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Era

GeorgeWashington(17891797)

Period3(17541800)
ConstitutionalPeriod

PoliticalDevelopments

EconomicDevelopments

JudiciaryActof1789
WhiskeyRebellion(1794)
FederalistParty
DemocraticRepublicanParty
AssumptionPlan
FirstNationalBankoftheUnitedStates
SamuelSlatersfactory(1791)
CottonginbyEliWhitney(1793)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
Republicanmotherhood

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
FrenchRevolution

CitizenGenet

JayTreaty
PinckneyTreaty

JohnAdams(Federalist)(17971801)
Era

Period3(17541800)
ConstitutionalPeriod

PoliticalDevelopments

AlienandSeditionActs
VirginiaandKentuckyResolutions
MarshallCourt

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
Republicanmotherhood
SecondGreatAwakening

ForeignDevelopments
XYZAffair
QuasiWar

ThomasJefferson(DR)(18011809)
Era

Period4(18001848)
AgeofJefferson

PoliticalDevelopments

Electionof1800/Revolutionof1800
Marburyv.Madison
LouisianaPurchase(1803)

EconomicDevelopments

EmbargoActof1807
SteamboatClermont(1807)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
Nonimportationofslaves(1808)
SecondGreatAwakening

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

BarbaryPirates
ChesapeakeLeopardAffair(1807)

JamesMadison(DR)(18091817)

Era

Period4(18001848)
AgeofJefferson

PoliticalDevelopments
HartfordConvention

EconomicDevelopments

SecondBankoftheUnitedStates
AmericanSystem
Tariffof1816

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
SecondGreatAwakening

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

Impressment
NonintercourseActof1809
MaconsBillNo.2(1810)
BattleofTippecanoe(1811)
Warof1812
BattleofNewOrleans(1814)

JamesMonroe(DR)(18171825)

Era

Period4(18001848)
EraofGoodFeelings

PoliticalDevelopments

EconomicDevelopments

EraofGoodFeelings
McCullochv.Maryland(1819)
Gibbonsv.Ogden(1821)
MissouriCompromise(1820)
AmericanSystem
Panicof1819
CumberlandRoad
LowellSystem

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

DenmarkVeseySlaveRevolt(1822)
AmericanColonizationSociety(1822)
SecondGreatAwakening

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
AdamsOnisTreaty(1819)
MonroeDoctrine(1823)

JohnQuincyAdams(NR)(18251829)
Era
Period4(18001848)
AgeofJackson

PoliticalDevelopments
CorruptBargain/Electionof1824
TariffofAbominations(Tariffof1828)

EconomicDevelopments
AmericanSystem
ErieCanal

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
SecondGreatAwakening
AmericanTemperanceSociety

Era

BankWar
SpecieCircular

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

Spoilssystem
NullificationCrisis
DemocratParty
WhigParty
TaneyCourt

EconomicDevelopments

Period4(18001848)
AgeofJackson

PoliticalDevelopments

AndrewJackson(D)(18291837)

Universalmalesuffrage
Commonman
NatTurnerSlaveRevolt(1831)
TheLiberatorandWilliamLloydGarrison(1831)
AmericanAntislaverySociety(1833)
JohnC.CalhounsPositiveGoodSpeech(1837)
IndianRemovalAct(1830)
CherokeeNationv.Georgia
Worcesterv.Georgia(1832)
SecondGreatAwakening

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

TheAlamo(1836)

MartinvanBuren(D)(18371841)
Era
Period4(18001848)
AgeofJackson

EconomicDevelopments
Panicof1837

SocialandCultural
Developments

TrailofTears
SecondGreatAwakening
BrookFarm
LibertyParty(1840)

WilliamHenryHarrison(W)(1841)
Era
Period4(18001848)
AntebellumPeriod

JohnTyler(W)(18411845)
Era

Period4(18001848)
AntebellumPeriod

PoliticalDevelopments

AnnexationofTexas(1845)

