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SITE INTRODUCTION

By yap chein wee

THE SITE THAT WE RESEARCH ON IS LOCATED AT THE CITY CENTRE OF BANTING .THE SITE IS CONNECTED WITH THE KLANG
BANTING HIGHWAY THAT PASS THROUGH MAJOR INTERSECTION OF JALAN BANTING-SEMENYIH .

THE
1.
2.
3.
4.

ROADS SURROUNDING THE SITE


NORTH-JALAN BUNGA PEKAM
SOUTH-JALAN SUASA
EAST-JALAN BUNGA PEKAN 9
WEST-JALAN GANGSA

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

STATE
DISTRICT
CITY
NO.LOT
AREA
TYPE OF BUILDING
COMPANY

-SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN


-KUALA LANGAT
-BANTING
-PT 791, SEKSYEN 3
-21632 METER SQUARE
-SHOPLOTS
-EHSAN ISTIMEWA SDN.BHD.

DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SITE AND OTHER MAJOR DEVELOP CITY

30KM
25KM
35KM
60KM

AWAY
AWAY
AWAY
AWAY

FROM
FROM
FROM
FROM

KLIA (KULA LUMPUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT)


PUTRAJAYA
SHAH ALAM
KUALA LUMPUR

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Building Construction Project 1

Index page
Introduction to site
topic 1 : site plan and site safety
Topic 2 : Earthwork
topic 3 : foundation
topic 4 : beams and column
topic 5 : floor system
topic 6 : wall system
topic 7 : staircase
topic 8 : door and window
topic 9 : roof system

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1.0 Site plan

By chua jiu xin

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Site safety

By Chua jiu xin

1.0 site plan


1.1 Introduction to site safety
Construction sites contain many risks that faced by both of the construction workers and the general
public. A construction site is legally required to follow the regulations and guidelines set by the
department of occupational safety and Health and other government agencies to ensure the safety of
the workers and public. These guidelines apply to all work areas with building operations activities in
Malaysia according to the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514), the Factories and
Machinery Act 1967 (Act 199) and all other relevant regulations.

1.2 SIGNAGE
The guideline dictates that every owner, developer, main contractor and such contractor must take
steps to develop and promote safety and health programs to ensure the safety and health of both his
employees and the general public. Safety signs are commonly found around construction sites
containing information, often symbols relevant to site safety. Figure 1 shows symbols that explain
without the use of much words of what the workers and public should and should not do around the
construction site. The use of simple universal symbols is effective because in some cases the
construction workers or the public might be illiterate or might not be familiar with the language used
on signs.

1.3 hoarding
Hoarding is a prerequisite for a construction site because it is legally required to protect the
general public from the risks associated with construction sites. Hoarding is temporary fencing
which is laid out around the site, defining its borders. Aside from safety, hoarding is also used for
security purposes, preventing trespassing and theft in the construction site. The construction site
uses metal hoarding. Metal hoarding usually uses corrugated metal sheets as temporary fencing
material. Figure 2 marks the borders of the construction site where boarding is used.

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2.0 Earthwork Introduction

By tsang hao ren

Definition
Excavationandpilingofearth inconnectionwithanengineering operation.
It involves movingpart of the earth to another location to create a
desired shape.

Machinery used:
Much of the excavation is done with operated machines to ease work,
cost and also saves time. These equipment includes:-

Equipments

Function

Wheel Loader

Scoop up lose materials from the ground from one point to another without pushing the
materials across the ground

Back Hoes

Dig up hard materials and trenches

Scrapers

Machine to move earth over short distance (smoothen)

Excavators

Digging, demolition, forestry work, grading, landscaping, heavy lifting and brush cutting

Motor Grader

Finish grade the rought grading created by heavy vehivles (Created flat surface)

Rollers

Use to compact the soil after grading

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Earthwork Machinery

Fork Lifter lifting bags of


Cement

Using normal Truck to


Send scaffold

By tsang hao ren

Crane being used to lift materials

Backhoe excavating land for


foundation

Concrete mixer mixing cement

Using backhoe loader to


Transport steel bar

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Earthwork Excavation

By tsang hao ren

Types of Excavation
There are different types of excavation and it is classified by the type of materials

Type of Excavation

Description

Topsoil excavation

Removal of the exposed layer of the earths surface, including vegetation. Contains
more moisture than that underneath.

