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Industrial training at General

Tyre Pakistan

Presented by
Muhammad Saad Qureshi
H0401063

Basic Overview of a Tyre


Industry

The major steps in tyre manufacturing

Ingredients
Rubber
(Natural
And
synthetic)
Miscellaneous

Fillers
(Carbon black
, silica,
carbon
chalk)

Ingredients
Antioxidants
And
Ozonants

Chemicals for
vulcanization

Plasticizers
(oils and
resins)

Reinforcing
materials
(steel,
rayon, nylon

Raw Materials
1- RUBBERS:

1.1- Natural Rubber ,


1.2- Technically Specified Natural Rubber (TSNR),
1.3- Synthetic Rubbers,

2- FILLERS:

2.1-Inert Fillers, (soft clays, & calcium carbonate)


2.2-Reinforcing Fillers, ( Carbon blacks, hydrated Silica, Hard clays)

3- AGE RESISTORS (Anti-oxidants & Antiozonants):

4- WAXES

5- PROCESSING AIDS, PLASTICIZERS, SOFTENERS,TACKIFIERS


(Petroleum oils, vegetable oils, and synthetic plasticizers)

6- VULCANIZING AGENTS. (sulphur )

7-ACCELERATORS

Raw Material

7- ACTIVATORS:

7.1- Zinc Oxide:


7.2- Stearic acid

8- RETARDERS:

9-TEXTILE AND METALS

Steel
Cotton
Rayon
Nylon
Polyester
Fiberglass
Aramid

Mixing

Open Mills

Kneader

Banbury

Mixing Mills

Kneader

MIXING

Extrusion

Hot Extrusion
- elevated temperature,
make it easier
to push the
material through.

Cold Extrusion
-lack of oxidation,
-higher strength,
-closer tolerances,
-good surface finish.

Extrusion - Preparation of Treads


and Sidewalls

Calendering
MACHINE

PARTS

Warm up Mills
Stands
Splicers
Tensioning unit
Temperature Unit
Knives
Beta gauge
Wind up units

Textile Calendering

OPERATIONS
Sheeting:
Frictioning
Coating
Profiling
Embossing

Calendering Operation

Steel Calendering

Tyre Assembly Machine

Carcass Building
Bead wires are set at the applicators.
Bead joint has to be in the right place
to avoid tyre imbalance

Inner liner is set at the drum and


rotated around the drum at one turn.
The joint is cut with a hot knife. Inner
liner is set end to end so that the
diagonal cutting seam is at the top.
The ends are joined manually.

Body Ply: Mounting


Cord ply ends are set at the drum
and rotated around the drum at
one turn. The cord is cut by hand
with a join of 2-5 overlapping
wires. The join is pressed carefully
together at the edges.

Bead Wire Mounting and Turn-Up

Bead wire mounting


and turn-up is done
automatically. Bead
wire applicators bring
the beads to the
carcass. Edges are
turned up with
bladders over the
beads and stitched
tightly.

Sidewall Mounting and Joining


Sidewall ends are set
at the drum and
rotated around the
drum at one turn.
Sidewall is set end to
end and the seam is
fastened together
manually.

Steel belt tables go


down on the drum
automatically. Steel
belt is joined by cutting
it with a hot knife and
setting the ends
together.

Cap Ply: Mounting and Joining


The ends of the nylon
cap ply, is set at the
drum in the middle of
the steel belts. Bandage
is wound on top of the
steel belts 1-2 times.
The bandage is cut with
scissors

Tread Mounting
Tread is pulled onto the drum
automatically. Tread is set end to
end and joined automatically.

First and Second Stage Coupling


Carcass (1st stage) and tread
(2nd stage) packages are joined
automatically. The carcass is set
at the flanges of the carcass
drum, pressurised, fastened to
the tread package and stitched
together.

Green Tyre
After building the green tyre it is
transferred to the painting machine,
where anti-blemish chemicals are
applied.

Curing Press / Mould

VULCANIZATION

MATERIAL TESTING
TENSILE

TESTER
MOONEY VISCOSITY
RHEOMETRY
DENSITY TESTER
HARDNESS TESTER
ABRASION TEST
MISCELLANEOUS

TYRE CONSTRUCTION(RADIAL)

TYRE CONSTUCTION(BIAS)

CROSS SECTION
TERMINOLOGY

TREAD PATTERNS
Rib shape Advantages: lower rolling resistance,
good directional stability low levels of heat and
generation
Asymmetric pattern good for high speed cornering

Block-shape good steering control and stability

Directional pattern good driving force and braking


performance
Rib-Lug shape directional control ,good
braking and driving power

TYRE TESTINGS
Endurance

Tyre Testing Machines


Force and Moment Tyre Testing Machines
Tire Noise Testers
Tire Stiffness Testers, UTTM
Plunger Energy Tester
Tire Uniformity Machines
Tire X-ray machines

Pully Wheel

THANK YOU