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Unit 3

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Humidity
Is the water vapour content of air at any time
and place
But does not describe the droplets of fog,
cloud or rain
May vary in atmosphere time to time
Moisture holding capacity
Saturation
Depends on air temperature
Increases slowly at lower and rapidly at
higher temperature

Types of Humidity
Absolute Humidity
Is the amount of water vapors in the air

Relative Humidity
= actual vapour pressure of air
saturated vapour pressure at that temp
Dew Point
The temperature at which the air sample need to cooled to get
saturated
At dew point, RH is 100%

Measurement
Dry and Wet Bulb
Thermometer
Whirling or Sling
Psychrometer

Hair Hygrometer

Significance of humidity in
Agriculture
Plant water
balance
Irrigation needs
Disease dynamics

Soil Moisture
Soil
Is a three state composition of matters;
solid, liquid, and gas
The vacuum or free space between the soil
solids are called pores
The water holding capacity of soil depends
on its porosity
Moisture Content = weight of water (Ww)
weight of solid mass(Ws)

Classification

Soil Moisture Constants

Saturation capacity
Field capacity
Permanent wilting point
Temporary wilting point
Ultimate wilting point

Precipitation
Is the process of transfer of water either solid
or liquid to the earth surface from the
atmosphere
Forms of Precipitation
Rain
Snow
Hailstone
sleet

Rainfall Measurement
Non-recording Type
Ordinary Rain Gauge

Recording Type
Weighing Bucket Type Rain Gauge
Float Type Rain Gauge
Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge

Float type Rain


Gauge

Effect on agriculture

Precipitation, especially rain, has a dramatic effect


onagriculture. Allplantsneed at least some water to
survive, therefore rain (being the most effective means of
watering) is important to agriculture. While a regular rain
pattern is usually vital to healthyplants, too much or too
little rainfall
can
be harmful,
even devastating
tocrops.Droughtcan kill crops and increase erosion,while
overly wet weather can cause harmfulfungusgrowth.
Plants need varying amounts of rainfall to survive. For
example,
certaincactirequire
small
amounts
of
water,while tropical plants may need up to hundreds of
inches of rain per year to survive.
In areas with wet and dry seasons,soilnutrients diminish
and erosion increases during the wet season.Animals have
adaptation and survival strategies for the wetter regime.
The previous dry season leads to food shortages into the
wet season, as the crops have yet to mature.Developing
countries have noted that their populations show seasonal
weight fluctuations due to food shortages seen before the

Climatic hazards
are agents of disaster in terms of what
they may do to human settlements or to
the environment
include thunderstorms, drought, rain, hail,
snow, lightning, fog, wind, temperature
extremes, air pollution, and climatic
change
Management
Mitigation
Adaptation

Agro-climatic Requirements of Major


Food Crops
Rice (Oryza Sativa)
Needs hot and humid climate
Minimum temperature for
sprouting=10C
Flowering=22-23C
Grain formation=20-21C

Maximum temperature crop can


tolerate=40C

Agro-climatic Requirements of Major Food


Crops
Contd

Refer Agronomy(Theory & Digest)


S.S Cheema, B.K. Dhaliwal, T.S. Sahota

Thank You !!!