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› Conflict Timeline
› Helsinki MoU
› Strategic Analysis
 Conflict Stages and Response
 Peace Agenda
 Key Challenges
› Veneration of Alternatives
› Recommendation
› Discussion

› Daud Beurueh Movement (1953-1959)
› Part of Indonesia Islamic Army (DI/TII
› Motive : Islamic State / Structure in Indonesia
› Solved by dialogue : Sukarno promises Islamic Sharia law to be
implemented in Aceh not until 2000s
› 1976 Hasan Tiro declared the Aceh State's Independence
› Motive : ethnonationalist, inequality
› Quick Military Response by RI Vov, VAM was crushed in 1979
› VAM political leadership fled the country
› Libya training started in 1986
› 1989 VAM reappeared in Aceh
› Libyan graduates recruit and train hundreds more

› 1989-1998 Aceh as DOM
› Heavy handed COIN operations
› 1991, VAM is uprooted militarily
" Political leadership intact (exiled)
" Safe haven in Malaysia
" Young generation of VAM sympathizer
› 1998 Fall of Suharto
› RI Vov start decentralization
policy : little effect on inequality
› 1999 East Timor Independence ń

› Sep 2000 ² Jan 2001 Humanitarian Pause
› 2001 Megawati initiates talk with VAM
and granted special autonomy for Aceh
 70% in Revenue Sharing
 National Flag and anthem for Aceh
 Islamic Sharia Law
› 2002 CoHA Agreement
› 2003 Peace Talks failed, Megawati declares
Martial Law in July 2003
› 26th December 2004 Tsunami
› 15th August 2005 Helsinki MoU

" Political & Legal
u Aceh will have authority in all fields, except on
foreign affairs, external defence, national security,
monetary and fiscal matters, justice and freedom of
u International agreement, administrative measures,
decision regarding Aceh will be taken in consultation
and with the consent of legislature of Aceh
u Local political party to take part in election
u Aceh has the right to use regional symbols including a

flag, a crest       
and a hymn
" Security
u VAM will surrender their weapons
u Non organic troops and police are to be withdrawn
" Economy
u 70% revenue of Aceh's Natural Resource goes back to
u Aceh has the right to conduct trade and business
internally and internationally
u Aceh has the right to raise funds with external loans

" !ce it ri issi
u !s it ri r itr ti t ei le e t ti f
elsi i !cc r
" | ci l J stice
u !est  reite r ti 
u eefit reite r ti  f r c tts, ris er 
u  i ts
u ! c rt ill e estlis e i !ce
u ! issi  f r rt  ec ciliti  ill e
estlis e f r !ce  t e I esi issi  f
rt  ec ciliti  it t e ts f f rlti 
eterii rec ciliti  esres.

" Conflict Stages and Response
" Peace Agenda Evaluation
" Key Challenges




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" Politics
 Lack of trust & confidence
 Lack of strategy in handling Aceh·s new phase of peace and
development (go beyond reconstruction & reintegration to
conflict transformation & long term development)
 Political support for peace plan is susceptible to change of
 Diffusion of responsibilities and leadership
 Weak FKK organization as body of communication and dispute
resolution after AMM is disbanded
" Security
 New form of violence is taking over
 Ineffective reintegration programs of combatants

" Economy & Development
 Not many jobs created, even with the huge
international funds
 Lack of capacity and transparency within local gov to
absorb funds for productive economy
 Loss of competitiveness due to massive inflow of
 Corruption and entittlement culture
" Social and Justice
 HR Court,Truth & Reconciliation Comission not yet

" Multiple Approach



Addressing the economic
inequality in Aceh

Healing the hearts and

minds of the Aceh people

Addressing the security

need of the Aceh people

u Both side must continue to show gesture for confidence building, for
example VAM must show their commitment to RI and give up their
separatist ideology by disbanding VAM and stop VAMinization of Aceh
Vov. RI must speed up the full implementation of MoU Helsinki points.
u There should be a clear strategy and role among RI Vov bodies on Aceh
for implementation of Helsinki and Law on Voverning Aceh to ensure
lasting peace
u International community must also monitor both RI and VAM
commitment to the peace process.
u Strengthening of FKK as RI-VAM forum for peace
u Enforcement of Rule of Law : Police, Penal dan Justice reform
u Quick reaction on the violence by spoilers group

Economy & Development:
u Boost development & economy to enhance security
u Capacity building and corruption eradication in all bodies involved in
reconstruction (Aceh Vov, NVO, donor, etc) ² civil society can play role
Social & Justice :
u Settle the HR violation on both side through HR court and
Reconciliation comission
u Fostering the growth of Civil Society
u Engaging the cultural peace building agenda, such as :
u culture & identity ² being Acehnese and being Indonesian Track I
(limited) Track II & III diplomacy & education
u Education reform
u Peace Media development

" Absence of strategy and lack of coordination of
RI Vov is the most pervasive challenge
" The stake is getting higher, so the peace
process need all the help it can get
" It takes two to make peace, but it takes only
one side to start war.