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Monday, April 25,

2016

Lets Get Closer


Name.
Position.
Career History.

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2016

Avionics?

Avionics Aviation Electronics


Monday, April 25,
2016

System Introduction

The communication system enables the crew


to exchange voice communications and/or data
with stations through VHF, HF radios,
SATCOM,

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2016

Communication Systems

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Communication Systems

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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2016

Interphone System

Function.
System components.
Subsystems.

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2016

Interphone System

Function:

It provides two way communication between the


flight crew, cabin crew and ground mechanics.

It is also used by the maintenance personnel to access


the communication system and monitor the
communication and the navigation receivers.

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Main Components

Flight Crew Interfaces.


Audio Management Unit (AMU).
Audio control Panel (ACP).

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Flight Crew Interfaces

Flight crew interfaces are used by the flight crew for


audio interface with the AMU.
Interfaces:

1- Headset (Boomset):
It is used for both talking and listening. To talk you
must press PTT (Press TO Talk) on either
the control column or the ACP to make
the Mic on.
BOOMSET

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Flight Crew Interfaces (contd)


2- Hand Mic:
It is used for speaking only. It has a PTT switch.
HAND
MICROPHONE

3- Oxygen Mask:
It is used in emergency cases like decompression or
smoke detection case. When using it, PTT on ACP or
the control column must be pressed.

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2016

OXYGEN
MASK

11

Flight Crew Interfaces


(contd)
4- Headphone:
It is used to listen to the audio signal from the AMU.
If the captain needs to talk, he can use the Hand Mic.

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Acoustic Equipment & Peripherals

RADIO PTT
SWITCH

CAPTAIN (F/O)
SIDE STICK
COCKPIT HANDSET

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LOUDSPEAKERS

OXYGEN
MASK

HAND
MICROPHONE
BOOMSET

13

Flight Crew Interfaces (contd)


PTT positions:
-

Neutral: means no talking ( no Tx, only Rx).

Rad (Mic): it permits HF or VHF using.

INT: audio signal goes from mic to interphone system.

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Audio Management Unit


(AMU)

It is an interface between the audio signal and other


systems.

AMU functions:
1- Power amplification.
2- Tx and Rx by sending the PTT to the transceivers.
3- SELCAL decoding.
4- Controls the audio signal routing in the flight
interphone system.

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AMU Interfaces
Interphone system

ACP

Navigation systems

Hand Mic

Communication receivers

Oxygen Mask
Speakers

PA system
AMU
SELCAL system
SATCOM

/Boom Mic
Headphone panel

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CVR system

16

Audio Control Panel (ACP)

Function:
Allows the use of radio communication and
navigation receivers.

Display the incoming calls from mechanics and


attendants.

Allows using interphone system.

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Audio Control Panel (ACP)

ACP 3

ACP 2
ACP 1

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ACP
(Audio Control Panel)

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Audio Control Panel (ACP)

The transmission keys enable you to


select any radio or interphone system.
A green light illuminates on the
selected key.
Only one transmission key can be
selected at a time.

The CALL light flashes amber with a buzzer when a SELCAL is


received on the applicable radio (VHF or HF).
The MECH light flashes amber with a buzzer when a call is initiated
by the ground mechanic.
The ATT light flashes amber with a buzzer when a call is initiated
from any flight attendant station through the cabin interphone system.

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Audio Control Panel


(ACP)

The RESET key silences any buzzer and extinguishes the


flashing amber light associated with any of these calls.
The ON VOICE key is a voice filter can be used on the ADF
or VOR Channels. When used the identification signals
transmitted by the navaids are greatly attenuated so as to
hear only voice channels

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Audio Control Panel


(ACP)
ACP Reception Knobs:

Communication knobs.

Navigation knobs.
When released out, the respective radio or interphone is
selected, the knob illuminates white and by rotating it, you can
adjust the volume.
Any number of selections can be made simultaneously.

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Interphone Subsystems
1- Flight interphone.
2- Cabin interphone.
3- Service interphone.

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Flight Interphone System

Function:
It provides a direct communication way between the
crew members (Captain & F/O).
Also a communication way between the flight crew
and other 2 jacks (a ground mechanic):
- At the external power panel.
- In the avionics compartment.

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When the switch is held in the RAD


position, it operates as a Press To Talk (PTT)
on the selected transmission channel using
the boomset or oxygen mask.
The side stick PTT switch has the same
function as the RAD position on the INT/RAD
switch.

