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MELJUN CORTES,BSCS,ACS Department of ICT Faculty of Information Technology
MELJUN
About
Author: MELJUN CORTES,BSCS,ACS Office:
Department of Computer Science Faculty of Information Technology SAINT COLUMBAN COLLEGE
Mobile: 09295141799 Email: j_cortes2005@yahoo.com *** WEBSITE: http://meljuncortes.blogspot.com http://meljun.ning.com http://www.meljun2010.multiply.com
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MELJUN
Content
1. Introduction 2. Function Minimization Methods 3. Larger Combinational Systems 4. Sequential Systems 5. Hardware Design Languages
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MELJUN
1. Introduction
1.1. Review of Number Systems 1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
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MELJUN
Chapter 1. Introduction
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MELJUN
1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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MELJUN
1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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MELJUN
1.1.1. Number Representation
Numbers are normally written using a positional number system:
N (b ) = an an −1an − 2 ...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a− m
– Base/radix: b (the number of digits) – Digits: 0..(b1) • 0 ≤ ai ≤ (b1) – Binary: b=2, digits:0,1 – Decimal: b=10, digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 – Octal: b=8, digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 – Hexadecimal: b=16, digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F
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MELJUN
1.1.1. Number Representation
N (b ) = an an −1an − 2 ...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a− m
N (10) = an .b n + an −1.b n −1 + ... + a1.b1 + a0 .b 0 + a−1.b −1 + ... + a− m .b − m
N (10) =
i =− m
∑ a .b
i
n
i
11101.11(2) = 1x24+1x23+1x22+0x21+1x20+1x21 +1x22 = 29.75(10)
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MELJUN
1.1.1. Number Representation
Decimal:
– b=10 – Digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
N (10 ) = an an −1an − 2 ...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a−m
– Eg:
ai = 0..9
539.45(10) = 5x102+3x101+9x100+4x101+5x102
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MELJUN
1.1.1. Number Representation
Binary:
– b=2 – Digits: 0,1
bit – binary digit
N ( 2 ) = an an −1an −2 ...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a−m
– Eg:
= 11.375(10)
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ai = 0,1
N (10) =
1 2
1011.011(2) = 11 + 0*2 + 1*2 +1*23 =11 + 0 + 0.25 + 0.125
i =− m
∑ a .2
i
n
i
1.1.1. Number Representation
Binary (cnt’)
– nbit binary number can represent which range?
• an1 ...a1a0 from 0 to 2n1
– MSB – Most Significant Bit – LSB – Least Significant Bit
0001 = 1 0010 = 2 0011 = 3 0100 = 4 0101 = 5 0110 = 6 0111 = 7 1000 = 8
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1001 = 9 1010 = 10 1011 = 11 1100 = 12 1101 = 13 1110 = 14 1111 = 15
MELJUN
1.1.1. Number Representation
Octal:
– b=8 – Digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 – Eg:
503.071(8) = 5x82 + 0x81 + 3x80 + 0x81 + 7x82 + 1x83 ai = 0..7
N (8) = an an −1...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a− m
Hexadecimal:
– b=16 – Eg:
N (16 ) = an an −1...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a− m
ai = 0..F
– Digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F 1010 0011(2)= A3(16)
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503.071(16) = 5x162 + 0x161 + 3x160 + 0x161 + 7x162 + 1x163
Convert from base b to base 10
Base b to base 10 conversion
N (b ) = an an −1an − 2 ...a1a0 .a−1a− 2 ...a− m
Eg:0
N (10 ) = an .b n + an −1.b n −1 + ... + a1.b1 + a0 .b 0 + a−1.b −1 + ... + a− m .b − m
– 1010.11(2) = 10.75 – 1010.11(8) = 0*80+1*81+0*82+1*83 + 1*81 +1*82 = 0+8+0+512+0.125+0.015625
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– A12(16) = 10572 = 2*160 + 1*161 + 10*162 =
110.011(2)=?(10) 110.011(8)=?(10) 110.011(16)=?(10)
6.375 72.0175 272.039...
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Convert from base 10 to base b
Base 10 to base b conversion
– For integer part: • Divide integer part by b until the result is 0
• Write remainders in reverse order to get the converted result.
– For the odd part after “.”
• Multiply by b until the result is 0
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Convert from base 10 to base 2
Eg1: 6.625(10) = ?(2)
– The integer part 6 0 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 0 – The odd part after “.” • 0.625 x 2 = 1.25 • 0.25 x 2 = 0.5 • 0.5 x 2 = 1.0
6.625(10) = 110.101(2)
Eg2: 20.75(10) = ?(2)
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MELJUN CORTES
20.75(10) = ?(2) 10100.11(2) 20 2 0 10 0 2 5 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0.75 * 2 = 1.5 0.5 * 2 = 1.0
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MELJUN CORTES
20.75(10)=?(8) =10100.11(2) = 24.6(8) 20 8 4 2 2 8 0 0.75 * 8 = 6.0
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Convert from base 2 to base 2n
Group from right to left nbit groups and replace the equivalent values in base 2n Eg:
101011(2) = ?(8) 1010.110(2) =12.6(8) 101011(2) = ?(16) 1010.110(2) =A.C(16)
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Convert from base 2n to base 2
Each digit in base 2n is replaced by n bit in base 2. Eg:
37A.B(16)=?(2) =
0011 0111 1010 . 1011(2)
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Convert from base i to base j
If both i and j are powers of 2, use base 2 as an intermediate base:
– Eg: base 8 → base 2 → base 16 – 735.37(8)= 000111011101.01111100(2) = 1DD.7C ?(16)
Else, use base 10 as an intermediate base:
– Eg: base 5 → base 10 → base 2
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1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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1.1.2 Binary Addition
Binary long addition similar to decimal long addition.
carry decimal binary 110 11110
A B sum
2565 6754 9319
10110 11011 110001
Eg: 10101(2) + 11011(2) = 110000 ? (2)
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1.1.2 Binary Addition
Overflow:
– Occur when the result of addition is out of range of representation (the result can not be stored in the predefined number of bits) – In 8bit computer, the result of addition of two binary numbers 10101010 and 11010011 is 9bit binary number which can not be stored in 8bit => overflow
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1.1.2 Binary Addition
nbit adder in computer: A = an1an2...a1a0 B = bn1bn2...b1b0
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1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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1.1.3 Signed Numbers
Represent sign and amplitude Use the mostleftbit to represent sign:
– 0: positive, 1: negative
Eg: represent signed numbers using 4 bit:
– +5 = 0101, 5 = 1101, 3 = 1011 – Using 3 right bits to represent amplitude, we can represent from 7 to +7. – Drawbacks: • +0 = 0000, 0 = 1000 => complex when calculating
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=> need an other representation
2’s complement representation
Most left bit is still sign bit Positive and 0 numbers are expressed in usual binary format.
– The largest number can be represented is 2n11 – n=8 => largest signed number: 2811 = 127
Negative number a is stored as the binary equivalent of 2na in a nbit system.
– 3 is stored as 283=11111101 in a 8bit system – The most negative number can be stored is 2n1
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2’s complement representation
+10 = 0000 1010  10 = 2810 = 1 0000 0000 – 0000 1010 1111 0110  10 = 1111 0110 +10 + (10) = ? 0000 1010
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1111 0110 1 0000 0000
2’s complement representation
Procedure to find binary representation of negative number in 2’s complement:
– Find the binary equivalent of the magnitude – Complement each bit (0=>1, 1=>0) – Add 1
Eg: find representation of 13 in 8bit signed number system using 2’s complement:
• Magnitude: • Complement: • Add 1: • 13 =
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13 = 0000 1101 1111 0010
+
1 1111 0011
2’s complement representation
Range of representation:
– Use n bit to represent 2’s complement numbers – Range: 2n1 => 2n11
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4 bit representation of unsigned and signed (2’s complement)
Binary format 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Unsigned 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Signed 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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2’s complement representation
To find the magnitude of a negative number:
– Complement each bit – Add 1
Eg:
1001 0110(2) = 106? 0110 1001 + 1 = 106 01101010
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Addition of signed numbers
The reason that 2’s complement is so popular is the simplicity of addition. To add any two numbers, no matter what the sign of each is, we just do binary addition on their representation.
5 1011 +7 0111 +2 0010
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5
1011
5 +3 2
1011 0011 1110
+5 0101 0 0000
Addition of signed numbers
Overflow
– Occur when? – Add two numbers of the opposite sign? – Add two positive numbers? – Add two negative numbers?
maybe
⇒Overflow occurs when adding two numbers with the same sign and the result is in different sign 0110 0101 = 101 + 0101 0010 = 82 Page 36 1011 0111
1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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1.1.4 Binary Subtraction
Find the 2’s complement of the second operand, then add. a – b = a + (b) Eg: 7 – 5 = ?
