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15S

Maintenance

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Learning Objectives
Explain the importance of maintenance in
production systems
Describe the range of maintenance activities
Discuss preventative maintenance and the
key issues associated with it
Discuss breakdown maintenance and the
key issues associated with it
State how the Pareto phenomenon pertains
to maintenance decisions
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Introduction
Maintenance
All activities that maintain facilities and
equipment in good working order so
that a system can perform as intended

Two basic categories


Building and grounds
Equipment maintenance

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Goal of Maintenance
To keep production systems in good working
order at minimal cost
Reasons for maintenance

To avoid production or service disruptions


To not add production or service costs
To maintain high quality
To avoid missed delivery dates

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Reactive vs Proactive
Reactive Maintenance:
Breakdown maintenance
Reactive approach; dealing with breakdowns or
problems when they occur

Proactive Maintenance:
Preventive maintenance
Proactive approach; reducing breakdowns
through a program of lubrication, adjustment,
cleaning, inspection, and replacement of worn
parts
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Maintenance Reasons
Reasons for keeping equipment running

Avoid production disruptions


Not add to production costs
Maintain high quality
Avoid missed delivery dates

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Breakdown Consequences
Production capacity is reduced
Orders are delayed

No production
Overhead continues
Cost per unit increases

Quality issues
Product may be damaged

Safety issues
Injury to employees
Injury to customers
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Total Maintenance Cost


Table 15S.1

Cost

Total Cost

Preventive
maintenance cost

Breakdown and
repair cost
Optimum Amount of
preventive maintenance
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Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance: goal is to
reduce the incidence of breakdowns or
failures in the plant or equipment to
avoid the associated costs
Preventive maintenance is periodic
Result of planned inspections
According to calendar
After predetermined number of hours
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Example S-1
Frequency of breakdown
Number of breakdowns
Frequency of occurrence

0
1
2
3
.20 .30 .40 .10

If the average cost of a breakdown is


$1,000, and the cost of preventative
maintenance is $1,250 per month, should
we use preventive maintenance?
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Example S-1 Solution


Number of
Breakdowns
0
1
2
3

Frequency of
Occurrence
.20
.30
.40
.10
1.00

Expected number of
Breakdowns
0
.30
.80
.30
1.40

Expected cost to repair = 1.4 breakdowns per month X $1000 = $1400


Preventive maintenance = $1250
PM results in savings of $150 per month
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Predictive Maintenance
Predictive maintenance
An attempt to determine when best to
perform preventive maintenance activities

Total productive maintenance


JIT approach where workers perform
preventive maintenance on the machines
they operate

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Breakdown Programs
Standby or backup equipment that can
be quickly pressed into service
Inventories of spare parts that can be
installed as needed
Operators who are able to perform minor
repairs
Repair people who are well trained and
readily available to diagnose and correct
problems with equipment
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Replacement
Trade-off decisions
Cost of replacement vs cost of continued
maintenance
New equipment with new features vs
maintenance
Installation of new equipment may cause
disruptions
Training costs of employees on new equipment
Forecasts for demand on equipment may require
new equipment capacity

When is it time for replacement?


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