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Can you hear


me, Pete ?

Sure,
Bob !

When in the INT position, the switch operates as a hot


mike on either the boomsets or the oxygen masks. This
position enables communication between cockpit crew
members, or between cockpit and a ground mechanic without
PTT key action (i.e.: used with the flt interphone).
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CALLS PANEL

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Flight Interphone For Ground Mechanic

EXTERNAL POWER
CONTROL PANEL

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Cabin Interphone System

Function:
It provides two way communication between the
attendants crew and with the flight crew using the
CAB Tx pb on ACP.
At the attendant station, the attendant handset is used
to select the required zone (FWD ATT, AFT L, AFT R
AND ALL ATT).

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PURSER STATION
HANDSET

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ATTENDANT INDICATION PANEL (AIP)


32

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AREA CALL PANEL (ACP)

33

Service Interphone

Function:
It permits the communication between the flight crew, cabin
crew and maintenance personnel.

Example: A320
It has 8 jacks around the A/C fuselage at:

- FWD electronic compartment.


Electric compartment.
Avionics compartment.
L, R engines
Hydraulic compartment.
Aft section.
APU Bay.
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Service Interphone

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Service Interphone (contd)

Construction:

1- An amplifier.
2- No. of handset jacks located through out the A/C.
3- Handset at the attendant station.
4- Microphones and loudspeakers in the cockpit.

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Service Interphone (contd)

The service interphone operates automatically on


ground after the L/G is down by 10 seconds.

If the A/C is on jacks, it is considered as in flight


so there is an override switch (SVCE INT OVRD)
to operate the service interphone.

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Service Interphone (contd)

The flight crew is connected to the service interphone


amplifier after selection on the ACP.

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Service Interphone (contd)

To operate the service interphone at the attendant


station, a switch called INTPH on the attendant
handset is used. The flight attendant is connected
directly to service interphone amplifier.
CABIN CREW STATION

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Monday,
April
Monday,
April 25,
201625,
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43
43

Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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Passenger Address System


(PAS)

Function.
System components.
Operation

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Passenger Address System (PAS).

Function:
The PAS sends these types of audio to the cabin:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Flight crew announcements.


Cabin attendants announcements.
Recorded announcements.
Video system audio.
Boarding music.

Note the inputs priorities.


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System Components
1- Microphone or handset:
- It is used by the crew to make the announcements and
send it to the passengers.
2- Pre-recorded announcement machine (PRAM):
- It supplies pre-recorded announcements.
- It is also sends boarding music to PA controller.
3- PA controller:
- Selects the highest priority audio and sends it to the
speakers.
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47

System Components (contd)


4- Loudspeakers
5- AMU
PA handset
or
Microphone

AMU
PA
controller

Passenger
speakers
CAHs

PRAM

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Operation

From cockpit:

Directly using the handset (pressing on its PTT)

or
using the ACP by pressing and hold PA then pressing
PTT on hand mic.
Or
- using the ACP by pressing and hold PA then using
boomset or oxygen mask.
-

From cabin:

Using the attendant PA sw and select the required


zone on the cabin attendant handset (CAH).

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PASSENGER
ADDRESS

PASSENGER
ADDRESS
CABIN
INTERPHONE

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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HF System

Function.
Operating frequency.
Number of HF systems on A/C.
HF system components.
Precautions

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High Frequency Communication System


(HF)

Function:
It permits long range voice communication (by making
use of the sky wave phenomena) between an A/C and
GND station or with other A/C during long over-water
flights.
The sky wave phenomena means that the HF signal
suffers from multi reflections between the ionized air
layer and the earth surface until the signal reaches its
destination.

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HF (contd)

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HF (contd)

Operating frequency:
From 2 to 29.999 MHZ with channel spacing 1 KHZ.

Number of HF systems on A/C:


There are two HF systems on the most A/Cs with only
one antenna.

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HF System Components

Antenna

Coupler

AMU

ACP

Transceiver

RMP
)RTP(

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SELCAL
decoder

56

HF System Components
1- Antenna:
- one common dual band antenna for both HF transceiver.
- Its location on the vertical stabilizer.
- Used for both Tx and Rx.
2- Coupler:
- It is used to match the antenna and T.L impedance to the
transceiver I/P impedance.
3- Transceiver:
- It performs both Tx and Rx.
- It operates in AM or USB mode.
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HF System Components (contd)


4- AMU:
The AMU is the interface between the audio signal, the
transceiver and microphones.
5- SELCAL:
It alerts the crew when the A/C receives a call on the HF.
6- RMP:
- It sends the tuning frequencies, tuning data and mode
information to the transceiver.

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HF Antenna & coupler

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HF ANTENNA

59

HF ANTENNA COUPLERS

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Radio Management Panel (RMP)


RMP 3

RMP 2
RMP 1

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Component Location
HF
TRANSCEIVER 1

HF 2

AUDIO
Monday, April 25,
MANAGEMENT
2016
UNIT (AMU)

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Precautions

Dont transmit with the HF communication system


during refueling or defueling.

Make sure personnel stay a minimum of 6 feet away


from the vertical stabilizer while transmission
because of its high power.

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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VHF System

Function.
Operating frequency.
Number of VHF systems on A/C.
VHF system components.
VHF modes of operation.

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Very High Frequency Communication System


(VHF)
Function:
It permits voice and data communication for line of sight (short) distances.

Operating frequency:
From 118 to 136.975 MHZ with channel spacing 25 KHZ.

Number of VHF systems on A/C:


The VHF communication system uses three VHF systems.

Each VHF system has:


- A VHF communication transceiver
- A VHF antenna

Only VHF 3 used for ACARS data transmission and reception, but it can
also be used in conventional radio communication mode.
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VHF System Components

The VHF system components are the same of the HF


system (not including the coupler).
Antenna

AMU

ACP

Transceiver

RMP
)RTP(

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SELCAL
decoder

68

VHF modes of operation


1- Transmit Mode:
- The audio and PTT signals is fed from Mic to the
VHF transceiver through the AMU.
2- Receive Mode:
- The signal from ground station is fed to the VHF
transceiver to the speakers and headsets through the
AMU.

Note:
Tuning is performed through the RMP.

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VHF Antennas

VHF1 ANTENNA
VHF3 ANTENNA

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VHF2 ANTENNA

70

Component Location

VHF 3
VHF 2

VHF
TRANSCEIVER 1

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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SELCAL System

Function.
Operation.
Main system components.
SELCAL code.

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SELCAL System

Function:

The selective calling (SELCAL) relief the crew from continuous


monitoring the radio receivers by giving an indication when the
captain has an incoming call on HF or VHF.

Each airplane should have a different SELCAL code but


duplications are possible.

This problem is overcome by allocating duplicate codes to


aircraft operating in different parts of the world, so in theory
they should never be working on the same frequency.

If however, duplicate Selcals appear on the same frequency the


problem is generally resolved by moving one of the flights to
another frequency.

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SELCAL System

Operation:
- Each airplane has a SELCAL coding switch connects to SELCAL
decoder.
- At power-up, The SELCAL coding switch gives SELCAL decoder
its SELCAL code.
- A ground station transmits this code with a signal to contact an A/C.
- The SELCAL decoder :1. Monitors audio from HF and VHF communication receivers.
2. Identifies the SELCAL signal that is the same as its code.
3. Causes several flight deck indications come on to alert the
flight crew.

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SELCAL System

Chime
HF 1,2

AMU
SELCAL
decoder

VHF 1,2,3

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ACP

WEU

Speakers

CALL (amber light)


SELCAL
Coding switch
)SELCAL PNL(

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Main System Components


1- HF &VHF transceivers:
- The transceiver receives the A/C SELCAL code from
GND station and sends it to the SELCAL decoder.
2- SELCAL decoder:
- The SELCAL decoder compares the A/Cs stored code
with the code received from transceiver. If they are
identical, the decoder sends an OK signal to the AMU.

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Main System Components


3- AMU:
- The AMU sends a chime request to the WEU, a signal
to the ACP to turn on the amber CALL light on the
Rx system.
4- Warning Electronic Unit (WEU):
- It generates the chime signal and sends it to the
speakers.

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SELCAL Code

SELCALs are issued to airlines by


the ASRI (Aviation Spectrum
Resources Inc) in USA, and with a
total of only 10920 available codes.
A SELCAL code is made up of two
pairs of letters (4 letters) from A to
S except I, N and O as each letter
represents a frequency (tone).
Duplicate letters are not allowed.
The succeeding letter in the same
pair must be higher than the
preceding one.

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Code
A
B

Frequency
(HZ)
312.6
346.7

384.6

426.6

473.2

524.8

582.1

645.7

716.1

794.3

881.0

977.2

1083.2

1202.3

1333.5

1479.1

79

SELCAL CODE PANEL

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)

Function.
CVR inputs.
Functional description.
Operational conditions.
Panel description.