5 0101 1010 + 1 7 5 2 0111 +1011 0010
5 1011
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1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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BinaryCoded Decimal  BCD
BCD:
– Use four bits (a nibble) to represent each of the decimal digits 0 through 9. – Eg: 375 = 0011 0111 0101(BCD)
Decimal
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Binary
0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111
BCD
0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 0001 0000 0001 0001 0001 0010 0001 0011 0001 0100 0001 0101
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1.1. Review of Number Systems
1.1.1 Number Representation 1.1.2 Binary Addition 1.1.3 Signed Numbers 1.1.4 Binary Subtraction 1.1.5 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) 1.1.6 Other Codes
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ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange  ASCII Use seven bits to represent various characters on the standard keyboard as well as a number of control signal
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Problems
1. Convert the following unsigned numbers:
a. b. c. 98.625(10)=?(2) 11011.011(2)=?(10) 6A1.1E(16)=?(8)
2. Represent the following signed numbers: a. 74 in 8bit signed 2’s complement. b. 74 in 16bit signed 2’s complement.
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1. Introduction
1.1. Review of Number Systems 1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
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1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra 1.2.2 Basic Properties of Switching Algebra 1.2.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Functions 1.2.4 Representations of Algebraic Functions 1.2.5 Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR Gates
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1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra 1.2.2 Basic Properties of Switching Algebra 1.2.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Functions 1.2.3 Representations of Algebraic Functions 1.2.4 Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR Gates
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1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra
Switching algebra is binary:
– All variables and constant take on 0 or 1. • Light on/off, switch: up/down, voltage: low/high... – Quantities which are not naturally binary must be coded into binary format. – Three operators: • OR: • AND: • NOT: a+b a.b a’
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1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra 1.2.2 Basic Properties of Switching Algebra 1.2.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Functions 1.2.3 Representations of Algebraic Functions 1.2.4 Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR Gates
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Basic Properties of Switching Algebra
P1: Commutative:
• a+b=b+a a.b = b.a
P2: Associative:
• a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c a.(b.c) = (a.b).c
P3:
• a+0=a a.1=a
P4:
• a+1=1 a.0=0
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Basic Properties of Switching Algebra
P5:
• a + a’ = 1 • a+a=a • n.a=a a . a’ = 0 a.a=a (a)n=a
P6: no coefficient and no exponent
P7: complement
• (a’)’ = a
P8: distributive:
• a.(b+c) = a.b + a.c
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a + b.c = (a+b).(a+c)
Basic Properties of Switching Algebra
Basic Properties of Switching Algebra
P9: adjacency
• ab + ab’ = a
(a+b)(a+b’)=a
P10:
• a + a’b = a +b a(a’+b) = ab
P11: De Morgan
• (a + b)’ = a’b’ (ab)’ = a’ + b’
P12: absorption
• a + ab = a a(a+b) = a
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Basic Properties of Switching Algebra
P13: redundant
• ab+b’c+ac = ab+b’c
A
B
C
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Problems
1. Prove the following equalities:
a. xy’+y=x+y b. xy+xz’+yz=xy+x’z c. x’y’z+yz+xz=z d. (x+y)[x’(y’+z’)]’+x’y’+x’z’ = 1 => prove it incorrect
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1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra 1.2.2 Basic Properties of Switching Algebra 1.2.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Functions 1.2.4 Representations of Algebraic Functions 1.2.5 Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR Gates
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Manipulation of Algebraic Functions
A literal:
– Is the appearance of a variable or its complement – Eg: x and x’ are two different literals – Expression ab’+bc’d+a’d+e’ has 8 literals
A product term:
– Is one or more literal connected by AND operators – Expression ab’+bc’d+a’d+e’has 4 product terms – Note: A single literal is also a product term
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Manipulation of Algebraic Functions Manipulation of Algebraic Functions
A standard product term  minterm:
– Is a product term which includes every variable of the function, either uncomplemented or complemented. – Eg: for a function of four variables a,b,c,d: • the product term a’bc’d is a standard product term • the product term a’bd’ is not
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Manipulation of Algebraic Functions Manipulation of Algebraic Functions A sum of product  SOP:
– Is one or more product terms connected by OR operators – Eg: ab’c+abc’+a’c+a’ »d
A canonical sum – sum of standard product term
– Is a sum of products expression where all terms are standard product terms. – Eg: A function of three variables a,b,c: • ab’c + abc’ + abc is a canonical sum • ab’c + abc’ + a is not
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Manipulation of Algebraic Functions Manipulation of Algebraic Functions
A minimum sum of products:
– Is one of those SOP expression for a function that has the fewest number of product terms. – If there is more than one expression with fewest number of terms, then minimum is defined as one or more of those expressions with the fewest number of literals. – Eg: • F1(x,y,z) = x’yz’+x’yz+ xy’z’+xy’z+xyz • F2(x,y,z) = x’y+xy’+xyz • F3(x,y,z) = x’y+xy’+xz • F4(x,y,z) = x’y+xy’+yz
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F3,F4 are minimum SOP of F1
Manipulation of Algebraic Functions Manipulation of Algebraic Functions
A sum term:
– Is one or more literals connected by OR operators – Eg: • a + b’ + c’ • b’
A standard sum term  maxterm:
– Is a sum term that includes each variable of the problem, either uncomplemented or complemented – Eg: For a function of four variables x,y,z,t • x+y+z’+t’ is a maxterm • x+y+t’ is not
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Manipulation of Algebraic Functions Manipulation of Algebraic Functions
A product of sum – POS:
– Eg:
– Is one or more sum terms connected by AND • (w+x’+y’)(w+y+z’)(w+x+z) •w
A canonical product – product of standard sum terms:
– Is a product of sum term where all sum terms are standard
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Manipulation of Algebraic Functions Manipulation of Algebraic Functions
– fewest number of terms – the same number of terms => fewest number of literals
A minimum POS is defined the same way as SOP:
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Canonical forms
Properties of minterm/Maxterm:
– mimj=0 if i≠j =mi if i=j – Mi+Mj=1 = Mi if i≠j if i=j
– mi=Mi’ and Mi=mi’ for every i
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Canonical forms
An algebraic expression of a Boolean function can be derived from a given truth table in two ways:
– By summing (ORing) those minterm for which the function takes a value 1. – By multiplying (ANDing) those maxterm for which the function takes a value 0.
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Canonical forms
Decimal x2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
x1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
x0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
f 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
f(x2,x1,x0)=m1+m4+m5+m6+m7 =Σ(1,4,5,6,7)
Canonical sumofproducts (SOP)
f(x2,x1,x0)=M0M2M3 = Π(0,2,3)
Canonical productofsums (POS)
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F(a,b,c)= abc’+a’b’
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
a 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
b 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
c 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
f 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
F(a,b,c)=m0+m1+m6
– ∑(0,1,6)
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1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra 1.2.2 Basic Properties of Switching Algebra 1.2.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Functions 1.2.4 Representations of Algebraic Functions 1.2.5 Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR Gates
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1.2.4 Representations of Algebraic Functions
Truth table Venn diagram Karnaugh map
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Truth table
List all the possible binary combinations of the independent variables and display the corresponding binary values of dependant variables.
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Truth table
n independent variables and m dependant functions: 2n rows n+m columns
3 independent variables 2 dependent functions
23 rows
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Venn diagram
Venn diagram using ‘space’ to present logic F(A,B)=A.B
A
B
C
F(A,B,C)=C.not(B)
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Venn diagram
A
A
A+B
A.B
A.B
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A+B
Karnaugh map
A Karnaugh map is a graphical method for representing the true table of a Boolean function. Kmap may be used for any variables number, but often at most six.
C BC A
0
1
00
01
11
10
AB
00 0
0 1 3 2 0 1
01
2 3
1
4 5 7 6
11
6 7
10
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4
5
Karnaugh map (Kmap)
If variables number is n => 2n cells in Kmap. 2n cells are arranged in logical pattern for minimization purpose.
BC A
00
01
11
10
0
0 1 3 2
1
4 5 7 6
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Twovariable Kmap
F(A,B)
B A
0
0
1
1
A B
0
0
1
2
0 1
0 1
2
3
1
3
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Twovariable Kmap
F(A,B) = AB
B A
0
0
1
0
0 1
0
1
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Threevariable Kmap
F(A,B,C)
C AB BC A
0
1
00
01
11
10
00
0 1
0
0 1 3 2
01
2 3
1
4 5 7 6
11
6 7
10
4 5
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Threevariable Kmap
F(x,y,z) = xyz + yz’ + x
x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
F 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
x yz
z
0
1
00
0 1
01
0 1
11
0 1
10
1 1
xy
00 0 1 01 11 10
0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1
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Fourvariable Kmap
F(A,B,C,D)
AB
CD
00
01
11
10
00 01 11 10
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Fourvariable Kmap
F(A,B,C,D) = AB + CD’ + BCD
CD AB
00
0 0 1 0
01
0 0 1 0
11
0 1 1 0
10
1 1 1 1
00 01 11 10
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Fivevariable Kmap
E
0
1
CD 00 01 11 10 CD 00 01 11 10 AB AB 00 00 01 01 11 11 10 10 5 variables Karnaugh Map consists of two 4 variables Karnaugh Map connected up/down.
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Sixvariable Kmap
E
F
0
1 CD 00 01 11 10 AB 00 1 1 01 11 1 1 10 1 1 CD 00 01 11 10 AB 00 1 1 01 11 1 1 10 1 1
CD 00 01 11 10 AB 00 1 1 0 01 1 1 11 1 1 10 CD 00 01 11 10 AB 00 1 1 1 01 1 1 11 1 1 10
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Karnaugh map with don’t care
CD AB 00 01 11 10
00
01
11 1
10 1
1 −
1 − − − − −
don’t care ~ input conditions that not occur
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1.2. Switching Algebra and Logic Circuits
1.2.1 Definition of Switching Algebra 1.2.2 Basic Properties of Switching Algebra 1.2.3 Manipulation of Algebraic Functions 1.2.4 Representations of Algebraic Functions 1.2.5 Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR Gates
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Basic logic gates
AND
OR
NOT
A 0 0 1 1
B 0 1 0 1
out 0 0 0 1
A 0 0 1 1
B 0 1 0 1
out 0 1 1 1
A 0 1
out 1 0
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Basic logic gates
NAND NOR XOR
A 0 0 1 1
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B 0 1 0 1
out 1 1 1 0
A 0 0 1 1
B 0 1 0 1
out 1 0 0 0
A 0 0 1 1
B 0 1 0 1
out 0 1 1 0
Implementation of Functions with AND, OR
Assume all inputs are available in uncomplemented and complemented
F2 = x’y+xy’+xz
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F1 = x’yz’+x’yz+xy’z’+xy’z+xyz
Implementation of Functions with AND, OR, NOT
Complemented inputs can be produced using inverters NOT:
X
Y
F
Z
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Multilevel circuits
A circuit is called nlevel circuit if the maximum number of gates through which one signal must pass from input to output
twolevel circuit
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threelevel circuit
Implementation of Functions with NAND
Using equivalent change steps, every expression can be represented using only NAND gates.
