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Sense

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Lothar Thiele, Jan Beutel
Andreas Vieli
Alain Geiger
Hugo Raetzo
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Christofer
Hierold, Cosmin

Computer Engineering and Networks,
ETH Zurich
Physical Geography, University Zurich
Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH
Zurich

Why?

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Wireless Sensor Network Technology
 allows to quantify mountain phenomena
at diverse modalities and scales,
 provides information for process
understanding and modeling
 can be used for safety critical
applications in an hostile environment.

Develop
ment of
early
warning
systems

New scientific
knowledge about
geophysical
processes

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200
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200
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201
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Randa, 22. April 2015

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How?

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Camera

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Camera

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Camera

geo-science
senso
r

preprocessing

data cleaning
& processing

communi
cation
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geophysical
processes

society &
early warning

Camera

geo-science
senso
r

preprocessing

data cleaning
& processing

communi
cation
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geophysical
processes

society &
early warning

The Science
- Sensing -

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Sensing micro-seismic and acoustic
activities
big data

high energy

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high cost

From Tera To Nano

Tera

Nano

senso
r

preprocessing

communi
cation

data cleaning
& processing

geophysical
processes

decision
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Towards Zero Power Sensing and
Decision Making
Acoustic
Emission

• Event
s

Coupled mass amplifier

Frequency selective
amplification (up to
x60) at zero power
expense has been
demonstrated.
(Patent application
filed)

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Detection by electromechanical trigger
 High on-off ratios �(��^�) and low
operation voltages <3 V have been
measured.
 A design combining 5 coupled
masses with ultra small gaps �(100
nm) has been submitted for
fabrication.

Status
Fully encapsulated devices with ultra-clean Si-surfaces for reliable
switching are being fabricated using the EpiSeal process at the
Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (SNF) hosted by the Micro
Structures & Sensors Laboratory (devices expected back June 2016).
Idle state

AE stimulus

Triggered state

Device layout
Spring

m1

Mass

Contact
stoppers
• 2000 µm
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• Sensitive axis

m5

Future - Upscaling
Existing device with coupled
masses in the device layer of
the SOI wafer.

• Sensitive
• axis

Cross-section

1.6cm

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Additional masses are
added in the handle layer
of the SOI wafer.
Process and design studies are ongoing: As
an example, such a design based on two
functional substrate layers may achieve a
baseline-amplification of 500.

The
Science
- Computing -

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Camera

geo-science
senso
r

preprocessing

data cleaning
& processing

communi
cation
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geophysical
processes

society &
early warning

Challenges
low energy

predictable

µW

adaptive

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What all the others did …

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What all the others did …

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What all the others did …

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Can we expect that this construction works
reliably and efficiently?

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Can we expect that this construction works
reliably and efficiently?

No, it doesn't !

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• Synchronous
Transmissions
• - a disruptive concept -

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Flooding or broadcasting with
synchronous transmissions

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One node starts the flood by transmitting the message

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All receivers relay the same message at the same time

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Nodes blindly relay– no explicit routing, no
network state

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Results
Order of magnitude more reliable
than known protocols.
Tested with networks of hundreds of
nodes on testbeds all over the world.
Formally verifiable
(real-time, consensus, energy).

High impact (more than 360 citations to papers so far).
Best paper awards.
Paul Caspi Award for PhD thesis of Marco Zimmerling.
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System Challenges
low energy

predictable

µW

adaptive

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System Challenges
sleep well
low energy
operate efficiently

predictable

µW

avoid interference
adaptive

wake-up quickly
switch gears quickly

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Wireless Sensing Platform
Classic Architecture

Event-Based Architecture

BOLT

memory
timepowerinterference interference interference

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Wireless Sensing Platform
Classic Architecture

Event-Based Architecture

BOLT

firewall

memory
timepowerinterference interference interference

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Wireless Sensing Platform
Classic Architecture

Event-Based
Event-BasedArchitecture
ArchitectureDPP

BOLT

memory
timepowerinterference interference interference

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Wireless Sensing Platform
Classic Architecture

Event-Based
Event-BasedArchitecture
ArchitectureDPP

BOLT

memory
timepowerinterference interference interference

Sleep Power
Dissipation
≈ 8.1 µW
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Event-Based System Architecture
ZIPPY wake-up radio
formally proven timingevent-based architecture
< 1 µs time synchronization

testing infrastructure FLOCKLAB
adaptive bandwidth

~ 10 µW sleep power

Event-Based Architecture
 Sensor Interface
 Pre-Processing
 Wireless Communication
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Publications
3 SenSys 15
1 SenseApp 15
2 IPSN 15
2 DCOSS 15
1 IPSN 14
2 SenSys 14
1 EWSN 14
3 SenSys 13

The Science
- Algorithms -

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Challenges
Towards real-time hazard alerting
 Detection of movements instead of
static positions
 High accuracy (cm) with commodity
low-cost L1 GPS sensors
 Reduce initialization time from minutes
to seconds

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Status
Approach:
 Movement detection by estimation
of receiver velocity from Doppler observations
to > 4 satellites.

