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Agrometeorology = Agriculture +
Meteorology is generally defined as a branch of
physics that deals with the physical process in
the atmosphere that produces weather and
The physical process are influenced by solar
radiation, temperature, humidity, wind
movement, atmospheric pressure,
precipitation and soil moisture.


Is the study of those aspects of meteorology

which have direct relevance to agriculture
Is an applied science which deals with the
relationship between agriculture (plants and
animals) and prevailing conditions of weather
and climate

Weather And Climate

Weather is a state of atmosphere at a given place and
at a given time.
Is the condition of atmosphere in terms of
temperature, humidity, wind movement and
atmospheric pressure for a short interval of time i.e.
a part of day or complete day of small area
Climate is the summation of weather conditions over
a given region during a comperatively larger period.
Denotes the measurement of temperature, humidity,
wind movement, precipitation, intensity and
duration of light in the specific time in months or
greater then month

Weather Monitoring
Department of Hydrology and Meteorology is
established in Nepal
282 agro-meteorological stations located in different
parts of the country to measure weather conditions
Temperature, humidity, rainfall, direction and
velocity of wind and rate of evaporation are
World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the
international agency responsible for worldwide
climatic data, is located in Geneva, Switzerland

Agrometeorological Forecasting
Forecasting of weather condition and trend
Forecasting of insects and disease to decide
transplanting of crops, spraying of insecticides
and pesticides to control disease and
harvesting the crops
Crop zonation and Crop Planning
Environmental condition can be regionalized
based on latitude, altitude, day length etc.
Nepal is divided into five crop zones- tropical,
sub- tropical, temperate, sub alpine and alpine

Weather Crop Relationship
The relationship between weather and selection
of crop according to the prevailing weather
Climatic Control
cannot control climate in huge scale
Micro modification is possible
Achieved by the use of greenhouse
Important in the research to maintain
environment of certain place
Helps in agro climatic classification and crop
weather modeling

Solar Radiation
All matters above absolute zero emits and
imparts energy to the surrounding
This transferring of energy and its mode of
transfer is known as radiation

Black body
is a substance which emit the maximum
amount of radiation
Absorbs completely all the radiation incident
upon them
Is thus a perfect radiator and absorber
Sun is considered a black body at 5762K

Solar radiation
The ultimate source of all the energy is
radiation received from sun
Is the result of molecular reactions taking
place in the sun
its distribution in the atmosphere governs
the weather processes on the earth

Solar constant
The sun radiates about 56*10^26 calories of energy every
This energy incidents on a spherical shell with a radius of
1.5*10^13 cm (the mean distance of the earth from the sun)
and concentric with the sun.
This energy per unit area called solar constant
(S) = total radiation/ total area of spherical shell
=56*10^26 cal/min
4 (1.5*10^13 cm)^2
=1.979 cal/cm^2/min
2langley/min (1390 watt/m^2)
It fluctuates by 3.5% about its mean value, depending upon
the distance of the earth from the sun

The total solar radiation intercepted by the
earth in a unit time =r^2S
where, r is the radius of earth and S is the
solar constant
If this spread uniformly over the full surface
of the earth the amount received per unit
area and per unit time
Qs = r^2s/4r^2
=0.5 ly/min

Actually, the distribution is not uniform and
the annual value at the equator is 2.4 times
that near the poles
The solar energy incident upon a surface
depends upon the
Geographic location
Orientation of the surface
Time of the day
Time of the year, and
Atmospheric conditions

Effect of Atmosphere on Incoming

Solar Radiation

the atmosphere acts as a filter, and absorbs and

diffuses a significant proportion of incoming
solar radiation.
Qs= Cr+Ar +(Q+q)a +Ca+Aa+(Q+q)(1-a)
where, Q and q are direct beam
and diffused solar radiation
incident on the earth surface
and a is albedo

Measurement of Solar
three properties of solar
radiation that are measured
Bimetallic thermograph
Bellani Pyranometer

Cambell Strokes Sunshine Recorder


Bellani Pyranometer

gives a measure of total solar

the glass sphere used to cover
the sensor are made of quartz
to insure that all the waves in

measures the electric current generated by a
series of thermocouple when exposed to
solar radiation
is calibrated to give the intensity of solar
radiation on the basis of voltage recorded
usually, a milivolt recorder or a digital
integrator is connected to obtain, both
instantaneous and time records of radiation


provides a measure of solar

radiation by recording
temperature difference
between black and white
coated bimetallic strips.