OR A NOT A A.B B (A’.B’)’ =A+B
B
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AND
Implementation of Functions with NAND
Represent the following expression using only NAND:
– F(a,b,c) = ab + bc’ + b’ =
ab + bc + b = ab + bc + b = ab.bc.b
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Implementation of Functions with NOR
Using equivalent change steps, every expression can be represented using only NOR gates.
U8A
A' A
7402N U9A
U7A
( A' + ) ' = B B' A.
B
7402N
B'
7402N
A
U3A
A) A' 7402N ( A+ ' =
U10A U11A
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7402N
7402N
Implementation of Functions with NOR
Represent the following expression using only NOR:
– F(a,b,c) = ab + bc’ + b’
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Chapter 2. Logic Function Minimization Methods
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2. Function Minimization Methods
2.1 Algebraic Method 2.2 The Karnaugh Map Method 2.3 QuineMcCluskey Method
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2. Function Minimization Methods
What is minimization?
– Number of operands is minimal and number of literal in each operand is minimal
Why minimization needed?
– Minimize electronic components used to construct the circuit to implement that expression
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2. Function Minimization Methods
2.1 Algebraic Method 2.2 The Karnaugh Map Method 2.3 QuineMcCluskey Method
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2.1. Algebraic Method
Use algebraic properties to minimize expressions Drawback:
– Heuristic, depending on experience – no formal method/procedure – Manually – Not sure whether the last expression is minimal or not
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2.1. Algebraic Method
Eg: Minimize these expressions using algebraic method:
– F0(x,y,z)=xyz+x’yz+xy’z+xyz’ – F1(a,b,c,d)=ab+abc+a’cd+a’c’d+a’bcd’ – F2(A,B,C,D)= ( A + BC ) + A.( B + C )( AD + C ) – F3(x,y,z)=(x+y)(x+y+z’)+y’ – F4(a,b,c,d)=(a+b’+c)(a+c’)(a’+b’+c)(a+c+d)
Page 99
2. Function Minimization Methods
2.1 Algebraic Method 2.2 The Karnaugh Map Method 2.3 QuineMcCluskey Method
Page 100
2.2 The Karnaugh Map Method
1. Minimum Sum of Product Expressions Using the Karnaugh Map 2. Don’t Cares 3. Product of Sums 4. Minimum Cost Gate Implementation 5. Five and SixVariable Maps 6. Multiple Output Problems
Page 101
Implicant, Prime Implicant
An implicant of a function is a product term that can be used in a SOP
CD AB
00
1
01
11
1 1
10
Implicants of F
Minterm A’B’C’D’ A’B’CD A’BCD ABC’D’ ABCD’ ABC’D ABCD Groups of 2 A’CD BCD ABC’ ABD ABC ABD’ Groups of 4 AB
00 01 11 10
Page 102
1
1
1
1
Implicant, Prime Implicant
A prime Implicant is an implicant which can not be contained in any other implicants.
CD AB
00
1
01
11 C
1
D BC 10
1
B D
*
00 01
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
B D*
11
AD
Page 103
AB
10
Essential Prime Implicant
Essential PI is a PI which contains at least one minterm which is not contained in other PI.
CD AB
00
1
01
11 C
1
D BC 10
1
B D
minterm 0 is only contained in PI B’D’ minterm 5 is only contained in PI BD => BD & B’D’ are two Essential PI
*
00 01
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
B D*
11
AD
Page 104
AB
10
2.2.1 Minimum Sum of Product Expressions
Rules to minimize using Kmap:
– Rule 1: Fill Kmap cells with corresponding values – Rule 2: Group adjacent cells whose values are 1. Number of cells is 2n. – Rule 3: Each group will be a part of result. Variables in each group will be excluded: 2n cells => exclude n variables.
Page 105
2.2.1 Minimum Sum of Product Expressions
Step 2: Group adjacent cells whose values are 1. Number of cells is 2n.
CD AB
00
01
11
10
CD AB
00
01
11
10
00 01
1 1 1
00
1 1 1
01 11 10
1
11 10
Page 106
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2.2.1 Minimum Sum of Product Expressions
Step 3: Each group will be a part of result. Variables in each group will be excluded: 2n cells => exclude n variables.
CD AB
00
01
11
10
21 cells => eliminate 1 variable
00 01 11 10
Page 107
1
1
F(A,B,C,D) = A’BC’ + AC
1 1
22 cells => eliminate 2 variables
1 1
2.2.1 Minimum Sum of Product Expressions
Example 1: Minimize these functions using Kmap:
– a. F(A,B,C,D) = R(0,2,5,6,9,11,13,14) – b. F(A,B,C,D) = R(1,3,5,8,9,13,14,15) – c. F(A,B,C,D) = R(2,4,5,6,7,9,12,13) – d. F(A,B,C,D)= R(1,3,4,5,7,9,13,14,15) – e. F(A,B,C,D)=R(1,3,4,6,9,11,12,14)
Page 108
– a. F(A,B,C,D) = R(0,2,5,6,9,11,13,14)
= BC’D + AB’D + BCD’ + A’B’D’
CD AB
00
01
11
10
00
1 1 1 1
01 11 10
1
1
1 1
Page 109
– b. F(A,B,C,D) = R(1,3,4,6,9,11,12,14)
= B’D + BD’
CD AB
00
01
1
11
1
10
00 01 11 10
1
1
1
1
1 1
Page 110
2.2 The Karnaugh Map
1. Minimum Sum of Product Expressions Using the Karnaugh Map 2. Don’t Cares 3. Product of Sums 4. Minimum Cost Gate Implementation 5. Five and SixVariable Maps 6. Multiple Output Problems
Page 111
2.2.2 Don’t care
If the function has don’t care values in cells:
– Cells with don’t care values
can be grouped with ‘1’ cells
– Do not group only don’t
care cells in one group.
CD AB 00 01 11 10
00
01
11 1
10 1
1 −
1 − − − − −
F ( A, B, C , D) = BC + BC
Page 112
Examples:
F(a,b,c,d)=R(1,3,5,7,12,13) don’t care (0,4,10,15)
CD AB
00
01
11
10
00
1 1 1 1
01 11

1 1 
10
Page 113
2. Function Minimization Methods
2.1 Algebraic Method 2.2 The Karnaugh Map Method 2.3 QuineMcCluskey Method
Page 114
2.3 QuineMcCluskey Method
1. QuineMcCluskey Method for One Output 2. Iterated Consensus for One Output 3. Prime Implicant Tables for One Output 4. QuineMcCluskey for Multiple Output Problems 5. Iterated Consensus for Multiple Output Problems 6. Prime Implicant Tables for Multiple Output Problems
Page 115
2.3. QuineMcluskey method
Karnaugh map cannot handle more than 6 variables. QuineMcCluskey method has no limitation with number of variables, and is suitable for computer algorithm. ABC+ABC+ABC+ABC+ABC AB 00 01 11 10
Page 116
C 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
010 *10
110 11*
111 1*0 1**
100 1*1
101 10*
find a pair of numbers of 1 bit difference
QuineMcluskey Procedure
1: Represent minterms in binary numbers 2: Group each minterm by the number of ‘1’ appearance 3: Make set of 1 bit different numbers between neighboring group
• write the difference within parenthesis • mark * to the number which is not included in a set
4: Make set of 1 bit different sets with the same number in a parenthesis
• append the difference to parenthesis • mark + to the set which is not included in a set
5: Iterate these step until all the generated set is marked * 6: Select prime implicants
Page 7:117 Convert to logic variable
S1. Represent minterms in binary numbers
f = ABCDEF+ABCDEF+ABCDEF+ABCDEF+ABCDEF +ABCDEF+ABCDEF +ABCDEF+ABCDEF+ABCDEF f(A,B,C,D,E,F)=Σ(0,2,6,7,14,8,41,12,15,10)
f = 000000+000010+000110+000111+001110 +001000+101001+001100+001111+001010
Page 118
S2. Grouping
f = 000000+000010+000110+000111+001110 +001000+101001+001100+001111+001010 group each term by the appearance of 1
group 0 group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4
no times 000000
once 000010 001000
twice 000110 001100 001010
three times 000111 001110 101001
four times 001111
Page 119
S3 & S4. Making set (1)
group 0 group 1
000000 000010 001000 000110 001010 001100 000111 001110 101001 001111
0 2 8 6 10 12 7 14 41 15
0,2 (2) 0,8 (8) 2,6(4) 2,10(8) 8,10(2) 8,12(4) 6,7(1) 6,14(8) 10,14(4) 12,14(2) 7,15(8) 14,15(1)
find a pair of 1 bit difference between neighboring group write difference within ( )
group 2
group 3
mark to the number not included in any set
group 4
Page 120
S3 & S4. Making set (2)
0,2 (2) 0,8 (8) 2,6(4) 2,10(8) 8,10(2) 8,12(4) 6,7(1) 6,14(8) 10,14(4) 12,14(2) 7,15(8) Page 121 14,15(1)
0,2,8,10(2,8)
find a pair of 1 bit different sets with the same value in ( ) between neighboring group append difference within ( ) Each pair appears in duplicate
2,6,10,14(4,8) 8,10,12,14(2,4)
mark to the set not involved in the next level set
6,7,14,15(1,8)
when all the set is marked finish
S6. Selecting Prime Implicants (1)
minterms (given at first) Prime implicant （ marked ）
Page 122
0 41 0,2,8,10(2,8) 2,6,10,14(4,8) 8,10,12,14(2,4) 6,7,14,15(1,8) x
2 x x
6 x x
7
8
x
10 12 14 15 41 x x x x x x x x x x x
write x into the position where minterm is included in the prime implicant
inevitable implicant
If only one x in a column, then the row is inevitable implicant
S6. Selecting Prime Implicants (2)
mini term 0 41 0,2,8,10(2,8) 2,6,10,14(4,8) 8,10,12,14(2,4) 6,7,14,15(1,8) x 2 x x 6 x x x 7 8 10 12 14 15 41 x x x x x x x x x x x prime implicants
Page 123
mark minterms involved in the inevitable implicants
inevitable implicants
S7. Conversion to logic variables
41 101001 000000 000010 001000 001010 001000 001010 001100 001110 000110 000111 001110 001111 ABCDEF ABDF F=ABCDEF +ABDF +ABCF +ABDE
0,2,8,10(2,8)
8,10,12,14(2,4)
ABCF
6,7,14,15(1,8)
Page 124
ABDE
Examples:
Minimize the following functions using QuineMcluskey method:
– a.