EconomicDevelopments

TelegraphbySamuelMorse(1844)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
Commonwealthv.Hunt(1842)
Irishpotatofamine
KnowNothingParty

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

WebsterAshburtonTreaty(1842)

JamesK.Polk(D)(18451849)
Era

Period5(18441877)
AntebellumPeriod

EconomicDevelopments

CaliforniaGoldRush(18481849)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

ManifestDestiny
Irishpotatofamine
SenecaFallsConvention(1848)
TheNorthStarandFrederickDouglass
(1847)
FreeSoilParty(1848)
OneidaCommunity

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
Oregon

5440orFight!
49thParallel

MexicanAmericanWar(1848)
TreatyofGuadalupeHidalgo
MexicanCession

ZacharyTaylor(W)(18491850)
Era
Period5(18441877)
AntebellumPeriod

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
Irishpotatofamine
TheScarletLetter

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
ClaytonBulwerTreaty(1850)

MillardFillmore(W)(18501853)
Era

Period5(18441877)
AntebellumPeriod

PoliticalDevelopments
Compromiseof1850

SocialandCultural
Developments

UncleTomsCabin(1852)

ForeignPolicy
Developments

PerryExpeditiontoJapan
(18531854)

FranklinPierce(D)(18531857)
Era
Period5(18441877)
AntebellumPeriod

PoliticalDevelopments

GadsdenPurchase
KansasNebraskaAct(1854)
BleedingKansas
BrooksSumnerIncident(1856)
RepublicanParty(1854)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
SociologyfortheSouthbyGeorgeFitzhugh
(1854)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
OstendManifesto(1854)

JamesBuchanan(D)(18571861)
Era
Period5(18441877)
AntebellumPeriod

PoliticalDevelopments
LecomptonConstitution

EconomicDevelopments
Panicof1857
ComstockLode(1859)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

ImpendingCrisisoftheSouthbyHinton
Helper
CannibalsAll!byGeorgeFitzhugh
(1857)
Scottv.Sandford(1857)
JohnBrownsRaidatHarpersFerry
(1859)

AbrahamLincoln(R)(18611865)
Era

Period5(18441877)
CivilWar

PoliticalDevelopments
CivilWar(18611865)
Reconstruction

EconomicDevelopments

HomesteadAct(1862)
MorrillLandGrantAct(1862)
PacificRailwayAct(1862)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
EmancipationProclamation(1863)
FreedmensBureau
SandCreekMassacre(1864)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
TrentAffair(1861)

AndrewJohnson(D)(18651869)
Era

Period5(18441877)
Reconstruction

PoliticalDevelopments

JohnsonReconstruction
Impeachment
FourteenthAmendment(1868)
BossTweed

EconomicDevelopments

NationalGrangeofPatronsof
Husbandry(1868)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
BlackCodes
KuKluxKlan

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
AlaskaPurchase(1867)

UlyssesS.Grant(R)(18691877)

Era

Period5(18441877)
Reconstruction
GildedAge

PoliticalDevelopments

EconomicDevelopments

RadicalReconstruction
FifteenthAmendment(1870)
BossTweed
GrangerLaws
GreenbackParty(1874)
FirstTranscontinentalRailroad(1869)
CreditMobilier
Crimeof1873
Panicof1873
CarnegieSteel
AirbrakesbyGeorgeWestinghouse
TelephonebyAlexanderGrahamBell

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
KnightsofLabor(1869)

RutherfordB.Hayes(R)(18771881)
Era

Period6(18651898)
GildedAge

PoliticalDevelopments
Compromiseof1877

EconomicDevelopments

StandardOilTrust
GreatRailroadStrikeof1877
IncandescentlightbulbbyThomas
Edison(1879)
FarmersAlliance(1877)
Munnv.Illinois(1877)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