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Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)

Function:

It continuously records the last 30 minutes for magnetic


tape (Two hours for Solid State CVR) when activated
manually or automatically.

It records the flight crew communication, conversations


and warnings.

It records the audio from the AMU and CVR area mic.

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Cockpit Voice Recorder (contd)


CVR inputs (channels):
- Captain
- F/O
- 3rd occupant
- Area Mic (Hot Mic).

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Cockpit Voice Recorder (contd)


Capt.

AMU

CVR Mic

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F/O
3 Occup.
rd

Parking brake

CVR

On ground

CVR
panel

85

Cockpit Voice Recorder (contd)

Functional description:

- The audio signal of the Capt., F/O & 3rd Occupant are
fed to the CVR through the AMU.
- The audio signal from the area mic is fed directly to
the CVR.

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SOLID STATE COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER


(SSCVR)

ACCESS
DOOR

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Operational Conditions

(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)

The CVR modes of operation:


Automatically during flight.
Automatically after the 1st engine run.
Automatically for only 5 minutes after the 2nd
engine shut down then stop.
Manually by pressing GND CTL ON sw in
the overhead panel.

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Panel Description

SSCVR

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Panel Description

(1)
(2)
(3)

Erase conditions:
A/C on GND.
Parking brake is set to ON.
Press the erase pb for 2
seconds.

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Cockpit Voice Recorder (contd)


Note:
- The CVR works under water by the help
of the under-water locator beacon (ULB)
on the CVR face.

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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Satellite Communication System


(SATCOM)

Function.
Main System Components.
A/C SATCOM Equipments.
Modes of Operation.

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Satellite Communication System


(SATCOM)

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SATCOM

Function:
The satellite communication uses ground stations
and satellites to transmit and receive data and voice
messages.

It covers longer distances than VHF/HF


communication systems.

Main System Components:


Space Segment.
Ground Earth Station.
Aircraft SATCOM Equipments.

(1)
(2)
(3)

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Space Segment

Satellites located in a geostationary orbit (36000 km


above the earth).

It uses four operational satellites to cover all the


world.

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Ground Earth Station (GES)

It is a GND fixed earth radio station capable of


communicating with the A/C via satellites.

It provides the connection between the satellite system


and the international telecommunication network.

It consists of a dish antenna, RF system, Accessing


Control Signaling Equipment.

It contains a digital voice coding and decoding unit to


convert the analog voice to a digital code.

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Aircraft SATCOM Equipments (contd)

RF
.Atten
FAX
AMU
ACARS
CTU
CPMU

SDU

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RFU

High Gain
Antenna System

HPA

LNA/DIP

High Gain
Antenna

BSU

101

Aircraft SATCOM Equipments


(1) Top mounted high gain antenna (HGA):
It is an antenna array consists of 39 antennas, used
for both Tx & Rx.
(2) Beam Steering Unit (BSU):
It sends the pointing data from RFU to the HGA
taking the command from the SDU.
RF
.Atten
FAX
AMU
ACAR
CTU S
CPMU

SDU

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RFU

High Gain
Antenna
System

HPA

LNA/DIP

High Gain
Antenna

BSU
102

SATCOM
ANTENNA

SATCOM
ANTENNA

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Aircraft SATCOM Equipments


(3) Low Noise Amplifier/Diplexer (LNA/DIP):
LNA: increases the signal strength .
DIP: selects either Tx or Rx.
RF
.Atten
FAX
AMU
ACARS
CTU
CPMU

SDU

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RFU

High Gain
Antenna System

HPA

LNA/DIP

High Gain
Antenna

BSU

104

Aircraft SATCOM Equipments (contd)


(4) High Power Amplifier (HPA):
- It is a class A amplifier used to increase the signal
strength.
(5) Attenuator (ATT):
- It adjusts the signal level of the RFU O/P to the HPA
I/P.
RF
.Atten

FAX
AMU
ACARS
CTU
CPMU

SDU

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RFU

High Gain
Antenna System

HPA

LNA/DIP

High Gain
Antenna

BSU
105

Aircraft SATCOM Equipments (contd)


(6) Radio Frequency Unit (RFU):
- It converts the radio signal to a digital form and vice
versa.
- Mixes the RF signal from the SDU with an RF signal
internally generated in it then sends the mixed signal
to the HPA via the attenuator.
RF
.Atten

FAX
AMU
ACAR
CTU S
CPMU

SDU

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RFU

High Gain
Antenna
System

HPA

LNA/DIP

High Gain
Antenna

BSU
106

Aircraft SATCOM Equipments (contd)


(7) Satellite Data Unit (SDU):
- It is an interface to the SATCOM and a controller.
- It contains the system operating software, position
and frequency of the satellite.
RF
.Atten
FAX
AMU
ACARS
CTU
CPMU

SDU

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RFU

High Gain
Antenna System

HPA

LNA/DIP

High Gain
Antenna

BSU
107

Modes of operation

1-

The SATCOM provides Six channels for voice and data.