Earth excavation

removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. Used to
construct embankments and foundations

Rock excavation

removal of a formation that cannot be excavated without drilling and blasting. Any
boulder larger than 12 yd3 generally is classified as rock.

Muck excavation

removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil.
Removal of water can be accomplished by spreading muck over a large area and
letting it dry, by changing soil characteristics, or by stabilizing muck with some other
material, thereby reducing the water content.

Unclassified excavation

removal of any combination of topsoil, earth, rock, and muck. earthmoving must be
done without regard to the materials encountered. Much excavation is performed on
an unclassified basis because of the difficulty of distinguishing, legally or practically,
between earth, muck, and rock.

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Earthwork Soil Testing

By tsang hao ren

Introduction
The investigation of the geology and previous uses of any site,
together with the determination of its engineering,
environmental and contamination characteristics is fundamental
to both safe and economic development.

Soil Investigation Techniquesthat are employed for the


project are as followed :
1. Boreholes 2. In-situ testing
1. Boreholes
Rotary Boring is
boring hole using
drilling fluid (water
or mud) pumped
down a rod fitted at
the bottom some
sort of cutting bit.

2. In-situ Testing
In-situ testing techniques, Standard Penetration Testing,
Permeability Testing and Borehole Vane Testing are carried out
in the boreholes in order to provide information for
geotechnical design. Disturbed and undisturbed samples are
retrieved from the boreholes for inspection and logging by
engineers and subsequent testing in our laboratories.
Standard Penetration test (SPT)
Hammer weight = 65kg
- Drop height = 760mm
- Total penetration is 450mm and the
number of blows for the last 300mm is
the SPT N value.
Care
- depth of test vs casing L
*site supervision

Laboratory Test
Triaxial test
a common method to measure the mechanical properties of
many deformable solids, especiallysoil(e.g.sand,clay)
androck, and othergranular materialsor powders.
Unconfined compression
The objective of the unconfined compression
test is to
determine the UU (unconsolidated, undrained) strength of a
cohesive soil in an inexpensive manner.

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Earthwork Cut and Fill


Cut and fill
the process of constructing railway,roador
canalwhereby the amount of material fromcuts
roughly
matches the amount of fill needed to make
nearbyembankments, so minimizing the amount
of construction labor.
Various sections of a roadway design will require
bringing in earth. Other sections will require earth
to be removed.

By tsang hao ren

THE MASS DIAGRAM


The mass diagram is one method of analyzing
earthmoving operations. This diagram can tell the
engineer where to
use certain types of equipment, the quantities of
materials needed and the average haul distances
etc.

The mass diagram has many limitations that preclude its use in all
earthmoving operations. At best, it is merely a
guide indicating the general manner in which the operations
should be controlled.

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3.0 Foundation

By Yap kar juen

DEEP foundation
Deep foundations extend down through unsuitable or unstable soil to transfer building loads
to a more appropriate bearing stratum. The two principal types of deep foundations are pile
foundations and caisson foundations.
This is usually at depths more than 3 meters below the finished ground level.. If unsuitable
soils are found at the surface, Deep foundations can be used to transfer the loading to a
deeper, more competent strata at depth.

Piles
A SLENDER TIMBER, CONCRETE
OR STEEL STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT, DRIVEN, JETTED, OR
OTHERWISE EMBEDDED ON END
IN THE GROUND FOR THE
PURPOSE OF SUPPORTING A
LOAD.

caissons
Caissons are a form of deep
foundation which are constructed
above ground level.. A DRILLED,
CYLINDRICAL FOUNDATION
SHAFT USED TO TRANSFER
LOAD THROUGH SOFT STRATA
TO FIRM STRATA. tHE SHAFT
CAN BE FILLED WITH EITHER
REINFORCED OR
UNREINFORCED CONCRETE

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Foundation

By Yap kar juen

Pile cap foundation on site

Pile Cap foundations allows any type of structure to be


supported by layers of soil. When the upper layers of the ground
are too soft, Pile Cap Foundation is used to provide proper support
to the weight of the building. These piles will penetrate these
'soft' layers into the stronger layers beneath..

COLUMN

PILE CAP
At our site, deep foundation is applied. The building loads are
transferred to a better bearing stratum of rock or dense sands
and gravels below superstructure.

4-pile cap plan drawing

PILE

Example of a 4-pile cap

Photo of a 4-pile cap taken on


site

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Foundation
Pile cap structure
A pile foundation is a system of endbearing or friction piles, pile caps and
also tie beams for transferring the
building loads to a more suitable
bearing stratum

The reinforced concrete


pile cap joins the heads of
a cluster of piles so that
the load can be distributed
from a column or grade
beam equally among the
piles.