F(a, b, c, d, e, f) = ab d ef + abce f + bcd f + ab d e f
– b. F(a,b,c,d,e,f) = ∑(17,21,25,29, 44,45,46,47,49,52,53,54,55,47,61)
Page 125
QuineMcluskey method with don’t care
1: Represent logic function in sum of mini terms ==>A 2: Represent don’t care in sum of mini terms ==>B 3: If there exist duplication in A and B, remove from A 4: Apply QuineMcCluskey method for A and B 5: Be careful not to include B in selecting prime implicants
Page 126
QuineMcluskey method with don’t care
f=ABCD+BCD+ACD+ABCD+ABCD don’t care AD mini term decimal ABCD 0 0000 1 0001 2 0010 3 0011 5 0101 7 0111 11 1011 13 1101 15 1111
Page 127
first comparison second comparison 0,1(1) 0,2(2) 0,1,2,3(1,2) 1,3(2) 1,5(4) 2,3(1) 1,3,5,7(2,4) 3,7(4) 3,11(8) 3,7,11,15(4,8) 5,7(2) 5,7,13,15(2,8) 5,13(8) 7,15(8) 11,15(4) 13,15(2)
QuineMcluskey method with don’t care
0,1,2,3(1,2) 1,3,5,7(2,4) 3,7,11,15(4,8) 5,7,13,15(2,8)
0 x
2 x
11
13
15
ABCD
x x
x x
00** 0**1 **11 *1*1
f=AB+CD+BD
Page 128
Chapter 3. Larger Combinational Systems
Page 129
Introduction
Logic circuits are divided into two classes:
– Combinational logic circuits • Output signals only depend on current input signals • Memoryless circuits – Sequential logic circuits • Output signals not only depend on current input signals, but also depend on those input signals in the past • Memory circuits
Page 130
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 131
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits
Delay through logic gates
– When the input to a gate changes, the output of that gate doesn’t change immediately; but there is a small delay Δ. – The output is stable after the longest delay path
A B C X F
Page 132
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 133
Half Adder
a 0
a b HA
b 0 1 0 1
Σ 0 1 1 0
r 0 0 0 1 Σ =a ⊕ b r = ab
Σ (Result) r (Carryout)
0 1 1
a
=1
Half Adder
Σ
b &
r
Page 134
Addition of two nbit numbers
r3 A= +B = r4 a3 b3 Σ
3
r2 a2 b2 r3 Σ
2
r1 a1 b1 r2 Σ
1
r0 a0 b0 r1 Σ 0
Summation
Page 135
Σ Σ
4 3
Σ
2
Σ
1
Σ
0
Full Adder
Σ i 01
1
ai ri bi
FA
Σ
i
aibi ri
00
11
10
ri+ 1
0
1
ai 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Page 136
bi 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
ri 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Σ 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
i
ri+ 1
1
1
1
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1
1
aibi ri
00
01ri+ 1
11
10
0
1
1
1
1
Σ i = ai ⊕ bi ⊕ ri ri+1 = ai bi + ri (ai ⊕ bi)
Combinational logic circuit design procedure
Problems: design a combinational logic circuit to do smth. Design procedure:
– S1: Find inputs, outputs and relations. – S2: Construct truth table – S3: For each output, using Kmap to minimize from truth table. – S4: Draw the circuit.
Page 137
Example 1
Problem: Design a combinational logic circuit to implement this operation: M=N+3, N is 3bit binary number, the number of bit of M is selected properly. Solution:
– S1: three inputs: n2n1n0
four outputs: m3m2m1m0
Page 138
Example 1
S1: three inputs: n2n1n0 four outputs: m3m2m1m0 S2: truth table
n2 n1 n0
m0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 n2 0 0 0 0 0
m3 m2 m1 m0
n2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
n1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
n0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
m3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
m2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
m1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
S3:
m3 = n2n0 + n2n1
n1n0 00 01 11 10
Page 139
Example 2
Problem: design a combinational logic circuit to calculate square of a 2bit binary number. Solution:
– Step1: find inputs, outputs • Inputs: a1,a0 • Outputs: b3,b2,b1,b0
Ex2
Page 140
Example 2
– Step 2: truth table
a1 0 0 1 1 a0 0 1 0 1 b3 0 0 0 1 b2 0 0 1 0 b1 0 0 0 0 b0 0 1 0 1
– Step3: using Kmap to minimize outputs • b3 = a1.a0 • b2 = a1.a0’ b1 = 0 b0 = a0
Page 141
Example 2
– Step 4: Draw circuit • b3 = a1.a0 • b2 = a1.a0’ b1 = 0 b0 = a0
X1 2.5 V X2 2.5 V X3 2.5 V X4 2.5 V
b3
U1A J1
a1
V1Key = A 5V R1 100Ω
7408N U1B
b2 b1 b0
a0
7408N U2A
J2 V2Key = B 12 V
7404N R2 100Ω
Page 142
Full Adder
ri ai bi & & ≥1 =1 =1 Σ
i
ri+ 1
Page 143
Full Adder
ri ai bi HA & =1 =1 Σ
i
HA & ≥1 ri+ 1
Page 144
nbit Adder
Serial nbit adder A = an1an2...a1a0 , B = bn1bn2...b1b0
an1 bn1
an2 bn2 rn1 rn2 FA
a1
b1 r1
a0
b0
r 0= 0 FA
FA rn
FA
r2 Σ
n
Page 145
Σ
n1 
Σ
2
n 
Σ
1
Σ
0
Delay = n x Δ?
nbit Adder
Parallel nbit adder: ri+1 = aibi + ri(ai ⊕ bi) Pi = ai ⊕ bi and Gi = aibi → ri+1 = Gi + ri Pi r1 = G0 + r0P0
G1 ≥ 1 r2 G0 ≥ 1 r1
P0 r0
&
G0 P1
&
τ
1
τ
2
Page 146
P0 r0
& τ
r2 = G1 + G0P1 + r0P0P1
τ
Parallel 4bit addition
a3 b3 a2 b2 a1 b1 a0 b0 r0
Calculate Pi and Gi P3 G3 P2 G2 P1 G1 P0 G0
Carry calculation r4 r3 a 3 b3 a2 r2 b2 a1 r1 b1 r0 a0 b0
Sum calculation
r4 = Σ
Page 147
4
Σ
3
Σ
2
Σ
1
Σ
0
Subtractor
To subtract ab, simply add a to 2’s complement of b. Second choice:
Half Subtractor => Full Subtractor => nbit Subtractor
Page 148
Subtractor
Subtractor by using 2’s complement
B3 A3 A2
B2 A1
B1 A0
B0
A
B
A C
B
A C
B
A C
B
C4
C+
FA
S
C3
C+
FA
S
C2
C+
FA
S
C1
C+
FA
S
C
1
S3
Page 149
S2
S1
S0
Adder and Subtractor
A3
B3
A2 B2
A1 B1
A0
B0
MPX
MPX
MPX
MPX
sel
A B A C B A C B A C B
C4
C+
FA
S
C3
C+
FA
S
C2
C+
FA
S
C1
C+
FA
S
C
S3
Page 150
S2
S1
S0
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 151
Decoder
An nxm decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to m output lines, where m≤2n.
– m = 2n => complete decoder
Fundamental property: only one output is 1 for any given input combination.
Page 152
Decoder
Complete decoders: m=2n
x1 x2
D0
xn E
. . .
nxm decoder
. . .
D1
x1 x2 x3
D0 3x8 decoder
. . .
D1 D7
Dm1
Eg: + 3 bit inputs x1,x2,x3. + 8 bit outputs Y0,Y1…Y7
Page 153
Design 3x8 decoder
x1 x2 x3
D0 3x8 decoder
. . .
D1 D7
En
if (En=0) Disable or D0...D7=0 else if (En=1) Function as a 3x8 decoder
Page 154
BCDtodecimal decoder
N 0
A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Y0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
A B C D
BCD to decimal Decoder
: :
Y0 Y1 Yi Y9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Y9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Page 155
BCDtodecimal decoder
Y0 = A B C D
CD AB
Y1 = A B C D
Y2 = BCD
00
01
11
10 1
00 01 11 10
Y3 = BCD Y4 = BC D Y5 = BC D Y6 = BC D Y7 = BCD Y8 = AD Y9 = AD
−
−
− −
− −
Page 156
Decoder
4x16 decoder using two 3x8 decoders
x2 x3 x4
D0 3x8 decoder
. . .
D1 D7
x1 3x8 decoder
D8
. . .
