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- FOR LEARNERS AND SLOW LEARNERS OF CLASS XII MATHEMATICS
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5 Numerical Integration

Mt. Shasta, California

Photo by Vickie Kelly, 1998

as we can find the antiderivative of the function.

Sometimes, the function is too complicated to find the

antiderivative.

At other times, we dont even have a function, but only

measurements taken from real life.

What we need is an efficient method to estimate area

when we can not find the antiderivative.

1 2

y x 1

8

0 x4

1 2

x 1 dx

8

4

1 3

A

x x

24

0

20

A

6.6

3

1 2

y x 1

8

0 x4

Left-hand rectangular

approximation:

1

8

1

2

1

8

3

4

(too low)

1 2

y x 1

8

0 x4

Right-hand rectangular

approximation:

1

8

1

2

1

8

3

4

(too high)

7.75 5.75

6.75

2

1.25% error

(too high)

1

9

1 9 3

T 1

2

8

2 8 2

1 17

1 3 17

3

2 8

2 2 8

1

9

1 17

1 9 3 1 3 17

T 1

3

2

8

2 8

2 8 2 2 2 8

1

9 9 3 3 17 17

T 1 3

2

8 8 2 2 8 8

1 27

T

2 2

27

6.75

4

Trapezoidal Rule:

h

T y0 2 y1 2 y2 ... 2 yn 1 yn

2

( h = width of subinterval )

or right rectangles.

1 2

y x 1

8

0 x4

Midpoint Rule:

1.03125

1.28125

1.78125

2.53125

trapezoidal rule, but in the opposite direction.

Trapezoidal Rule:

(too high)

Midpoint Rule:

(too low)

has twice as much error as the midpoint rule, but in the

opposite direction.

If we use a weighted average:

Ahhh!

2 6.625 6.750

6.6

3

Oooh!

Wow!

This is the

exact answer!

than the midpoint or trapezoidal rules.

Midpoint:

M 2h y1 2h y3 2h y1 y3

Trapezoidal:

T

h x h x

1

2

h x h x

3

4

2M T

3

1

4h y1 y3 h y0 2 y2 y4

3

twice midpoint

trapezoidal

1

1

y

y

2

h

0 2

y2 y4 2h

2

2

T h y0 y 2 h y 2 y 4

T h y0 2 y 2 y 4

h

4 y1 4 y3 y0 2 y2 y4

3

h

y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 y4

3

Simpsons Rule:

h

S y0 4 y1 2 y2 4 y3 ... 2 yn 2 4 yn 1 yn

3

( h = width of subinterval, n must be even )

Example: y 1 x 2 1

8

1

9

3

17

S 1 4 2 4 3

3

8

2

8

1

9

17

1 3 3

3

2

2

1

20 6.6

3

to sections of the curve, which is why this example came

out exactly.

Simpsons rule will usually give a very good approximation

with relatively few subintervals.

It is especially useful when we have no equation and the

data points are determined experimentally.

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