Cambell Stoke's
the length of the trace burnt on the specially
treated card is measured as the duration of bright
the intensity of radiation required to burn the
card is normally 0.2 to 0.4 cal/cm^2-min, below it
no record is obtained

erto measure the quality of solar
is used
is in fact an arrangement of different
instruments that produces color bands
in the solar radiation and provide

Significance of solar
radiation in crop production
provides light required for seed
germination, leaf expansion, growth of
stem and shoot, flowering, fruiting and
thermal conditions necessary for the
physiological functions of the plant.
plays an important role as regulator and
controller of growth and development.
also influences assimilation of nutrient
and dry matter distribution.

Atmospheric Temperature
Sun is the primary source of heat
Heating of the atmosphere is an indirect process
The earth surface converts the absorbed
insolation into heat, which in turn, heats the
atmosphere by different process of heat transfer.
Process like evaporation and condensation play a
significant role in the transfer of heat.

Ambient Temperature is the temperature

of surrounding medium of a given
location at a particular time

Diurnal Variation

The rotation of earth on its axis produces

alternating periods of day and night, resulting the
daily variations in temperature

The temperature difference between maximum

and minimum during the day is called Diurnal
Range of temperature
Daily variation decreses with increase in height
above earth surface

Temperature Lag

Lapse Rate


Seasonal Variation

Measurement of air temperature

Mercury / Alcohol Glass
Bimetallic Thermograph

Maximum Minimum

Significance of Air Temperature

The growth of higher plants is
restricted to between 0 to 60 C
But crop plants to a narrow range of
10 t0 40 C
Effect of low temperature on plant
Effect of high temperature on plant

Soil Temperature
Is the most important factor that controls
the intensity of biophysical, biochemical
and microbiological process in soil
Heat is supplied to the soil by
geothermal activity, atmospheric
process and radiative transfer

Factors Affecting
Soil Temperature
Amount of radiation received by soil
Aspect and slope of
Albedo of soil
Soil moisture and air content
Organic matter on soil
Rainfall characteristic of the area
Factors affecting rate of evaporation
from soil

Mercury/Alcohol in glass thermometer
Bimetallic thermometer
Electrical resistance thermometer

Significant of soil temperature in crop


Direct effect in seed germination and root

Effect in terms of respiration
Oxidation of organic matters
Micro-biological process

Atmospheric Pressure
Is defined as the force exerted by
the air column above any given
At sea level
1034 gm/cm2
in Airof Hg


Vertical Variation
Horizontal Distribution
Pressure Gradient

Two types of movement of air in the atmosphere
Horizontal movement due to difference in
pressure is called wind
Balance out the uneven distribution of
pressure over the globe
Serves as means of transporting heat,
moisture, and other properties from one
part of the earth to other
Vertical movement of air column is called
Significant for the formation of clouds,
precipitations and various types of storms

Factors Affecting Wind Motion

Horizontal pressure gradient
Rotation of the earth
Frictional force
Centrifugal action of wind

Wind Measurement
Wind Vane

Control of wind velocity

Wind Breaker
Shelter belts

Is the water vapour content of air at any time
and place
But does not describe the droplets of fog,
cloud or rain
May vary in atmosphere time to time
Moisture holding capacity
Depends on air temperature
Increases slowly at lower and rapidly at
higher temperature

Types of Humidity
Absolute Humidity
Is the amount of water vapors in the air

Relative Humidity
= actual vapour pressure of air
saturated vapour pressure at that temp
Dew Point
The temperature at which the air sample need to cooled to get saturated
At dew point, RH is 100%

Dry and Wet Bulb
Whirling or Sling

Hair Hygrometer

Significance of humidity in
Plant water balance
Irrigation needs
Disease dynamics

Soil Moisture
Is a three state composition of matters;
solid, liquid, and gas
The vacuum or free space between the soil
solids are called pores
The water holding capacity of soil depends
on its porosity
Moisture Content = weight of water (Ww)
weight of solid mass(Ws)


Soil Moisture Constants

Saturation capacity
Field capacity
Permanent wilting point
Temporary wilting point
Ultimate wilting point

Is the process of transfer of water either solid
or liquid to the earth surface from the
Forms of Precipitation

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