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utopias and heterotopias.

The latter are probably in every culture,

in every civilisation. Like utopias these sites relate to other sites by both representing and at
the same time inverting them; unlike utopias, however, they are localised and real. In some
ways they are like utopias that are practised or enacted. Foucault also spends some time
discussing what he describes as the intermediate example of the mirror. The thoroughly
disruptive experience of the mirror produces a placeless place.

Foucault also spends some time

discussing what he describes as the intermediate example of the mirror. The thoroughly
disruptive experience of the mirror produces a placeless place. The link with heterotopia
concerns the ability to be both different and the same, both unreal and real:
the mirror functions as a heterotopia in the sense that it makes this place I occupy at
the moment I look at myself in the glass both utterly real, connected with the entire
space surrounding it, and utterly unreal...

Heterotopias of crisis and deviance

Its first principle is that there is probably

not a single culture in the world that is not made up of heterotopias.

"In so- called primitive societies, there is a certain kind of heterotopia which I would describe as that of
crisis; it comprises privileged or sacred or forbidden places that are reserved for the individual who finds himself in
a state of crisis with respect to the society or the environment in which he lives: adolescents, women during the menstrual
period or in labour, the old, etc."

"heterotopias of deviance, occupied by
individuals whose behaviour deviates from the current average or standard."

"old-people's homes, in a way on the border

between the heterotopia of crisis and that of deviance. This is because in a society
like our own, where pleasure is the rule, the inactivity of old age constitutes not only
a crisis but a deviation."

2.Mutate and have specific operations at

different points in history

"A society may take an existing heterotopia, which has never vanished, and make it
function in a very different way"

3.Juxtapose in a single space several

incompatible spatial elements

A garden is a heterotopia because it is a real space meant to be a microcosm of different environments with plants from
around the world.

4.Encapsulate temporal discontinuity or

accumulation-Heterotopia of time

"The idea of accumulating

everything. on the contrary, of creating a sort of universal archive, the desire to
enclose all times, all eras, forms, and styles within a single place, the concept of
making all times into one place, and yet a place that is outside time, inaccessible to
the wear and tear of the years, according to a plan of almost perpetual and unlimited
accumulation within an irremovable place, all this belongs entirely to our modern

To this class belong the fairs, those

marvelous empty zones outside the city limits, that fill up twice a year with booths,
showcases, miscellaneous objects, wrestlers, snake- women, optimistic fortunetellers,
etc. Very recently, a new form of chronic heterotopia has been invented, that
of the holiday village: a sort of Polynesian village which offers three short weeks of primitive and eternal nudity to city

Presuppose an ambivalent system of

rituals related to opening/closing and
entry/ exit

one is
forced, as in the case of the barracks or the prison, or one must submit to rites of
purification. One can only enter by special permission and after one has completed a
certain number of gestures.

'Heterotopias of ritual or purification' are spaces that are isolated and penetrable yet not freely accessible like a public
place. To get in one must have permission and make certain gestures such as in a sauna or a hammin.

American 'motel' room,

which one enters with one's own vehicle and lover and where illicit sex is totally
protected and totally concealed at one and the same time, set apart and yet not
under an open sky.

6.Function in relation to the remaining

space, for example, as illusion or

"On the one hand they perform the task of creating a space of illusion that reveals how all of
real space is more illusory, all the locations within which life is fragmented. On the
other, they have the function of forming another space, another real space, as
perfect, meticulous, and well-arranged as ours is disordered, ill-conceived, and in a
sketchy state."