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Boiler water treatment is to eliminate the problems

caused by Scale, Corrosion, Carry Over and such
potential trouble as embrittlement.
All water, no matter what its source, contains many
impurities. Some are of very corrosive nature, while
others have the characteristics of producing adherent
deposits(scale) on the water side of the boiler. Thus
continued use of such water, if untreated, reduces
efficiency of the plant


1. Hard scale is caused by Calcium Sulphate,
Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Silicate & Silica
2. Soft scale is caused by Calcium Bicarbonate,
Calcium Hydroxide, Magnesium Bicarbonate,
Iron Carbonate & Iron Oxide
3. Corrosion is caused by Oxygen, Carbon
Dioxide, Magnesium Chloride, Hydrogen
Sulphite, Magnesium Sulphate, Calcium
Chloride, Magnesium Nitrate, Calcium
Nitrate, Sodium Chloride and certain Oils
and Organic Matter


1. If the impurities are soluble solid, it appears
in a dissolved state or in the solution with
2. 2. If the solid is not soluble in water , it will
be in a state of suspension
3. Those impurities of a gaseous nature that
are partially soluble are in an absorbed
state in the water

Air is a mixture of several gases. These

gases are soluble in water to varying
degree. Thus water has a tendency to
absorb and carry these gases along





Priming :- Priming is the surging of water in to the steam outlet. It is

caused by too high water level, too high steam rate. Remedies are
lowering water level, reducing the boiler load. Chemical for antifoaming
also helps to eradicate priming.
Foaming : - Foaming is the formation of small stable, non-coalescing
bubbles through the boiler water. Water film around each steam bubble
generated at the heating surface is stabilized by an increase in dissolved
and suspended solids in the boiler. Thus the bubble skin becomes tough
and does not permit coalescence or break readily when the bubble
emerges. The resulting expansion of boiler water permits carry over and
priming. The main cause of carry over is excessive dissolved and
suspended solids, high alkalinity and the presence of oil and various
organics that react with alkalinity. Properly maintaining the feed water
by treatment, foaming can be eliminated.
Carry Over : - Carry over is defined as entrained moisture and
associated solids passing from a boiler with the steam. This slug of
moisture cause erratic superheat and mechanical troubles with engine
and turbines. Carry over also deposits solids in superheater and on
turbine blades. Main cause of carry over is Priming, Foaming or both.
With surface blow down and chemical treatment, carry over can be

4. De-aeration : - For Corrosion to take place, Oxygen must be present to

accomplish the formation of metal oxides. Hence de-aeration of feed water
is required. De-aeration can be accomplished either mechanically or
chemically or by both. It is usual to carry a reserve of chemicals in the
boiler water in order to deal with any ingress of dissolved oxygen that may
result due to mal-operation of de-aeration equipment or some other
circumstances. The oxygen scavenging chemical used for de-aerating boiler
feed water are usually Sodium Sulphite or Hydrazine.
5. Panting : - If excess air is admitted with the combustion system, it will leads
to Panting of the boiler. This can be heard from the suction side of the FD
fan and vibration of boiler if action is not taken. The panting is due to
combustion pulses and if no action taken, it can damage the boiler.
6. Back Fire : - Back fire happens when starting the boiler due to excess
pressure in the furnace. This excess pressure develops due to clogging of
exhaust passages. It is thus important that Pre-purging and Post-purging
is done at the time of starting the boiler and stopping the boiler. By
purging with air from FD fan, blowing of the gas passages, clearing all
loose deposits and unburnt oil vapours. This will allow smooth passage of
gas during firing and will not allow any pressure to build up in furnace.

7. Scalding : - Scalding is defined as exposure to a boiling or

violent heat, an injury caused by a hot liquid. For example,
when the gauge glass blowing time, if the glass shatters, as the
water blown out, the reduction in pressure causes it to flash off
in to larger volume of scalding steam. This can leads to injury
to engine room personnel. To avoid this, a ball valve is fitted to
the water side of gauge glass to shut off water when glass