, and three
dimensional layouts and road design within built-up
areas. Noise nuisance should be fully recognized in
zoning regulations.
There are two aspects of defence by planning:

The first is to plan so as to keep the noise at a distance.


Under this aspect comes the separation of housing from
traffic noise by interposing buffer zones, and the protection
of schools and hospitals by green belts, public gardens, etc.
The second is the principle of shading or screening. This
consists of deliberately interposing a less vulnerable building
to screen a more vulnerable one or by providing a solid
barrier, such as a wall, between the source and the location
to be protected.

TRAFFIC NOISE LEVELS

For Air Traffic

For Railway Traffic

For Road Traffic