ProgressandPovertybyHenryGeorge
(1879)
SocialGospelMovement

JamesA.Garfield(R)(1881)
Era
Period6(18651898)
GildedAge

SocialandCultural
Developments
SocialGospelMovement

ChesterA.Arthur(R)(18811885)
Era
Period6(18651898)
GildedAge

PoliticalDevelopments
PendletonAct(1883)

SocialandCultural
Developments
ChineseExclusionActof1882
ACenturyofDishonorbyHelen
HuntJackson(1881)
SocialGospelMovement
TheAdventuresofHuckleberry
FinnbyMarkTwain(1884)

GroverCleveland(D)(18851889)
Era

Period6(18651898)
GildedAge

PoliticalDevelopments

InterstateCommerceCommission(ICC)
(1887)
GrandArmyoftheRepublic

EconomicDevelopments

AlternateCurrentbyNikolaTesla
(1885)
Wabashv.Illinois(1886)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

HaymarketRiot(1886)
AmericanFederationofLabor(AFL)(1886)
DawesSeveraltyAct(1887)
SocialGospelMovement
OurCountry:ItsPossibleFutureand
PresentCrisisbyJosiahStrong(1885)

BenjaminHarrison(R)(18891893)

Era

PoliticalDevelopments

ShermanSilverPurchaseAct(1890)
McKinleyTariff
HomesteadStrike(1892)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

Bimetallism
ShermanAntitrustAct(1890)
OcalaPlatform(1890)
PopulistParty(1891)
OmahaPlatform(1892)

EconomicDevelopments

Period6(18651898)
GildedAge

NationalAmericanWomenSuffrageAssociation(NAWSA)(1890)
WoundedKneeMassacre(1890)
SierraClubandJohnMuir(1892)
SocialGospelMovement
GospelofWealth
HullHouseandJaneAddams(1889)
HowtheOtherHalfLivesbyJacobRiis(1890)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

PanAmericanConference(1889)
TheInfluenceofSeaPowerUponHistorybyAlfredThayerNahan
(1890)

GroverCleveland(D)(18931897)

Era

Period6(18651898)
GildedAge

PoliticalDevelopments

Bimetallism
CoxeysArmy(1894)
CrossofGoldSpeechbyWilliamJennings
Bryan(Electionof1896)

EconomicDevelopments

Panicof1893
PullmanStrike(1894)
UnitedStatesv.E.C.Knight(1895)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

FrontierThesisbyFrederickJackson
Turner(1893)
AtlantaCompromise(1895)
Plessyv.Ferguson(1896)
SocialGospelMovement
AntisaloonLeague(1893)

WilliamMcKinley(R)(18971901)
Era
Period7(18901945)
GildedAge/ProgressiveEra
Imperialism

EconomicDevelopments
KlondikeGoldRush(18961899)
GoldStandardAct(1900)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
SocialGospelMovement

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
AnnexationofHawaii(1898)
SpanishAmericanWar(1898)
OpenDoorPolicy(1899)
BoxerRebellion(18991901)
PhilippineAmericanWar(18991902)

TheodoreRoosevelt(R)(19011909)

Era

PoliticalDevelopments

Panicof1907
Conservation
HenryFordandModelT(1908)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

SquareDeal
MeatInspectionAct(1906
PureFoodandDrugAct(1906)

EconomicDevelopments

Period7(18901945)
ProgressiveEra
Imperialism

AnthraciteCoalStrike(1902)
TheHistoryoftheStandardOilCompanybyIdaTarbell
(1904)
IndustrialWorkersoftheWorld(IWW)(1905)
TheJunglebyUptonSinclair(1906)
NiagaraMovementandW.E.B.DuBois(1905)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

BigStickPolicy
RooseveltCorollary
PanamaRevolution

WilliamHowardTaft(R)(19091913)
Era

Period7(18901945)
ProgressiveEra
Imperialism

PoliticalDevelopments

SixteenthAmendment(1913)