By Yap kar juen

Column load

Piles are usually driven in


clusters of two or more

Piles are driven into earth


by pile driver, precast
concrete piles can be
round, square, or polygonal
cross sections or even an
open core. Precast piles are
always often prestressed.

Friction piles is used in our site. It


depends on the frictional
resistance of a surrounding earth
mass for support. The stiffness
increases when the the depth
increases

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Foundation

By Yap kar juen

concrete slab and bars in pile cap


Bars evenly distributed on the
bottom and top surfaces. No lacer
bars.

Bottom bars concentrated over the


piles, top bars under the column.
Two lacer bars.

superstructure

Reinforced concrete slab with one layer of


damp proof membrane to engrs detail..

R.C SLAB
A cONCRETE SLAB IS PLACED AT OR NEAR GRADE
LEVEL TO SERVE AS A COMBINED FLOOR AND
FOUNDATION SYSTEM. The sUITABILITY OF the SLAB
has to depend on the geographic location, topography,
superstructure design and soil characteristic of site.

Layout view

Layout view

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Foundation

By Yap kar juen

piling

1) THE VIBROFLOT IS
USED TO PENETRATE THE
LOOSE SOILS TO CREATE
BORE HOLE
Image above shows
a pilling machine

2) A cONCRETE PLUG IS
THEN FORMED AT THE
BASE OF THE BORE HOLE
TO SEAL CONTAMINANT
PATHWAYS

3) THE CONCRETE IS THEN


REPEATEDLY PENETRATED BY THE
VIBROFLOT TO COMPACT INTO
THE SURROUNDING SOILS AND
FORM AN ENLARGED TOE

drop hammer friction


piles
The drop hammer friction piles are at this site. is the most commonly used method of insertion of
displacement piles. A pile, which is long with a cross section of circle, square or octagon and is usually
made out of either cement, wood or steel. It is forced vertically to pass through the soil using a pile
driver.
The piles are grouped together and connected by a pile cap if the load is expected to be too large for
the foundation to take.

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Foundation

By Yap kar juen

Column footings
Footings are an important part of foundation construction. The footing is the
bottom part of the foundation. A footing is typically concrete and typically
reinforced with steel. The usage of footings is to support the foundation and also
prevent settling. Footings are very important in areas, which have troublesome
soils. Placement of footings is very important so that it can provide the proper
support for the foundation and ultimately the whole structure.

Reinforced concrete column


Vertical reinforcement

Lateral reinforcement
Critical section for
two-way shear
steel dowels anchor column to
footing

Two-way reinforcement uniformly


spaced

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4.0 Beam and Columns Introduction


Beams and Columns

By tsang hao ren

Structural System
Our site uses a structural system for its building.
By using in-situ concrete to create the structural
System of the building.

Beams
Abeamis ahorizontal structural
elementthat is capable of
withstandingloadprimarily by
resistingbending. The bending
force induced into the material of
the beam as a result of the
external loads, own
weight,spanand external
reactions to these loads is called
abending moment.

Columns
a Vertical structural element that
transmits, throughcompression, the
weight of the structure above to
other structural elements below.

Formwork
temporary or permanent molds
into which concretes are poured.
In the context of concrete
construction, the falsework
supports the shuttering moulds.

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Beam and Columns

Structural System

By tsang hao ren

After completing the footings of the structure, the next step is to create the structural
system of the building using beams and columns,

To create the columns,and


the beam they must
firstidentify its position
according to the construction
drawings and also their
foundations

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Beam and Columns

1. Post Foundation work

6. Create beam connected to column to


support the 2nd floor

Structural System

2. Creating Formwork in preparation


For cement

5. Balance the soil and creating Reinforced


concrete columns

By tsang hao ren

3. Poring Cement

into formwork

4. Let Concrete dry and remove formwork

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Beam and Columns


Beam Formwork

Formwork

Column Formwork

By tsang hao ren

A good formwork should satisfy the


following requirements:
1. It should be strong enough to withstand all
types of dead and live loads.
2. It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently
propped and braced both horizontally and
vertically, so as to retain its shape.
3. The joints in the formwork should be tight
against leakage of cement grout.
4. Construction of formwork should permit
removal of various parts in desired sequences
without damage to the concrete.
5. The material of the formwork should be cheap,
easily available and should be suitable for
reuse.
6. The formwork should be set accurately to the
desired line and levels should have plane
surface.
7. It should be as light as possible.
8. The material of the formwork should not warp
or get distorted when exposed to the elements.
9. t should rest on firm base.