D9 D15
Page 157
Decoder implementation of arbitrary functions
x1 x2 x3 x4 4x16 decoder
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15
F1
F1(x1,x2,x3,x4)=Σ(0,1,3,8,12)
Page 158
BCDto7segment decoder
a f e d g b c
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 a 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 b 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 c 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 d 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 e 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 f 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 g 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1
Each segment is a Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A
K
6 7 8 9
Page 159
BCDto7segment decoder
CD AB
00
01
11
10
00 01 11 10
1 0
0 1
1 1
1 1
B D
&
−
1
−
1
− −
− −
A C
&
≥1
a = A + C +BD +B D
Page 160
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 161
Encoder
An encoder is a circuit that performs the function of a decoder in reverse. An mxn encoder has m inputs, n outputs where m≤2n. The outputs generate the binary codes corresponding to m inputs. For example: encoder for PC’s keyboard
Key <=> Character <=> Key code 102 keys, 8 bit ASCII
Page 162
Keyboard encoder
‘1’
P1 P2 Pi 1 2 i Encoder A B C D 9 N=i
P9
9 keys 4bit key code.
Page 163
Keyboard encoder
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Page 164
ABCD 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001
A = 1 if (N=8) or (N=9) B = 1 if (N=4) or (N=5) or (N=6) or (N=7) C = 1 if (N=2) or (N=3) or (N=6) or (N=7) D = 1 if (N=1) or (N=3) or (N=5) or (N=7) or (N=9)
Keyboard encoder
N=1
≥ 1
D
N=2 N=3 N=4 N=5 N=6 N=7 N=8 N=9 ≥ 1
C
≥ 1
B
≥ 1
A
Page 165
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders 3.5 Multiplexors 3.6 Demultiplexors 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 166
Multiplexor
Multiplexor has one output and more than one input. Function: select one of input for output MUX 21
X0
MUX 41
Y
X1 X2 X3 C0 C1 Y
X0 X1 C0
control inputs
C0 0
Page 167
C1 0 0 1 1
C0 0 1 0 1
Y X0 X1 X2 X3
Y X0 X1
1
2to1 Multiplexor
MUX 21
X0 X1 C0 Y
C0 C0 0 1 Y X0 X1 11 1 1 1 10 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
X1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
X0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Y 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
X1X0 C0
00
01 1
0 1
Y = X 0C 0 + X1C 0
Page 168
2to1 Multiplexor
Page 169
4to1 Multiplexor
Y = s1’s0’I0 + s1’s0I1 +s1s0’I2+ s1s0I3
Page 170
Application of multiplexor
Select source
Source 1 A = a3 a2 a1 a0 B = b3 b2 b1 b0 Source 2
C0
Receiver Y3 Y2 Y1 Y0
Page 171
Application of multiplexor
Convert parallelserial
A
a0 a1 a2 a3 C0
C1
C0 1
Y
0 C1 1 0 Y a0 a1 a2 a3 t t t
Page 172
Application of multiplexor
Implementation of arbitrary functions:
f(A,B) = A Bf(0,0) + A Bf(0,1 + A Bf(1 + A Bf(1 ) ) ,0) ,1
Y = C1C 0X 0 + C 1C 0X1 + C 1C 0X 2 + C 1C 0X 3
f(0,0) Inputs to select function f(0,1) f(1,0) f(1,1) x2 x3 A
Page 173
x0 x1 Y = f(A,B)
C1
C0
Variables
B
Example
0 Inputs to select function 1 1 0
x0 x1 x2 x3 A Y = f(A,B)
C1
C0
Variables
B
F(A,B) = A’B + AB’
Page 174
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders and Priority Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 175
Demultiplexor
Demultiplexor has one input and more than one output Function: select one of outputs for input
DeMUX 12
S0 E
C0
S1
S 0 = C0 E S1 = C0 E
Page 176
Demultiplexor 14
S0 E S1 S2 S3 C1 C0
Page 177
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders and Priority Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 178
3.7 ThreeState Gates (Tristate)
Three state gates exhibit three states instead of two states. The three states are:
– High : 1 – Low : 0 – High impedance : z • In this state the output is disconnected which is equal to open circuit. In the other words in that state circuit has no logic significant. We can have AND or NAND threestate gates but the most common is threestate buffer gate
Page 179
3.7 ThreeState Gates (Tristate)
We may use conventional gates such as AND or NAND as threestate gates but the most common is threestate buffer gate. Note that buffer produces transfer function and can be used for power amplification. Three state buffer has extra input control line entering the bottom of the gate symbol (see next slide)
Page 180
ThreeState buffer
Threestate buffer
C A Y 0 0 z 0 1 z 1 0 0 1 1 1
Page 181
Application of threestate buffer
Threestate buffers can be used to implement multiplexer
Page 182
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders and Priority Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate Arrays  ROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 183
3.8 Gate Arrays  ROM, PLA and PAL
PLA  Programmable Logic Arrays PAL  Programmable Array Logic ROM
Page 184
PLA  Programmable logic arrays
Prefabricated building block of many AND/OR gates
– actually NOR or NAND – "personalized" by making or breaking connections among the gates – programmable array block diagram for sum of products form
A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Z1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 Z2 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 • • • inputs
m0 m1 m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7
AND array
product terms
OR array
outputs • • •
Page 185
Before programming
All possible connections are available before "programming"
– in reality, all AND and OR gates are NANDs
Page 186
After programming
Unwanted connections are "blown"
– fuse (normally connected, break unwanted ones) – antifuse (normally disconnected, make wanted connections)
A B C
AB B'C AC' B'C' A
Page 187
F0
F1
F2
F3
PLA example
Multiple functions of A, B, C
– F1 = A B C – F2 = A + B + C – F3 = A' B' C' – F4 = A' + B' + C' – F5 = A xor B xor C – F6 = A xnor B xnor C
A B C F1F2F3F4F5 0000 0 1 1 0 0 0010 1 0 1 1 1 0100 1 0 1 1 1 0110 1 0 1 0 0 1000 1 0 1 1 1 1010 1 0 1 0 0 1100 1 0 1 0 0 1111 1 0 0 1 1
Page 188
full decoder as for memory address A B C bits stored in memory A'B'C' A'B'C A'BC' A'BC AB'C' AB'C ABC' ABC
F6
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
PALs and PLAs
Programmable logic array (PLA)
– what we've seen so far – unconstrained fullygeneral AND and OR arrays
Programmable array logic (PAL)
– constrained topology of the OR array – innovation by Monolithic Memories – faster and smaller OR plane
a given column of the OR array has access to only a subset of the possible product terms
Page 189
ROM – Read Only Memories
Two dimensional array of 1s and 0s
– entry (row) is called a "word" – width of row = wordsize – index is called an "address" – address is input – selected word is output
Example: 10 address x 8 data ROM 210 words x 8 ROM 1024 words x 8 ROM 1k x 8 ROM
internal organization 0 n1 Address bit lines (normally pulled to 1 through resistor – selectively connected to 0 by word line controlled switches) n 2 1 i decoder j 0 word[i] = 0011 word[j] = 1010 1 1 1 1 word lines (only one is active – decoder is just right for this)
Page 190
ROM – Read Only Memories
Combinational logic implementation (twolevel canonical form) using a ROM
F0 = A' B' C + A B' C' + A B' C F1 = A' B' C + A' B C' + A B C F2 = A' B' C' + A' B' C + A B' C' F3 = A' B C + A B' C' + A B C' A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 F0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 F1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 F2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 F3 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 ROM 8 words x 4 bits/word
A B C F0 F1 F2 address outputs block diagram
F3
truth table
Page 191
ROM structure
Similar to a PLA structure but with a fully decoded AND array
– completely flexible OR array (unlike PAL)
n address lines • • • inputs
decoder
2n word lines
memory array n (2 words by m bits)
outputs • • • m data lines
Page 192
3. Larger Combinational Systems
3.1 Delay in Combinational Logic Circuits 3.2 Adders and Other Arithmetic Circuits 3.3 Decoders 3.4 Encoders and Priority Encoders 3.5 Multiplexers 3.6 Demultiplexers 3.7 ThreeState Gates 3.8 Gate ArraysROMs, PLAs and PALs 3.9 Larger Examples
Page 193
3.9 Larger Examples
1. Sevensegment displays 2. Comparator
Page 194
Comparator
1bit full comparator:
Gi Li Ei
ai bi
1bit Full Comparator
ai > bi ai < bi ai = bi
Gi=1 Li=1 Ei=1
Gi = ai .bi Li = ai .bi Ei = ai ⊕ bi
Page 195
Comparator
Nbit parallel comparator:
Page 196
Midterm examination (90’)
1. Represent the following function in the canonical form SOP: F(A,B,C)=(A+B’)C 2. Use the QuineMcCluskey method to obtain the minimal sum for the following function: F(A,B,C,D,E)= ∑(1,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,15) 3. Design 4x16 decoder using only 2x4 decoders. 4. Design a combinational logic circuit to calculate the following function: M=N+3 where N is BCD number (BinaryCoded Decimal).
Page 197
Midterm examination 2 (90’)
1. Represent the following function in the canonical form SOP and POS: F(A,B,C)=C 2. Use the QuineMcCluskey method to obtain the minimal sum for the following function: F(A,B,C,D,E)= ∑(1,4,6,7,8,11,12,13,15) 3. Using 3x8 decoder to implement the following function: F(A,B,C) = AB + B’C 4. Design a combinational logic circuit to calculate the following function: M=N+5 where N is BCD number (BinaryCoded Decimal).
Page 198
Chapter 4. Sequential Systems
Page 199
4. Sequential Systems
4.1 Definitions 4.2 State Tables and Diagrams 4.3 Latches and Flip Flops 4.4 Analysis of Sequential Systems 4.5 Design of Sequential Systems 4.6 Solving Larger Sequential Problems
Page 200
4.1 Definitions
Combinatorial circuit is memoryless. In a circuit with memory, an output value at tn+1 must be a function not only of the inputs at tn+1 but also of the outputs at tn. To achieve this, the circuit must have some feedback connections from its outputs to its inputs.
Page 201
A circuit with memory is a combinatorial circuit incorporating some feedback connections.