EconomicDevelopments

PayneAldrichTariff(1909)
StandardOilCompanyofNewJerseyv.
UnitedStates(1911)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
NationalAssociationforthe
AdvancementforColoredPeople
(NAACP)(1909)
TriangleShirtwaistFire(1911)
GreatMigration(19101930)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
DollarDiplomacy

WoodrowWilson(D)(19131921)

Era

Period7(18901945)
ProgressiveEra
Imperialism

PoliticalDevelopments

SeventeenthAmendment(1913)
ClaytonAntitrustAct(1914)
FederalTradeCommission(FTC)(1914)
EspionageActof1917
SeditionActof1918
Schenkv.UnitedStates(1919)

EconomicDevelopments

FederalReserveAct(1913)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

EighteenthAmendment(1919)
NineteenthAmendment(1920)
LeagueofWomenVoters
FirstRedScare

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
WorldWarI
FourteenPoints

WarrenG.Harding(R)(19211923)
Era

Period7(18901945)
RoaringTwenties

PoliticalDevelopments
AReturntoNormalcy
TeapotDomeScandal

EconomicDevelopments

FordneyMcCumberTariff(1922)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

EmergencyQuotaAct(1921)
UniversalNegroImprovementAssociation
andMarcusGarvey
GreatMigration

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

WashingtonNavalConference(1922
1923)

CalvinCoolidge(R)(19231928)
Era
Period7(18901945)
RoaringTwenties

PoliticalDevelopments
ThebusinessofAmericaisbusiness.

EconomicDevelopments
RevenueActof1924

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

NationalOriginsAct(1924)
ScopesMonkeyTrial(1925)
GreatMigration

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
KelloggBriandPact(1928)

HerbertHoover(R)(19291933)
Era
Period7(18901945)
GreatDepression

PoliticalDevelopments
BonusArmy(1932)

EconomicDevelopments

StockMarketCrashof1929
SmootHawleyTariff(1930)
ReconstructionFinanceCorporation
(1932)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
GreatMigration

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
StimsonDoctrine

FranklinD.Roosevelt(D)(19331945)

Era

PoliticalDevelopments

Relief,Recovery,Reform
AlphabetSoup(CCC,TVA,NIRA,AAA,WPA)
SocialSecurity
WagnerAct
RooseveltRecession(19371938)
DustBowl

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

NewDeal
Courtpacking
HatchAct(1939)

EconomicDevelopments

Period7(18901945)
GreatDepression
WorldWarII

21stAmendment(1933)
Japaneseinternmentcamps
GreatMigration
RosietheRiveter

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

GoodNeighborPolicy
LendLeaseAct
PearlHarbor
WorldWarII

HarryTruman(D)(19451953)

Era

Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments

FairDeal
YoungstownSheet&TubeCo.v.Sawyer(1952)

EconomicDevelopments

TaftHartleyAct(1947)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

BabyBoom
SecondRedScare/McCarthyism
JackieRobinson(1947)
ExecutiveOrders9980and9981(1948)

ForeignDevelopments

Containment
MarshallPlan
BerlinAirlift
KoreanConflict

DwightD.Eisenhower(R)(19531961)

Era

Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
WarrenCourt

EconomicDevelopments

InterstateHighwaySystem(1956)
NationalDefenseEducationAct(1958)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

BabyBoom
SecondRedScare.McCarthyism
TheAffluentSocietybyJohnK.Galbraith(1958)
AFLCIO(1955)
Brownv.BoardofEducation(1954)
RosaParksandMontgomeryBusBoycott(1955
1956)
LittleRockNine(1957)
StudentNonviolentCoordinatingCommittee
(SNCC)

Sitins

ForeignDevelopments
Brinkmanship
Sputnik
U2Incident

JohnF.Kennedy(D)(19611963)
Era

Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
NewFrontier

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

BabyBoom
FreedomRides
StandintheSchoolhouseDoor(June1963)
MarchonWashington(Aug28,1963)
TheFeminineMystiquebyBettyFriedan
(1963)
SilentSpringbyRachelCarson(1962)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
BayofPigsInvasion(1961)
BerlinWall
CubanMissileCrisis(1962)