A 3-sided box propped in the desired


measurements. The beam form side
have to retain the wet concrete and
able to withstand initial hydrostatic
presseure of the wet concrete

This consists of a vertical


mold of the desired shape
and measurements. There
will be bracing, stakes and
sole plate to help straighten
the formwork.

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5.0 Floor system

introduction

By cheah teck wei

A floor is a horizontal plane in a building that supports both living loads (people,
furniture/anything moveable) and dead loads (weight of the floor construction itself).
It acts as the lower enclosing surface of a room.
It transfers the load horizontally to the beam, column or load bearing wall...
floor system may composed of: series of linear beams and joist overlaid with a plane of sheathing
Homogeneous slab of reinforced concrete

Functional requirement of The floor:


1.Strength and Stability - able to withstand heavy weight of live and dead
loads, impact to the floor, without breaking/damaged.
2.Fire resistance - high fire insulation and not combustible.
3.Damp resistance - Moisture will take the floor damp, cool and
uncomfortable and may cause decay to the floor finish (I.e timber & carpet)
4.Sound insulation - thickness of floor affects amount of sound transmitted
to the lower/upper ground.
5.Thermal insulation - thickness/material of floor affects the thermal
insulation.

Type of floors
Mud floor
Brick floor
Tile floor
Flagstone floor
Concrete floor

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Floor system

in site

By cheah teck wei

Ground floor:
Reinforced concrete slab with one layer of damp-proof
membrane
Function:

Prevent green grows inside building by concrete.


Prevent damp from penetrating into the building by the use of
damp-proof membrane.

Reason:

Cheap and ease of construction


Flexibility in finishing available
High strength and durable

Non-suspended cast in-situ concrete


Section showing component of floor

Floor slab Concrete bed with reinforcement inside.


Screed
to provide smooth surface where floor finish can be applied
Dpm (damp proof membrane)
prevent moisture from entering the building.
Blinding
25-30mm thick weak mortar.
to produce a even surface for reinforcement and dpm.
hardcore
form a dry working surface
hard, durable, chemically inert
100-150mm thick

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Floor system

construction

By cheah teck wei

Ground floor construction process

Measure and set the area


for the floor to be
constructed

Pour the concrete mixture into


the formwork with brc wire
mesh.

Construct a formwork at the


measured place for the floor and
use sticks to secure the
formwork

Polish and smoothen the


concrete then cover with plastic
to prevent dust or excess water
affecting the drying process thus
affecting its appearance after
done.

Spacer block and brc wire mesh


is put inside the formwork to
provide reinforcement when
concrete is poured.

Remove the formwork when


concrete is dried out.

Mix the cement and water to


create concrete.

Apply tiles on the concrete to


produce a different finishes for
the floor..

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Floor system

in site

By cheah teck wei

Intermediate floor:
Reinforced concrete slab
Function:
Support their own weight, ceilings and superimposed loads.
providing lateral restraint to heights of external and internal walls.
Provides insulation to fire & sound
Divides one space to two
Act as ceiling to the lower floor
Space between floors and ceiling will accommodate the building
services features such as electrical, telephone wirings etc.

Two-way slab & beam

Const5ructed with four column with supporting beams connecting each of


them forming a square or nearly square bays.
Reinforcement is cast in two direction to the supporting beam and
column.
Effective to medium to heavy load.
High resistance to lateral force.

Mild steel main


reinforcement bars
Mild steel distribution bars
Most efficient when spanning square or nearly
square bays.

Tensile reinforcement

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Floor system

construction

By cheah teck wei

Intermediate floor construction process

Timber formwork is set up on the area for


the upper floor.

The structure is then done available for


floor finishes to be carried out.

Rebars are placed equally on the formwork


to provide reinforcement to the slab
structure, increasing its tensile strength..

Concrete mixture is then poured onto the


whole structure evenly then allowed to dry
out.

Timber formworks.