Feedback and memory devices
To implement feedback, signals are fed back from outputs to inputs using memory devices. A memory device stores an output value at time tn so that it can be input to the circuit at tn+1. But then, output at tn depends on input at tn1, which in turn depends on tn2…
The circuit maps input sequences to output sequences
Page 202
Sequential circuit model
Circuits with memory are called sequential circuits.
x1 z1
Circuit inputs
x2 xn
. . .
Combinatorial circuit
. . .
z2
Circuit outputs
yk
Memory device
Yk
Present state
y1
Page 203
. . .
Next state
Y1
Memory device
Sequential circuit model
Mealy model:
• X : finite inputs. m inputs: x1,x2...,xm • S : finite states. n states: s1,s2...,sn • Y: finite outputs.l outputs: y1,y2...,yl • Fs: state function. s = Fs(X,S) • Fy : output function. y = Fy(X,S)
Moore: ~Mealy
• Difference: Fy = Fy(S)
Page 204
Asynchronous/Synchronous sequential circuits
The timing of the signal in the circuit determine two types of sequential circuits:
– Synchronous – Asynchronous.
Page 205
Synchronous sequential circuits
In a synchronous sequential circuit, the state can change only at discrete instants of time. To achieve that, the circuit uses a timing device, called a clock generator, that produce trains of periodic or aperiodic clock pulses. The clock pulses are input to the memory devices so that they can change state only in response to the arrival of a pulse and only once for each pulse occurrence.
The operation of the circuit is synchronized with the clock pulse input.
Page 206
Asynchronous sequential circuits
The behavior of an asynchronous sequential circuit depends only on the order in which the inputs change and can be affected at any instant of time. There is no timing device in asynchronous sequential circuit (unclocked memory).
Page 207
4. Sequential Systems
4.1 Definitions 4.2 State Tables and Diagrams 4.3 Latches and Flip Flops 4.4 Analysis of Sequential Systems 4.5 Design of Sequential Systems 4.6 Solving Larger Sequential Problems
Page 208
State diagram
Depict graphically the operation of a sequential circuit.
– Mealy state diagram
0/0
0/0
a
0/0
b
1/0
c
0/0
d
1/0
1/1
Page 209
Example of state diagram
Example: a sequential circuit is used to detect the string “0101” from one input.
1 / 0 0 / 0 0 0 / 0 1 / 0 / 0 0 / 0
A
B
1 / 0
C
D
1
/ 1
Page 210
State diagram
Depict graphically the operation of a sequential circuit.
– Moore state diagram
1
0 f/1 0 1 e/1
a/0 1
0 b/0 1 c/0
0
1
Page 211
0 d/0
1
State table
State table presents in a tabular form the same information contained in the state diagram.
– Mealy state table – Moore state table
Page 212
Mealy state table
0/0 0/0
PS: Present State NS: Next State
PS x=0 a b c d b b d b NS x=1 a c a c Output (z) x=0 0 0 0 0 x=1 0 0 0 1
a
0/0
b
1/0
c
0/0
d
1/0
1/1
PS a b c d
NS/Output (z) x=0 b/0 b/0 d/0 b/0 x=1 a/0 c/0 a/0 c/1
k memory devices => 2k rows n circuit inputs => NS portion contains 2n columns Page 213 Output portion also contains 2n columns
Moore state table
1
PS x=0 a b c d e f b b d d f f
NS x=1 a c c e e a
Output z 0 0 0 0 1 1
1
0 f/1 0 e/1
a/0 1
0 b/0 1 c/0
0
1
0 d/0
1
0
The output portion always contains a single column. The entry at the intersection of any row with the output column indicates the output values corresponding to the PS associated with that row.
Page 214
Incompletely specified Mealy state table
Two inputs: x1,x2 A single output: z
PS 00 a b c d e f
Page 215
NS/Output (z) 01 c/1 /f/1 /f/0 /11 b///e/d/1 c/1 10 e/1 //b/1 a/0 b/0 /e/0 f/0 a//c/0
4. Sequential Systems
4.1 Definitions 4.2 State Tables and Diagrams 4.3 Latches and Flip Flops 4.4 Analysis of Sequential Systems 4.5 Design of Sequential Systems 4.6 Solving Larger Sequential Problems
Page 216
4.3. Latches and FlipFlops
Simplest memory devices: Delay element
Yi
ΔT
yi
Yi
yi yi(t+ΔT) = Yi(t) ΔT
In practice, we don’t have to actually insert delay elements because propagation time delays between the inputs and the outputs of the combinatorial part of the circuit provide Page 217 sufficient delay across the feedback loops.
4.3. Latches and FlipFlops
Bistable devices:
– Two stable states: • Q=0 : the device is reset (reset state) • Q=1: the device is set (set state) – A bistable device remains in one of two states indefinitely until directed by an input signal to change state. – Two types: • Latch • Flipflop
Page 218
4.3. Latches and FlipFlops
Latch: transparency property:
– Change state when the input values change – The new output state is delayed only by the propagation time delays of the gates between inputs and outputs of the latch. – Used to implement the memory part of asynchronous circuits.
Flipflop: no transparency property
– Has a control (triggering) input, called clock. – The state change only in response to a transition of a clock pulse at clock input. – Used to implement memory part of synchronous circuits
Page 219
SR Latch
Two inputs: S (set), R (reset) Two complementary outputs: Q, Q’
S Q
S R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q+ 0 1 0 0 1 1 
Current state
0 0
R
Q’
Next state
S
Q
0 0 1
R
Q'
1 1 1
Indeterminate
Page 220
Q = (R+Q’)’ Q’= (S+Q)’
SR Latch
S
Q
R
Q’
S 0 0 1 1
R 0 1 0 1
Q+ Q 0 1 Indeterminate
S
Q
R
Q'
Equivalent characteristic table
SR=’00’ => Output no change A logic ‘1’ at inputs can change outputs’ states => activeHIGH latch
Page 221
SR Latch
S
Q
S
Q
R
Q’
R
Q’
S
Q
Q S
R
Q'
R Q'
activeHIGH SR Latch
activeLOW SR Latch
Page 222
SR Latch
Timing chart (NOR implementation)
S
Q
S R
R
Q'
Q Q
set reset set reset
Page 223
SR Latch
Timing chart (NAND implementation)
Q S
S R
R Q'
Q Q
set reset set reset
Page 224
SR Latch
R
Q
Q 0
Q+ 0 1 0 1
S 0 1 0 
R 0 1 0
S
0 1 1
Circuit showing feedback
Excitation table
Q+ = R’Q + R’S SR=0 => Q+ = R’Q + R’S + RS = R’Q + S
for activeHIGH SR Latch
Page 225
D Latch
D
Q
D
S
Q
Q’
R
Q’
Graphic symbol
Implementation using SR Latch
Q Q* 0 1 0 1 D 0 1 0 1
D 0 1
Q* 0 1
0 0 1 1
Equivalent characteristic table
Page 226
Q* = D
Excitation table
Gated Latches
S E R
Q
E: Enable input control The latch will not change state as long as E=0 E=1 SR=10 => Set E=1 SR=01 => Reset
Q’
S
Q
⇒The operation of latch is synchronized with the E input => E: synchronous input A latch with synchronous input is called gated latch.
E
R
Q'
Page 227
Flipflops
Latches implement memory part in asynchronous sequential circuits Flipflops do the same for synchronous circuits. FF has clock input and changes state synchronously with clock. Four common types of flipflops:
– SR – D – JK – T
Page 228
SR flipflop
S CLK R
Q
S CLK
Q
S CLK
Q
Q
R
Q
R
Q
Positive edgetriggered
Negative edgetriggered
Pulsetriggered (MasterSlave)
The triangle called dynamic indicator, indicates that the device responds only to an input clock transition from LOW (0) to HIGH (1) => Positive edgetriggered Appending a small circle to the CLK input indicates that the flipflop responds only to an input clock transition from HIGH (1) to LOW (0) => Negative edgetriggered
Page 229
SR flipflop
S CLK R
Q
The information is entered on the leading edge of the clock pulse, but the flipflop does change state (the output is postponed) until the trailing edge of the clock pulse.
Q’
Pulsetriggered (MasterSlave)
Difference between Latch and Flipflop?
Page 230
• The flipflop can not change state except on the triggering edge of clock pulse => synchronous • Present and next states in a latch are separated In time by gate delays, they are separated by clock periods in a flipflop.
SR flipflop
Current state
S 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 R Q 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q(t+1) 0 1 0 0 1 1 
Next state
Q Q(t+1) S 0 0 1 1 R 0 1 0 1 Q(t+1) Q(t) 0 1 Indeterminate 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 S 0 1 0 R 0 1 0
Reduced characteristic table Indeterminate
Excitation table
Characteristic table
(S=1 231R=1) is inhibited & Page
Q(t+1) = R’Q(t) + S
Implementation of SRFF
S CL R Implementation of SRFF by SRLatch S CL R
Page 232
Q Q
S Q SRlatch R Q
Q Q
SR flipflop
Timing chart
S
S CLK R Q Q
R CL Q Q
Page 233
D flipflop
D CLK
Q
D
S CLK R
Q
CLK
Q’
Q
Positive edgetriggered D flipflop
Implementation using SR flipflop
D flipflop is useful for storing a single bit
Page 234
D flipflop
Current state
D 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 Q(t+1) 0 0 1 1
Next state
Q Q(t+1) 0 D 0 1 Q(t+1) 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
D 0 1 0 1
Characteristic table Reduced characteristic table
Excitation table
Q(t+1) = D
Page 235
JK flipflop
J CLK K
Q
S CLK
Q
Q’
R
Q
Positive edgetriggered JK flipflop
Implementation using SR flipflop
JK = 00 => Q* = Q JK = 01 => Q* = 0 JK = 10 => Q* = 1 JK = 11 => Q* = not(Q)
Page 236
REMEMBER RESET SET INVERT
JK flipflop
Current state
J 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 K Q 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q(t+1) 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
Next state
Q Q(t+1) J 0 0 1 1 K 0 1 0 1 Q(t+1) Q(t) 0 1 [Q(t)]’ 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 J K
0 1 
1 0
Reduced characteristic table
Excitation table
Characteristic table
Page 237
Q(t+1) = K’Q + JQ’
MasterSlave flipflop
A pulsetriggered flipflop is a bistable device
– states depend on the values of synchronous inputs at the leading edge of the clock pulse – those states does not change until the trailling edge of the clock pulse.