Voice operation:
The voice comes through the AMU or CTU to the SDU.

2-

Data operation:
The data is transmitted and received using ACARS & CTU.

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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Passenger Entertainment System (PES)

Function.
Operation.
System Components.

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Passenger Entertainment System (PES)

Function:

It allows the transmission of the pre-recorded music, video


sounds and passenger address information to the passenger.

The passenger hear the audio signal via the headset and
control the volume using the passenger control unit (PCU).

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Passenger Entertainment System


(contd)

Operation:
- The Main Multiplexer (MM) receives the audio
signal from:
(1)
Audio Reproducer (AR).
(2)
Video System Control Unit (VSCU).
(3)
Passenger Address (PA).

The MM multiplexes the parallel audio channels


and make them ready for distributing through the
cabin.

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System Components

Audio signal

MM

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WDB

SEB

PCU

Speakers

113

System Components

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System Components (contd)


(1) Main Multiplexer (MM):
Multiplexes, digitalizes & control the audio
channels and fwd them to SEB via WDB.
(2) Wall Disconnect Box (WDB):
It provides power and data to all SEBs into
the cabin.
Installed along each lower side wall in the
cabin.
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System Components (contd)


(3) Seat Electronic Box (SEB):
- It distributes the audio signal to the PCUs.
(4) Passenger Control Unit (PCU):
- The PCU location is on the passenger seat arm set.
- It is responsible for:

Audio channel selection


Volume control

A digital PCU (DPCU) performs also the following:

Games interactive.
Phone set keys.
LCD screen control

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April
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April
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April 25,
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April 25,
201625,
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April
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Passenger Entertainment System


(contd)

Note:
PES is controlled from the FAP (PES ON/OFF pb sw).

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2016

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PURSER STATION (A319/A320/A321)


FORWARD ATTENDANT PANEL (FAP)

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Outlines

Interphone System.
Passenger Address System.
HF System.
VHF System.
SELCAL System.
Cockpit Voice Recorder.
SATCOM.
Passenger Entertainment System.
ACARS.

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2016

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Aircraft Communication Addressing and


Reporting System
(ACARS)

Function:
- It enables the data exchange in digital form
between the aircraft and a ground station.

The VHF3 transceiver is normally used for


ACARS data transmission and reception.

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2016

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ACARS

(1)

(2)

ACARS Management unit (ACARS MU) :


Provides the management of the transmission
of data to the ground delivered by the
different A/C systems (AIDS, CFDS, MCDU
and FMGC).
Provides the management of the reception,
printing and display of ground messages on
the MCDU.

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Main System Components

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ACARS
ACARS Management Unit is linked to:
-

The Data Management Unit (DMU).


The Centralized Fault Display Interface (CFDIU).
The Multipurpose Control and display units (MCDU).
The Radio Management Panels (RMPs).
VHF 3 Transceiver.
System Data Acquisition Computer (SDAC) and Flight
Warning Computer (FWC).

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ACARS
Interface with ground network:
-

The airline can exchange data with its aircraft


through a ground network which is managed by
four world service providers:

ARINC, in the USA.


CANADIAN, in Canada.
JAPANESE, in Japan.
Airline
SITA, Other world.

Transmission
Network

Computer

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2016

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ACARS
VHF 3 Transceiver:
-

It is used in Two modes:

Radio (Voice) Mode: VHF3 used as a back-up for VHF 1 & 2


for voice communication. VHF3 Transceiver is frequency
controlled by one of RMPs

or

by ACARS MU (the frequency entered by the crew on the


MCDU or a frequency received in a ground message).

Data Mode: The VHF 3 transceiver is selected to the data mode


through the ACARS MU and frequency controlled by it.

Monday, April 25,


2016

131

Thanks
&
Good luck
Monday, April 25, 2016

132