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Behavior Genetics

Study of inherited characteristics or

Particularly interested in the degree to
which mental ability, temperament, emotion
stability, and other psychological
characteristics are transmitted from parent to

Basic Principle
Physiology + environment + gene =


Gregor Johann Mendel
Father of modern genetics
His tedious experiments
resulted in the enunciation
of two generalizations that
later became known as the
laws of heredity.
Mendel's laws became
the theoretical basis for
modern genetics and
Microsoft Encarta 2007. 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sir Francis Galton- intelligence studies
According to Galton that, in
the study of cognitive abilities
and intelligence, the approach
should be heredity and statistics
Charles DarwinTheory of Evolution,
Survival of the
Fittest, Natural

Functional Unit: Gene

A gene is the actual carrier of genetic
Genes are held together
in an elongated strand
called DNA, and the
whole structure is
known as chromosome

Recessive vs Dominant
Dominant gene carries the trait
manifested, such as brown eyes,
Hungtingtons disease, neurological
Recessive gene carries the trait, such as
albinism, baldness
Polygenic, or are determined by many
genes working in combination

There are 46 chromosomes in the human
reproductive system
These 46 chromosomes are divided into
two groups of chromosomes: somatic
chromosomes and sex chromosomes
44 somatic chromosomes
2 sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes: Male (xy); Female (xx)

Karyotype-the physical representation of

the chromosomes

Mental Retardation

Down Syndrome is due

to additional x to number 21

Also known as Trisomy 21

People with Down syndrome usually have

mild to severe learning disabilities and
physical symptoms that include a small skull,
an extra fold of skin at the inner corner of
each eye, and a flattened bridge of the nose.
They also may have heart defects and other
serious health problems.
Microsoft Encarta 2007. 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Klinefelters Syndrome
Additional x to
number 23 (XXY)
Males with Klinefelters
syndrome are typically tall,
and they may have small
testes and slight breast
development. They also
may have minor problems
with learning and are usually

Microsoft Encarta 2007. 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Turners Syndrome
Has only X and no Y or X (sex chromosomes)
In this disorder, a female has one functioning X
chromosome instead of two. Females with this
condition are typically short, with a thick, webbed
neck. They may have mild
problems with learning, and
they usually are infertile
because they lack normal
In males, will result to
retarded sexual development
Turners Syndrome is also
known as Sexual Infantism
Microsoft Encarta 2007. 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Types of Twins:
a. Identical twins or Monozygotic
-when one ovum is ripened
and released and the zygote
splits into distinct
parts in the early
part of the cell division.
As a result, they will resemble
each other in all heredity traits

b. Fraternal Twins or dizygotic

- Non-identical
- Due to the
of two sperm
- Not necessarily
of the same sex

Twin Study Method

by Francis Galton
Difference between identical twins:

Difference between fraternal twins:

Experience and Heredity