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6.0 WALL

introduction

By cheah teck wei

introduction

A wall is the vertical planes that defines the volume of mass and space in a
building with the combination of overhead plane and base plane.
Walls are placed in
Interior (wall/partitions)

Subdivides the space in the building


Can be structural or non-bearing
Provide required degree of acoustical separation
Accommodation of necessary electrical and mechanical services

Exterior wall

Able to withstand horizontal wind loading


Can serve as shear walls and transfer lateral wind and seismic forces to the ground foundation if
rigid enough
Act as protective shield against weather.
Insulation toward air, sound, damp, moisture and heat.
Able to support the weight of building or non bearing

a
a

wall can be a:
Load bearing wall-a wall that
bears some of the buildings
weight and its own weight.
Non-load bearing wall-bears
only its own weight.

Type of walls:

Concrete wall
Masonry wall
Dry wall
Glass wall
Curtain wall

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Wall

in site

By cheah teck wei

Masonry Walls
Characteristics

Durable, good sound insulation, fire insulation and thermal insulation.


Offers great flexibility in form and appearance
Can be either load bearing or non-load bearing
Easy and cheap construction
Made by solid cement sand brick (standard modular 3.5x2.5x7.5)

2.5
7.5
3.5

Standard dimension of brick

Type of brick bonds

Type of brick joints

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Wall

details

By cheah teck wei

Fire rated party wall


ENGLISH BOND

English Bond brickwork has alternate


courses of headers and stretchers in
which the headers are centered on
stretchers and the joints between
stretchers line up vertically in all
courses.

2134

Named 9-inches brick among the field.


Used on walls that separates each shop unit as it
provides better fire insulation with its extra
thickness.
Considered as the strongest bond among others
Non-load bearing wall
Solid wall

23
0

230mm thick fire rated party wall with


230mm high clay brick above roof with
19mm thick cement plaster on both side.

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Wall

details

By cheah teck wei

High brick wall


RUNNING/stretcher BOND

Used on walls that is located in a shop unit.


Not as thick as English bond thus providing lesser
fire insulation (thinnest type of bond)
acting mainly as space divider.
Non-load bearing wall
Solid wall.
Simplest and cheapest bond among other bonds.
Brick on upper level is placed at the joint of two
bottom bricks.

2134

11
5

115mm thick high brick wall with 19mm


thick cement plaster on both side.

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Wall

construction

By cheah teck wei

Masonry wall construction process

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Lay out the brick on a dry run to ensure the location


of wall is placed correctly.
Take out the bricks and apply a -inch thick mortar
bed on it.
Line up the brick and push it into the mortar leaving
creating a 3/8-inch joint between each bricks.
Check the bricks with a level and scrape off the
excess mortar that squeezes off from the joints.
The brickwork is started from each end toward the
middle. The last brick of a level is called the closure
brick. Trim the brick if it cant fit into the space.
Apply mortar on both ends of the brick and slowly
push to fit into the space.
Ensure the reinforced steel bars from the concrete
column are fitted in between the brick levels to
increase the tensile strength of the wall.
While the wall is complete, scrape off all the excess
mortar from the joints.

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Wall

example

By chua jiu xin

Concrete wall
Concrete wall is a wall built by pouring concrete mixtures into a model/formwork with
reinforcement bars then let dried forming a strong structure.
characteristic
Most built as load bearing wall due to its structural strength.
Various texture and appearance can be achieved by the use of
formwork, admixtures and additives.
Cheap and ease of construction.

Type
1.
2.
3.

of formworks
Timber formwork
Aluminium system formwork
Modular steel formwork

Three types of concrete wall construction


1. cast in-situ reinforced concrete (reinforced concrete) frame with rc infill
panel walls
2. cast in-situ shear wall
3. pre-cast concrete walls

Different texture of concrete wall

Timber formwork

Aluminium system
formwork

Modular steel
formwork

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7.0 STAIRCASE

introduction

By chua jiu xin

A Introduction
Staircase is a flight or series of flights of steps and a supporting structure connecting spaces
between one level to another. It changes the overall circulation of a building.
A

There are many types of staircase constructed in different way using different type of material.

Type of staircases

Staircase material:

Concrete staircase
Timber staircase
Glass staircase
Steel staircase

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STAIRCASE

in site

By cheah teck wei

Dimensions

4115

Riser = 160mm
Tread = 255 + 25mm
Nosing = 915mm high ms
handrail
Total step = 20

Half turning staircase


Turns 180-degrees through two right-angles at
intervening landings.