Page 238
MasterSlave flipflop
S C R
Master
S E R Q’ Q
Slave
S E R Q’ Q
Q Q’
Master latch works when C=1 Slave latch works when C=0
A pulsetriggered flipflop consists of two latches, where one acts as a master and the other acts as a slave => Masterslave flipflop
Page 239
EdgeTriggered flipflop
A edgetriggered flipflop is a bistable device whose state depends on the synchronous inputs either at the positive edge or at the negative edge of a clock pulse.
Page 240
EdgeTriggered flipflop
Y1
Q CLK Q
Y2
D Positive edgetriggered D flipflop
Page 241
EdgeTriggered flipflop
J Q CLK Q K Positive edgetriggered JK flipflop
Page 242
FlipFlop conversions
Each FF can mutually converted How to implement yFF by using xFF (1) Prepare expanded state table of yFF (2) Prepare excitation table of xFF (3) Combine (1) and (2) (4) Calculate logic function for each input of xff
combinatorial circuit
input of yFF
a Q xFF CL b Q
Q Q
Page 243
CL
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement TFF using SRFF
SRFF S 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Page 244
TFF Q+ 0 1 0 0 1 1 T Q 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Q+ 0 1 1 0
R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Expanded state table shows the state transition by the input
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement TFF using SRFF
expanded state table excitation table
SRFF
S 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Page 245
R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Q+ 0 1 0 0 1 1 
state input Q Q+ S R 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Excitation table shows the input value corresponding to the state transition
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement TFF using SRFF
TFF T Q 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Q+ 0 1 1 0
excitation table state input Q Q+ T 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0
Page 246
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement TFF using SRFF
expanded state table of TFF T Q 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Q+ 0 1 1 0
excitation table of SRFF
state input Q Q+ S R 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Page 247 1 1 0
T 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1
Q+ S R 0 0 1  0 1 1 0 0 0 1
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement TFF using SRFF T 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 Q+ S R 0 0 1  0 1 1 0 0 0 1 Q 0 1 0  0 0 1 1 T Q 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
T
Karnaugh Map of R
S Q T Q Q
Karnaugh Map of S
R=TQ
S=TQ
CL
R Q
Calculate logic function for FF input
Page 248
CL
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement D flipflop using JK FF
Q+ D Q 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 expanded state table of DFF excitation table of JKFF
state input Q Q+ J K 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0  1 Page 249 1 1  0
D 0 0 1 1
Q 0 1 0 1
Q+ J K 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  0
FlipFlop conversions
Example: Implement D flipflop using JK FF D 0 0 1 1 Q 0 1 0 1 Q+ J K 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  0 Q 0 1 0 0 1 1 D Q 0 1 0  1  0 1
D
Karnaugh Map of J
J Q D
Page 250
Karnaugh Map of K
Q Q
J=D
K=D
CL
CL K Q
4. Sequential Systems
4.1 Definitions 4.2 State Tables and Diagrams 4.3 Latches and Flip Flops 4.4 Analysis of Sequential Systems 4.5 Design of Sequential Systems 4.6 Solving Larger Sequential Problems
Page 251
Flip flop excitation equation
Flip Flop excitation equation express each synchronous input of each flipflop as a function of the present state and the inputs of the circuit. These Boolean functions are derived directly from the combinational part of the circuit.
Page 252
Analysis procedure of sequential circuits
S1. Find excitation equations, and output equations. S2. Establish state table. S3. Establish state diagram.
Page 253
Example1: A D flipflop Moore model circuit
x
D1
~ 1PR 1D 1Q
q1
D2
~ 1PR 1D 1Q
q2 z
1CLK
~ 1Q
1CLK
~ 1Q
~ 1CLR
~ 1CLR
Cl ock
Excitation equations:
– D1 = q1q2’ + xq1’ – D2 = xq1
Output equations:
Page 254
Since output is only a function of state z=q2’, and not directly of input, this is Moore model
– z = q2’
Example1: A D flipflop Moore model circuit
q1* = d1 = q1q2’ + xq1’ q2* = d2 = xq1
State table
0
00 1
q1q2 00 01 10 11
Page 255
q1*q2* x=0 00 00 10 00 x=1 10 10 11 01
z
0
1 0
10 1
1 0 1 0
01 0
1
1
11 0
0
1
State diagram
Example2: A JK flipflop Moore model circuit
z
x
~ 1PR 1J 1CLK 1K ~ 1Q ~ 1CLR 1Q
A
~ 1PR 1J 1CLK 1K ~ 1Q ~ 1CLR 1Q
B
Cl ock
Excitation equations:
– JA = x KA = xB’ – JB = KB = x + A’
Output equations:
Page 256
Since output is only a function of state z=A+B, and not directly of input, this is Moore model
– z=A+B
Example2: A JK flipflop Moore model circuit
A* = A’JA + AKA= A’x+AxB’ B* = B’JB + BKB = B’(x+A’) + B(x+A’)’ State table
0 0
00 0
AB 00 01 10 11
Page 257
A*B* x=0 01 00 10 11 x=1 11 10 01 10
1
z
01 1
11 1
0
0 1 1 1
1
1
1
10 1
0
State diagram
Example2: A JK flipflop Moore model circuit
Page 258
Example3: A D flipflop Mealy model circuit
x
z
~ 1PR 1D 1Q
q1
~ 1PR 1D 1Q
q2
1CLK
~ 1Q
1CLK
~ 1Q
~ 1CLR
~ 1CLR
Cl ock
Excitation equations:
– d1 = xq1 + xq2 – d2 = xq1’q2’
Output equations:
Page 259
Since output is a function of both present input and state z=xq1, this is Mealy model
– z = xq1
Example3: A D flipflop Mealy model circuit
0/0
q1* = d1 = xq1 + xq2 q2* = d2 = xq1’q2’
1/0
0/0
00 11
q 00 01 10 11
Page 260
q*
z
01
0/0 0/0 1/1
x=0 x=1 x=0 x=1
10
00 00 00 00
01 10 10 10
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 Notice that: 1
1/0 1/1
1. State 11 is never reached, this example really only has 3 states. 2. Whenever there is a 0 input, we return to state 00.
Example3: A D flipflop Mealy model circuit
Mealy timing trace: x q1 q2 0 ? ? 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
z
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
Page 261
Example3: A D flipflop Mealy model circuit
Page 262
4. Sequential Systems
4.1 Definitions 4.2 State Tables and Diagrams 4.3 Latches and Flip Flops 4.4 Analysis of Sequential Systems 4.5 Design of Sequential Systems 4.6 Solving Larger Sequential Problems
Page 263
Design Procedure for Sequential Systems
S1. From a word description, determine what needs to be stored in memory, that is, what are the possible states. S2. If necessary, code the inputs and outputs in binary. S3. Derive a state table or state diagram to describe the behavior of the system. S4. Use state reduction techniques to find a state table that produces the same input/output behavior, but has fewer states. S5. Choose a state assignment, that is, code the states in binary. S6. Choose a flip flop type and derive the flip flop input maps or tables. S7. Produce the logic equation and draw a block diagram.
Page 264
Example1: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
Design a synchronous sequential circuit using JK flipflop. The circuit has one input x, one output y. Output is 1 when receiving a string 0101 in input, otherwhile y=0.
Use Mealy model
x=0101011..
System
y=0001010..
A: wait for first 0 B: had 0, wait for 1 C: had 01, wait for 0 D: had 010, wait for 1
1/0 0/0
0/0 0/0
0/0
A
B 1/0
C
D 1/1
1/0
Page 265
Example1: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
Use two state variables q1q2 to encode states in binary
q10
1
q2
x0 S A B C D B,0 B,0 D,0 B,0
1
A,0 C,0 A,0 C,1
0 1
A B
C D
q1q2
x0 00 01 10 11 01,0 01,0 11,0 01,0
Q1Q2
1
00,0 10,0 00,0 10,1
Q1Q2
State table
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State table after assignment
Example1: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
x0
q1 q2
1
01,0 01,0 01,0 11,0 00,0 10,0 10,1 00,0
q 0
q* J 0 1 0 1 0 1 
K 1 0 x 0
J 1 K1 J2K2
00 01 11 10
0 1 1
Application table
q1q2
1 J1K1 010 1
J 2 K2
q1*q2*
00 01 11 10
001 0
10 0 1
01 1 0
Excitation table
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Example1: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
Minimization for J1
x q1q2 00 01 11 10 0 0 0 1
q1q2 J1K1
x 0
J2K2 J1K1
1 J2 K2 01 1 0
00
0 1 
001 0
10 0 1
010 1
01 11 10
Excitation equations:
J1 = xq2
J2 = x
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K2 = x
K 1 = xq 2 + q 2 x
Output equation:
y = xq1q2
Ex 1: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
x
1
J2 CLK K2
q2
&
&
J1 q1
y
CLK q2
=1
K1
q1
CLOCK
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Ex 2: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
Design a synchronous sequential circuit using JK flipflop. The circuit has one input x, one output y. Output is 1 when receiving a string 0111 in input, otherwhile y=0.
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Ex 3: Design sync sequential circuit using JK
Design a synchronous up/down counter using JK with one input x. If x=0 the circuit counts up from 0 to 3 and repeat, if x=1 the circuit counts down from 3 downto 0 and repeat.
