You are on page 1of 21

Source, Message and

Channel Factors

The Persuasion Matrix

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Promotional Planning Elements


Promotional
Promotional Planning
Planning
1

Receiver/
Receiver/
comprehension
comprehension

Channel/
Channel/
presentation
presentation

Message/
Message/
yielding
yielding

Source/
Source/
attention
attention

Can
Can the
the
receiver
receiver
comprehend
comprehend
the
the ad?
ad?

Which
Which media
media
will
will increase
increase
presentation?
presentation?

What
What type
type of
of
message
message will
will
create
create
favorable
favorable
attitudes?
attitudes?

Who
Who will
will be
be
effective
effective in
in
getting
getting
consumers
consumers
attention?
attention?

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Source Attributes and Receiver


Processing Modes

Source Attribute

Process

Credibility
Credibility

Internalization
Internalization

Attractiveness
Attractiveness

Identification
Identification

Power
Power

Compliance
Compliance

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Source Credibility
Knowledge
Knowledge

Source
Source

Skill
Skill
Expertise
Expertise
Trustworthy
Trustworthy

Information
Information

Unbiased
Unbiased
Objective
Objective

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Source Attractiveness

Similarity
Similarity

Familiarity
Familiarity

Likeability
Likeability

Resemblance
Resemblance
between
between the
the
source
source and
and
recipient
recipient of
of the
the
message
message

Knowledge
Knowledge of
of the
the
source
source through
through
repeated
repeated or
or
prolonged
prolonged
exposure
exposure

Affection
Affection for
for the
the
source
source resulting
resulting
from
from physical
physical
appearance,
appearance,
behavior,
behavior, or
or other
other
personal
personal traits
traits

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Test Your Knowledge


The use of celebrities in commercials is generally
based on the source characteristics of _____ and
represents an attempt to induce persuasion through
the ______ process.
A)
expertise; yielding
B)
expertise; identification
C)
power; identification
D)
attractiveness; identification
E)
attractiveness; internalization

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Risks of Using Celebrities


The
The celebrity
celebrity may
may overshadow
overshadow
the
the product
product being
being endorsed
endorsed

The
The celebrity
celebrity may
may be
be overexposed,
overexposed,
reducing
reducing his
his or
or her
her credibility
credibility

The
The target
target audience
audience may
may not
not be
be
receptive
receptive to
to celebrity
celebrity endorsers
endorsers

The
The celebritys
celebritys behavior
behavior may
may pose
pose
aa risk
risk to
to the
the company
company
2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Meaning Movement and the Endorsement Process

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Modes of Celebrity Presentation


Endorsements
Endorsements

Identification
Identification

Testimonials
Testimonials

Celebrity
Celebrity
Representatives
Representatives

Placements
Placements

Dramatizations
Dramatizations

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Source Power

Perceived
Perceived control
control

Source
Source Power
Power

Perceived
Perceived concern
concern

Perceived
Perceived scrutiny
scrutiny

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Recall

Recall and Presentation Order

Beginning

Middle

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

End

Test Your Knowledge


The campaign centered around the theme, Pork, the
Other White Meat is designed to show consumers that
pork is not all fat as some people think. These ads
trying to convince consumers pork is as lean as
chicken use:
A)
conclusion drawing
B)
a fear appeal
C)
a refutational appeal
D)
a humorous appeal
E)
an affective conclusion

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Message Appeal Choices

Appeal
Appeal mostly
mostly to
to the
the
logical,
logical, rational
rational minds
minds
of
of consumers
consumers

Appeal
Appeal mostly
mostly to
to the
the
feelings
feelings and
and emotions
emotions
of
of consumers
consumers

Appeal
Appeal to
to both
both the
the logical,
logical, rational
rational
minds
minds of
of consumers
consumers and
and to
to their
their
feelings
feelings and
and emotions
emotions

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Message Appeal Options


Comparative
Comparative
Ads
Ads

May
May be
be especially
especially
useful
useful for
for new
new
brands
brands

Often
Often used
used for
for

brands
brands with
with small
small
market
market share
share

Frequently
Frequently use
use in
in
political
political
advertising
advertising

Fear
Fear
Appeals
Appeals

May
May stress
stress

physical
physical danger
danger or
or
threats
threats to
to health
health

May
May identify
identify social
social
threats:
threats:
disapproval
disapproval or
or
rejection
rejection

May
May backfire
backfire ifif the
the
level
level of
of threat
threat isis
too
too high
high

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Humor
Humor
Appeals
Appeals

They
They can
can attract
attract

and
and hold
hold attention
attention

They
They are
are often
often the
the
best
best remembered
remembered

They
They put
put the
the

consumer
consumer in
in aa
positive
positive mood
mood

Fear Appeals and Message Acceptance

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Pros and Cons of Using Humor


Pros

Cons

Aids
Aids attention
attention and
and
awareness
awareness

Does
Does not
not aid
aid persuasion
persuasion in
in
general
general

May
May aid
aid retention
retention of
of the
the
message
message

May
May harm
harm recall
recall and
and
comprehension
comprehension

Creates
Creates aa positive
positive mood
mood
and
and enhances
enhances persuasion
persuasion

May
May harm
harm complex
complex copy
copy
registration
registration

May
May aid
aid name
name and
and simple
simple
copy
copy registration
registration

Does
Does not
not aid
aid source
source
credibility
credibility

May
May serve
serve as
as aa distracter,
distracter,
reducing
reducing counterarguing
counterarguing

Is
Is not
not effective
effective in
in bringing
bringing
about
about sales
sales
May
May wear
wear out
out faster
faster than
than
non-humorous
non-humorous ads
ads

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Creative Directors Opinions


Regarding Use of Humor
Favorable

Unfavorable

Creative personnel

Research directors

Radio and television

Less suited for direct


mail and newspapers

Consumer nondurables

Corporate advertising

Business services

Industrial products

Products related to

Goods and services


of a sensitive nature

the humorous play

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Creative Directors Opinions


Regarding Use of Humor
Audiences
Favorable

Audiences
Unfavorable

Younger

Older

Well educated

Less educated

Up-scale

Down-scale

Males

Females

Professional

Semi- or Unskilled
2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Test Your Knowledge


An ad for Snorestop Extinguisher, a nose spray for
eliminating snoring has the headline, Wife shoots
husband and rests in peace. This ad uses _____ to
attract attention and convey a key selling point.
A)
a two-sided message approach
B)
a humor appeal
C)
comparative advertising
D)
a refutational appeal
E)
a primacy appeal

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Self versus External Paced Media

Self-Paced
Self-Paced
Media
Media

Externally
Externally Paced
Paced
Media
Media

Newspapers
Newspapers

Radio
Radio

Magazines
Magazines

Television
Television

Direct
Direct Mail
Mail

vs.
vs.

Internet
Internet

2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin