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SPrinciple

Discovery of Archimedes

'principle

Archimedes(287-212 B.C) was a Greek

scientist who first discovered that an object

submerged in a liquid is acted on by an

upward buoyant force. The buoyant force

is due to the surrounding liquid which

causes the object to weight less in the

liquid.(Supposedly when he got into the

bathtub, the water level rose). Later, he did

show that the upthrust is equal to the

weight of water displaced.

Floatation

Weight of object=Weight of fluid displaced.

Volume of object that immerse in the

If weight of the object > upthrust, the object

will sink into the fluid.

If weight of the object = upthrust, the object

is in balance and therefore float on the

surface of the fluid.

the weight of the object(W)

the upthrust (F): buoyant

force

Forces are in equilibrium,

hence

F=W

Immersed In Liquid.

Case 1:

the liquid. The object floats on the surface of the water.

The forces acting on the object is

i. the weight of the object(W)

ii. the upthrust (F) : buoyant force

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F=W

Case 2:

density of the liquid. The object sink to the bottom

of the water.

Lying on the bottom of the water, there is a normal

reaction acted on the object.

The forces acting on the object is

i. the weight of the object(W)

ii. the upthrust (F) : buoyant force

iii. Normal reaction (R)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

Case 3:

density of the liquid. The object is hold by a string

so that it does not sink deeper into the water.

The forces acting on the object is

i. the weight of the object(W)

ii. the upthrust (F) : buoyant force

iii. Tension of the string (T)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F + T= W

Case 4:

the liquid. The object is hold by a string so that it does

not move up to the surface of the water.

The forces acting on the object is

i. the weight of the object(W)

ii. the upthrust (F) : buoyant force

iii. Tension of the string (T)

Forces are in equilibrium, hence

F = W+ T

When an object is wholly or

experiences a buoyant force equal

to the weight of the fluid displaced.

Application of AchimedesPrinciple

Submarin

e

To get submerge, water is pumped into the

ballast tank to increase the weight of the

submarine.

To surface, the water is pumped out to reduce

the weight of the submarine.

Hydromet

er

of liquids.

How deep the hydrometer sink into the liquid is

affected by the density of the liquid.

The lower the density of the liquid, the deeper

the hydrometer will sink.

This is used as the indicator of relative density

of a liquid.

surrounding air.

As a result, when the buoyant force produced is higher than

the weight of the balloon, the balloon will start rising up.

The altitude of the balloon can be controlled by varying the

temperature of the air in the balloon.

EXERCISE

A block wood of density 800kgm3 and

volume 0.5m3 floats in a liquid of

density 1200kgm-3.Determine

a)The mass of the wood

b)The volume of the wood that appears

above the surface of the liquid

ANSWER !

A) Mass of the wood

= volume x density

= 0.5 x 800 kg = 400 kg

B)Let V = volume of the wood above the liquid

Volume of the liquid displaced

= ( 0.5 V )m3

Mass of the liquid displaced

= ( 0.5 V ) x 1200 kg

( 0.5 V ) x 1200 = 400

0.5 V = 400 / 1200 = 1/3

=1/6m3

Thank You~

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