5487

Dimensions
Riser = 175.8mm
Tread = 255 + 25mm
Nosing = 915mm high ms
handrail
Total step = 26
8839

Straight staircase
A Straight staircase that extends from one level to
another without turns or winder.

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STAIRCASE

construction

By cheah teck wei

In situ cast concrete staircase construction process

A timber formwork is set up on


the proposed area for the
staircase.

Every pieces for each step is


placed properly to ensure
accurate positioning and
measurement..

Rebars were placed in the


timber formwork to provide
reinforcement for the structure
(resist tensile force and shear)

Concrete is poured into the


formwork and thus removed
after dried. .

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STAIRCASE

example 2

By chua jiu xin

Timber staircase

A timber staircase is a staircase constructed using timbers.


A Basically they share the same function but based on their materiality, they have different
texture, sensory, durability, maintenance methodology and etc.
A Hardwood is frequently used in constructing a timber staircase
A Every 3-6 months should be maintenance once to ensure the timber is in good condition as
timber is affected by the
Humidity, ambience of air, insect and etc.

Type of arrangement of staircase

Sr.
No.

Wooden Staircase

RCC Staircase

Wooden staircase is relatively weaker.

RCC staircase is relatively stronger.

Construction time is relatively less.

Cement setting takes at least 21 days. Hence


construction time is more.

Timber has a life. It becomes weak after


about 70 to 80 years

RCC hardens with age. The process of hardening


continues forever increasing its strength.

The appearance and the colour of the timber


can be attractive.

RCC staircase can be made attractive by cladding


and other decorations.

5
6
7
8

Timber staircases are light in weight

These are heavier in weight.

Timber is costlier than RCC.

RCC is cheaper than timber.

These are fire hazardous

These cannot catch fire.

These are sound and heat insulators.

Comparatively lesser insulators.

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the Wooden Staircase over the RCC staircase.

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8.0 doors

By lim ming chek

DOORS
Doors function as an entrance to a space and acts as a barrier that swings, slides or folds. Doors could be made of an assembly of timber, metal,
or composite materials. Doors play a very important role in influencing the circulation system.

Components of a door
head
jamb
stop

architrave

Door panel

wall

architrave
sill

Single door leaf

Main frame
Sub frame
nail

Section of door frame

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Building Construction Project 1

By lim ming chek

DOOR operation
Single leaf swinging door
- Only one door leaf used.
- Door leaf is hinged to the door frame.
- Operational space required.

DOOR details

Solid core door

A. Jambs can be attached to


the floor with powder-driven
fasteners.

b. Reinforcement of jamb at
hinge attachments

c. Loose sheet metal tees


are inserted into the frame
and built into mortar joints
to anchor jambs onto
masonry walls

The door also uses a double rabbet frame.

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Building Construction Project 1

By lim ming chek


DOORS PROCESS
Sub frame is installed prior to the main frame. This is done so that the main frame is less likely to shrink as it does not come in contact with the
masonry wall. The door frame is also not stained by paint or cement mortar. Floor finishes are also easier to be installed as it does not need to suit
the door frame profile.

Step 1 - The location of the door is measured and marked according to the
dimensions stated at the approved construction drawing. A few layers of brick
are then laid by its side.

Step 2 Frame of the door is then slotted into the measured space. The jamb of
the door is nailed into the masonry wall for support purposes and bricks are
continued to be laid.

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Building Construction Project 1

By lim ming chek

Step 3 A pre-cast concrete lintel with same width and length of the door is
bound with mortar and placed on top of the door head. The lintel is constructed
to prevent the door frame from excessive vertical force and affect its ease of
operation.

Cement mortar

Step 4 For timber door frame, the wall is plastered and the main frame is
installed. For aluminium door frame however, the space between the masonry
wall is filled with mortar before the wall is plastered.

Aluminium
frame

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Building Construction Project 1

By lim ming chek

Step 5 Shims are placed on the hinge side of the door and form a continuous
gap in between. The hinge is then nailed into the side door jamb.

Step 6 To ensure that the cracks and flaws in joining is hidden particularly for
timber door frame as the wood will season and shrink after some time thus
exposing cracks, the architrave is installed.

Advantages of Using Aluminium Frame


- Low maintenance frame.
- High resistance to corrosion.
- Strong and economical.
- Environmentally sustainable material.
- Easy to install due to its flexibility.

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Building Construction Project 1

By lim ming chek

Aluminium door frames.

Double rabbet door frames slotted into


measured space.

Wall completed with lintel seen for support.