LyndonB.Johnson(D)(19631969)

Era

Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
GreatSociety

EconomicDevelopments
WaronPoverty

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

CivilRightsActof1964
24thAmendment(1964)
MarchtoSelma(March1965)
VotingRightsActof1965
ImmigrationActof1965
CountercultureMovement
FreeSpeechMovement(1964)
WoodstockMusicFestival(1969)
NationalOrganizationforWomen(NOW)(1966)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
Vietnam
GulfofTonkinIncident
TetOffensive(1968)

RichardNixon(R)(19691974)

Era

PoliticalDevelopments

Stagflation
OPECoilembargo(1973)
90daypriceandwagecontrols

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

NewFederalism
BurgerCourt
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)(1970)
WarPowersAct(1973)
Watergate(19731974)

EconomicDevelopments

Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

Apollo11(1969)
KentStateUniversity(1970)
26thAmendment(1971)
Roev.Wade(1973)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

Dtente
VisittoChinaandSovietUnion
Vietnamization

GeraldFord(R)(19741977)
Era

Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
PardonofNixon

EconomicDevelopments

Stagflation
WIN(WhipInflationNow)

SocialandCultural
Developments

IndianSelfDeterminationAct
(1975)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
FallofSaigon

JimmyCarter(D)(19771981)
Era
Period8(19451980)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
MalaiseSpeech/Crisisof
Confidence

EconomicDevelopments
Stagflation
1979EnergyCrisis

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
CampDavidAccords
IranHostageSituation

RonaldReagan(R)(19811989)

Era
Period9(1980Present)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
IranContraAffair(1986)
RehnquistCourt

EconomicDevelopments

SocialandCulturalDevelopments

Reaganomics
EconomicRecoveryTaxAct(1981)
TaxReformActof1986
PATCOStrike(!981)
SandraDayOConnorSupremeCourtappointment
ImmigrationReformandControlAct(1986)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments

Rollback
Grenada(1983)
Teardownthiswall.WestBerlin(1987)
MikhailGorbachev

GeorgeH.W.Bush(R)(19891993)
Era
Period9(1980Present)
ColdWar

PoliticalDevelopments
AmericanwithDisabilitiesAct
(1990)

EconomicDevelopments
Recession(19901991)
SavingsandLoanCrisis

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
SovietUniondissolves
PersianGulfWar(1991)

BillClinton(D)(19932001)
Era
Period9(1980Present)

PoliticalDevelopments

RepublicanRevolution(1994)
ContractwithAmerica
LewinskiScandal
Impeachment

EconomicDevelopments
NorthAtlanticFreeTradeAgreement
(NAFTA)(1994)
WelfareReformAct(1996)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
Internet

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
Bosnia

GeorgeW.Bush(R)(20012009)
Era
Period9(1980Present)
WaronTerror

PoliticalDevelopments
NoChildLeftBehind(NCLB)(2001)
USAPATRIOTAct(2002)
HurricaneKatrina(2005)

EconomicDevelopments
BushTaxCuts(2001,2003)
GreatRecession(20072009)
TroubledAssetsReliefProgram(TARP)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
9/11
Afghanistan(2001)
Iraq(2003)

BarackObama(D)(20092017)
Era

Period9(1980Present)
WaronTerror

PoliticalDevelopments

PatientProtectionandAffordableCareAct
(2010)/Obamacare
TeaPartyand2010MidTermElections

EconomicDevelopments

GreatRecession(20072009)
AmericanRecoveryandReinvestmentAct
(2009)

SocialandCulturalDevelopments
RepealofDontAsk,DontTell
UnitedStatesv.Windsor(2013)

ForeignPolicyDevelopments
ArabSpring
ISIL