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Design Procedure for Sequential Systems
S1. From a word description, determine what needs to be stored in memory, that is, what are the possible states. S2. If necessary, code the inputs and outputs in binary. S3. Derive a state table or state diagram to describe the behavior of the system. S4. Use state reduction techniques to find a state table that produces the same input/output behavior, but has fewer states. S5. Choose a state assignment, that is, code the states in binary. S6. Choose a flip flop type and derive the flip flop input maps or tables. S7. Produce the logic equation and draw a block diagram.
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S4. State reduction
State transition diagram may include redundancy. State reduction technique aims to simplify sequential circuit by reducing redundancy of the state transition diagram. Equivalence:
– two states are equivalent if output sequences are the same when the same input sequence is given
Method 1: Procedure to get equivalent states Method 2: Reduction of incompletely specified state table
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State reduction
Examples:
0/0 B 0/0 0/0 D 1/1
A 1/0 C 1/1 0/0 1/0 1/0 F E 0/0 0/0 0/0 D B 1/1 1/1 0/0 1/0 AF 1/0 E 0/0 C
0/0 1/0
0/0 1/0
unify A and F
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A and F have the same output and transition state for the same input
State reduction
Examples:
B 0/0 0/0 D 1/1 1/1
C 0/0 1/0 AF 1/0 E 0/0
B 0/0
0/0 1/1 1/0
C 0/0 1/1 DE 0/0
0/0 1/0
AF
1/0
unify D and E
D and E have the same output and transition state for the same input
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State reduction
Examples:
B 0/0
0/0 1/1 1/0
C 0/0 1/1 DE 0/0 0/0 1/0 AF
BC 0/0 1/1 DE 0/0
AF
1/0
1/0
unify B and C
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State reduction
current state A B C D E F
next state 0 B D E D E B 1 C E D F F C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
output 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 output 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
current state AF B C D E
next state 0 1 B C D E E D D AF E AF
output 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
current next state state 0 1 AF BC BC BC DE DE DE DE AF
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current next state state 0 1 AF B C B DE DE C DE DE DE DE AF
output 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
State reduction
Method 1: Procedure to get equivalent states
– (1) Find multiple states that have the same output with the same input, and treat them as a set of state S1 (s1,s2,…) – (2) Rewrite state transition table by using the set of state. – (3) If the next state of the member of the set are different,the set includes nonequivalent state. Then divide the nonequivalent set and iterate (2)
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Example of method 1 (1/4)
Reduce the state of the state transition diagram
0/0
1/0
a
1/0 0/0
b
1/0 1/1
f
0/1 0/1
c
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0/1 1/1
e
1/1 0/1
current state a b c d e f
0 a d a f d e
next state 1 b c b e c a
output 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
d
Example of method 1 (2/4)
current state a b c d e f next state 1 b c b e c a output 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 (b,e) and d are not equivakent hence, divide S2 into S2 and S4 S1 S2 S4 S3 a : S1,S2 equivalent c : S1,S2 b : S4,S1 equivalent e : S4,S1 d : S3,S2 f : S2,S1
0 a d a f d e
(1) Find a set of state with the same output S1 (a,c) S2 (b,d,e) S3 (f)
(2) Rewrite next state by using set of state S1 S2 S3 a : S1,S2 c : S1,S2 b : S2,S1 d : S3,S2 e : S2,S1 f : S2,S1
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Example of method 1 (3/4)
(2) Rewrite state transition table
current state a b c d e f next state 0 1 a b d c a b f e d c e a output 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
S1 S2 S4 S3
a : S1,S2 c : S1,S2 b : S4,S1 e : S4,S1 d : S3,S2 f : S2,S1
current state S1 S2 S4 Page 281 S3
next state 0 1 S1 S2 S4 S1 S3 S2 S2 S1
output 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
Example of method 1 (4/4)
Generate state transition diagram
0/0
1/0
a
1/0 0/0
current state S1 S2 S4 S3
next state 0 1 S1 S2 S4 S1 S3 S2 S2 S1
output 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
0/0
b
1/1
f
0/1 0/1 1/1 1/0
c
0/1 1/1
1
0/1
1/0
e
1/1 0/1
2
1/1
3
0/1
d
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0/1
4
State reduction
Method 2: Reduction of incompletely specified state table
Incompletely specified: don’t care appears in the next state and output – 1: Find non compatible pairs – 2: Find compatible set that doesn’t involve non compatible pairs – 3: Obtain maximum compatible set – 4: Calculate minimum closed set – 5: Generate reduced state transition table
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compatible pair: for every input, output are the same
Example of method 2 (1/5)
Implication table
current state a b c d e f next state output input X1X0 input X1X0
00 01 10 11 00 01 10 11
d e a a d
e b b c
b e f 
a e d e
0 1 1
1 0 
0 0 0 1
0 0 0
b de c × ae d be × de ad e be ae ○ ef bf f × de × × ad ae bc a b c d e 1:fill in × at incompatible pair 2: fill in conditions to be compatible
a set of not compatible pairs (a,c) (a,f) (b,d) (c,f) (d,f)
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Example of method 2 (2/5)
Decompose state set by non compatible pairs (a,c) (a,f) (b,d) (c,f) (d,f) (a,b,c,d,e,f) (a,c) (a,b,d,e,f) (a,f) (a,b,d,e) (b,d) (b,d,e,f) (b,d) (b,c,d,e,f) (b,d) (b,c,e,f) (c,d,e,f)
(c,f) (c,f) (a,b,e) (a,d,e) (b,e,f) (d,e,f) (b,c,e) (b,e,f) (c,d,e) (d,e,f) (d,f) remove duplicated node remove pair involved to (d,e) (e,f) other node
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Maximum compatible set is (a,b,e),(a,d,e),(b,e,f),(b,c,e),(c,d,e)
Example of method 2 (3/5)
Maximum compatible set C1:(a,b,e) C2:(a,d,e) C3:(b,e,f) C4:(b,c,e) C5:(c,d,e)
Logic function to represent each set involved a: C1+C2 b: C1+C3+C4 c: C4+C5 d: C2+C5 e: C1+C2+C4+C5 f: C3
Minimum closed set is a subset of maximum compatible set that involves all the state axbxcxdxexf = 1 (C1+C2)(C1+C3+C4)(C4+C5)(C2+C5)(C1+C2+C4+C5)C3 =(C1+C2C3+C2C4)(C2C4+C5) (C1+C2+C4+C5)C3 =(C1C5+C2C3C5+C2C4) (C1+C2+C4+C5)C3 =(C1C5+C2C3C5+C2C4)C3 =C1C3C5+C2C3C5+C2C3C4
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hence (C1,C3,C5),(C2,C3,C5),(C2,C3,C4) are candidates for minimum closed set
Example of method 2 (4/5)
C1:(a,b,e) C2:(a,d,e) C3:(b,e,f) C4:(b,c,e) C5:(c,d,e)
candidate for minimum closed set: (C1,C3,C5),(C2,C3,C5),(C2,C3,C4) check state transition of each candidate by using Implication table C1→(d,e)(a,d),(b,e),(b,f),(a,e) →(a,d,e)(b,e,f) →C1,C3 C2 →(b,e),(a,d),(b,e),(b,f),(e,f) →(b,e,f)(a,d) →C3,C2 C3→(a,e),(d,e),(a,d),(b,c) →(a,d,e)(b,c) →C2,C4 C4→(a,e) →(C1C2) C5→(d,e),(e,f) →(C2C5),C3 C2,C3,C4 is closed
Implication table b de c × ae d be × de ad e be ae ○ ef bf f × de × × ad ae bc Page 287 a b c d e
Example of method 2 (5/5)
C2:(a,d,e),C3:(b,e,f),C4:(b,c,e) are used current state a b c d e f next state output input X1X0 inputX1X0
00 01 10 11 00 01 10 11
current state C2 C3 C4
next state input X1X0
00 01 10 11
output input X1X0
00 01 10 11
d e a a d
e b b c
b e f 
a e d e
0 1 1
1 0 
0 0 0 1
0 0 0
C2 C3 C3 C2 0 0 0 0 C2 C4 C3 C2 1 1 1 0 C2 C4 C3 C2 1 1 0 0
Reduced State Transition Table
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Design Procedure for Sequential Systems
S1. From a word description, determine what needs to be stored in memory, that is, what are the possible states. S2. If necessary, code the inputs and outputs in binary. S3. Derive a state table or state diagram to describe the behavior of the system. S4. Use state reduction techniques to find a state table that produces the same input/output behavior, but has fewer states. S5. Choose a state assignment, that is, code the states in binary. S6. Choose a flip flop type and derive the flip flop input maps or tables. S7. Produce the logic equation and draw a block diagram.
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State assignment
State assignment is to encode the state table into binary notation, the result is a transition table that combines nextstate table and the output table. Better state allocation results in an easy logic function for input of FF. SP (Substitution Property): indicator for good state allocation. C C1 a b c d a b c d divide state into blocks so that the next state of the same block exists in the same block C2 state is allocated to distinguish blocks of SP
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State assignment
current state q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 current state u 1u2 u 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 next state input X 0 q2 q3 q1 q5 q6 q4
1 q4 q6 q5 q2 q1 q3
block 1 (q1,q2,q3) block 2 (q4,q5,q6) This partition is SP The first bit is used to distinguish the blocks.
0 u u u 3+ 1+2+ 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
next state input X
1 u u2+ 3+ 1+ u 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
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Chapter 5. Hardware Design Languages
Page 292
Problems
Problem 1: Design a synchronous up/down counter using JK with one input x. If x=0 the circuit counts up from 0 to 3 and repeat, if x=1 the circuit counts down from 3 downto 0 and repeat. Problem 2: Design a synchronous counter using JK with one input x. The circuit counts from 0 to 13 then repeat. Problem 3:
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Problems for sequential circuit design
Textbook: Chapter 6: 6.5
– 7a,b,c,d, – 8a,b,c,d – 9a,b,c,d
Chapter 7: 7.6
– 4,5,6,8,9,11,13,15
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