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Building Construction Project 1

By lim ming chek

Roller shutters which consist of many horizontal slats hinged


together are also used as the main as well as the back entrance. It
is attached to a beam to support it. The door is raised to open and
lowered to close it.

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Building Construction Project 1

WINDOWS

By liau wen bin

INSTALLATION OF WINDOW

Step 1: Check the rough opening


Measure the width of the rough opening
at the top, middle, and bottom and the
height at both sides and in the middle.

STEP 5: place a fischer


through the hole

Step 2: Protect against water infiltrationCut a


strip of self-adhering waterproof membrane.
Center the membrane under the rough
opening and adhere it to the existing builder's
felt

STEP 3: check the


perpendicularity
between frame and wall

Step 6: Install Window

Step 4: drill a hole through


the existing hole from
the frame

STEP 7: Finish the wall with sealant or


mortar

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Building Construction Project 1

windows

By liau wen bin

Window is an opening in a wall or other structures that is operable in opening and closing mechanism. It is the connection between interior and
exterior space by allowing the passage of natural light, solar heat, air movement and also provide a view. Windows are undoubtedly important
in achieving quality of life and comfort in buildings.

TYPES OF WINDOWS
An awning window is hinged at the top and opens outward.The glass protects the
opening like an awning, enabling ventilation even dying rainy weather. It can be
placed high on the wall to let in both light and air. Generally, awning windows
are opened with a hand crank. Screens are on the inside of the window, where
they are more protected from the elements.

awning windows in side elevation (PART)

When open, the sash is able to direct


ventilation. The sashes may be stacked
vertically with sashes closing on each
other or on meeting sites.

Sash

Hinge SLIDE

Hinge TRACK
Hinged at the top and open outwardly
because the sash closes by pressing against
the frame. They generally have lower air
leakage rates than sliding windows.

JAMB

RETAINER CLIP

Hinge arm

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Building Construction Project 1

WINDOWS

By liau wen bin

OTHER TYPES OF WINDOWS

Fixed windows consist of a frame and stationary


sash.
When used in conjunction with operable window
units, the thickness of the fixed sash should
approximate the cross-sectional dimension of the
operating sashes,

Fixed windows

Jalousie windows have horizontal glass or wood


louvers that pivot simultaneously in a common
frame.
Jalousies are used primarily in mild climates to
control ventilation and to cut off visibility from
the outside

Jalousie windows

Completion of construction showing multiple


awning windows

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Building Construction Project 1

9.0 Roofing

system

By chew ung heng

Definition of roof
A roof is part of a building envelope that covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which include exterior surface and its
supporting structures. It must be able carry its own weight, additional attached equipment and accumulated rain. Furthermore, it must be
able to resist wind pressure

Basic function of roof

Able to resist the passage of moisture to the inside of building.


Able to withstand atmospheric pollution, frost and other harmful condition
To prevent the spread of fire over the roof and from one building to another.
Thermal insulation is required to reduce heat losses and prevent excessive solar heat gains in
hot weather.
Sound insulation is rarely an important consideration in roof design.

TYPE OF ROOF

Components of roof

There are different kind of roof (refer diagram2). The shape of roofs differs greatly from region to region and it affects the overall appearance of
a home. The main factor which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available and the outer covering, appearance and
aesthetics, maintenance and costing

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Building Construction Project 1

By chew ung heng


Introduction of Flat Roof
A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch and flat
roofs have up to approximately 10.Flat roofs are an ancient form mostly used in arid climates and allow the roof space to be used as a living
space or a living roof.

Introduction of Butterfly Roof


A roof shape which has two surfaces that rise from the centre to the eaves with a valley in the centre, resembles the wings of a
butterfly.

TYPE:
The shop lots use two kinds of roof which are Reinforced concrete flat roof and butterfly roof at the

flat roof

top of those shop lots

Butterfly roof

\flat roof

Reinforce
concrete Flat
roof

Butterfly Roof
Elevation

Roof plan

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Building Construction Project 1

By chew ung heng

TYPE OF FLAT ROOF


Most of the materials that used in the flat roof provide insufficient resistance to the transfer of heat to meet the requirement of the
building regulations. Therefore an insulating layer is needed. The position of the insulation will define the type of flat roof.

Warm Roof

Sandwich Roof
Inverted Roof

Cold roof
(ventilated roof)

Type of flat roof of shop lots in


banting

Membranes of flat roof


1.
2.
3.

BUR ( built up membrane )


Modified bitumen membrane
Single-Ply Membranes

Metal panel ( Galvanized steel panels )


Steel is defined as any alloy of iron with content of 2 percent and below. Steel is strong in both compression and tension. Galvanized steel is
kind of steel that is coated in zinc which can prevent rust. The process is achieved through hot dip galvanizing\Corrugated roofing panels span
between beams or purlins running across the slope. The roofing panels can be aluminium, corrugated structural glass, fibreglass or in the case
of the shop lots in Banting, galvanized steel.

Galvanized steel
Type of roof that
used to roofing the
shop lots in
Banting
Corrugated Glass Panels

Aluminium Panels

Building

Fibreglass
panels Project
Construction

47

By chew ung heng


Roof details

The insulation is below the deck of the roof in Banting can be


considered as a cold roof. The roof is covered by blue Galvanized
steel panels.

Corrugated
Roofing Panel

Flashing sheet

elevation

Performed closure
strip to seal the
openings of
corrugation against
wind-driven rain
insulation
section
Roof plan
Steel cee
purlin

Roof beam
Components of flat
roof

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Building Construction Project 1

By yap chein wee


Construction of Concrete Reinforced Flat roof
1. Temporary propping or scaffolding is required
and set up to support the framework

2. The joist of the roof is connected to the wall by metal wall plates, is slope to
create a fall, which supported below by the concrete roof beam

Fall creating by
sloping the joist

4. Steel bar to join the metal wall plates to fix the


shape of the roof

3. The Metal panels is added to cover the roofing

Steel Bar

Galvanized
steel panels

Roofing method
Roof panels
are seamed
together
with a
mechanical
seamer

Panels
overlap
each other
to conceal
the roof
clips

Concealed, floating
clips attach the G.S
panels to the
framework

Building Construction Project 1

49

By yap chein wee


Butterfly Roof

Butterfly Roof basic structure


A butterfly roof consists of two roofs joined at their low points to form a
valley, which sometimes serves as a reservoir. The angle of the two roofs
is determined by the architect or designer, but it typically creates slight
but visually discernible slopes that give the building a more modern and
less angular appearance than that of a traditional roof.

Valley gutter

Two roofs joined at their low


points to form a valley

Butterfly roof versions


Several unique styles of roofs have emerged based on the atypical pitches
of butterfly roofs. A shed roof has a single slope and typically includes the
slope at different levels on top of the building. A saddle roof is shaped like a
Western style saddle used to ride a horse, with a convex curve on one side
of the axis and a concave curve on the other. Gabled butterfly roofs
generally have a triangular sloping roof attached to a flat roof with windows
placed near the top of the walls beneath it. Zigzag roofs look like the edge of
a saw blade, with many acutely angled peaks in a row. Architects sometimes
mix and match roofs of different pitches on a single structure.

Details of butterfly roof

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Building Construction Project 1

Reference
EARTHWORK
1) Fundamentals of building construction by edward allen josepg iano
2) Construction methods and planning j.r. illingworth
3) Building construction illustrated by francis d.k.ching
Foundation
4) http://constructionduniya.blogspot.com/2012/02/pile-foundations.html
5) BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ILLUSTRATED BY FRANCIS D.K. CHIING
6) http://tgbuilders.co.uk/our-services/foundation/
SUPERSTRUCTURE
-) BEAM AND COLUMN
1) Building conctruction illustrated by francis d.k. ching
-) Floor
1) https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/toolbox/buildright/content/bcgbc4010a/10_floor_systems/topic_index.htm
2) Building construction illustrated by francis d.k. ching
-) Wall
1) http://www.wbdg.org/design/env_wall_masonry.php
2) http://www.understandconstruction.com/walls.html
3) Building construction illustrated by francis d.k. ching
-) Staircase
1) Building construction illustrated by francis d.k. ching

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Building Construction Project 1

Reference
-door and windows
1) http://free-ed.net/free-ed/Resources/Trades/carpentry/Building01/?iNum=1102
2) Fundamentals of building construction by edward allen joseph iano
-roof
3) http://www.the-flat-roof.co.uk/Sect3_6.pdf
4) http://www.buildingregs4plans.co.uk/guidance_flat_roof_types.php
3) http://learn.hackney.ac.uk/pluginfile.php/14157/mod_resource/content/0/Theory/FirstYearTheory11.pdf

Building Construction Project 1