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Achievements:
• Improvement in accuracy of velocity
estimates to ~ 1 cm/s.
• Almost immediate detection.
• Novel prediction methods for orbits,
clocks, atmosphere.
• Optimized filter and observation
strategies.

The Science
- Geophysics -

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From Tera To Nano

Tera

Nano

senso
r

preprocessing

communi
cation

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data cleaning
& processing

geophysical
processes

Movements of Slopes in Permafrost

Water outflow from
Dirru rock glacier
June 2013 (Photo A.
Vieli)

Geophysical Interpretations:
 Detect strong and rapid temporal variations of movement
 Variations strongly linked to periods/events of high water
input
 Winter deceleration linked to winter •temperatures
Intensive melt • Movement peaks
Joint publications:

Earth Surface Dynamics
2016
• Nat. Hazards Earth Syst.
Sci. 2014
• EUCOP4 2014
Speed
• Geophys. Research 2014
Vanessa Wirz completed her PhD Air/ground

temperature

Liquid
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precipitation

Can we make use of subsurface information from
microseismics and acoustics for
process modeling and early warning?

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Acoustic Emission Profiling Experiment
Collecting microseismic/acoustic data from steep rockwall
 Wide frequency range from 1 Hz to 30 kHz
Continuously running since Sept/Oct 2015
Real-time data streaming

10 5

MS/AE rate (/day)

Seismometer (1-100 Hz)

Accelerometer (10-10 4 Hz)
AE CH1: Piezo R.45 (5-30 kHz)
AE CH2: Piezo R6a (35-80 kHz

10 3

10 1

5 cm
20 cm
50 cm

Rock temperature (°C)

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10

0

-10
Jul/15

Jul/20

Jul/25

Jul/30

Aug/04

Aug/09

Statistical analysis of signals: relationship between
frequencies and environmental forces possible
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Aug/14

Jerome Faillettaz, Dani Or, Ingrid Reiweger:
Codetection of acoustic emissions during failure of heterogeneousmedia:
New perspectives for natural hazard early warning.
Geophysical Research Letters 2016.

Novel Co-detection Strategy

Cause: attenuation of elastic waves
propagating through the natural media.
Effect: ambiguity in the interpretation of
the magnitude (severity), or leading to loss
of detection for events away from an
acoustic sensor.

recorded emissions of layered snow sample

Solution: A dense network of sensors that
enables localization of sources and the
determination of initial energy released with
each event.

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Result: Event co-detection can identify
large failure events. Their frequent
occurrence is a precursor for imminent failure.

Outreach

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Wireless Sensor Networks in X-Sense2
Field Site Matterhorn
 Crackmeters
 GST, sensor rods, thermistor chains
 1 Meteo station
 1 Networked camera, 1 High-resolution camera
 1 L1/L2 precision GPS (Leica GRS 1200)
 3 GPS on rock ridge (slow deformations)
 3 Geophones (~10 Hz)
 1 IMS Seismic sensor system (~100-1000 Hz)
 1 Dual-channel Acoustic Emission node (~10 kHz)
Field Site Dirruhorn/Grabengufer
 23 GPS on composite landslides and on rock glaciers
 5 GPS as position reference stations
 5 Simple temperature loggers per GPS station
 3 Meteo stations
 1 Networked camera, 2 High-resolution cameras
Field Site Randa
 WLAN relay
 2 Networked cameras
 1 L1/L2 precision GPS (Leica GRS 1200)
 2 GPS on rockfall
Public Access to Data Repository
 http://data.permasense.ch

Field Site PERMOS
 10 GPS on composite landslides and on rock
glaciers
Field Site Saastal
 2 GPS on hanging glacier
 1 GPS as position reference station
 1 High-resolution camera

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Technology Transfer and Outreach
Transfer of X-Sense GPS-sensors to other applications
 PERMOS (Permafrost Monitoring Switzerland) Continuous GPS Pilot
Program
• 10x long-term monitoring sites operated in collaboration with PERMOS

 Hazard monitoring for authorities
• Monitoring of destructive processes on Breithorn, Wysse Schije,
Längschnee and Grossgufer with authorities and local industry

 Multi-modal Monitoring of Hanging Glaciers
• Ground-based Radar, high-resolution imaging and wireless GPS sensors
on a hanging glacier in HohSaas
(jointly with BAFU, Canton VS, Funk/VAW, geopraevent)

 Fast Flowing Greenland Outlet Glacier Swiss SNF project Lüthi/Vieli

Patent “Mechanical Transducer for the Detection of Acoustic
and/or Seismic Signals”
RTKNAV real-time GPS processing
 European Navigation Satellite Competition
Swiss regional and ESA special prize to Tonio Gsell and Zhengzhong Su
 ETH Pioneer Grant Application

Marco Zimmerling receives the
Paul Caspi Memorial Dissertation Award
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Acknowledgement
ETH Zurich
Computer Engineering and Networks Lab
Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab
Micro and Nanosystems
University of Zurich
Department of Geography
EPFL
Distributed Information Systems Laboratory

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Acoustic Sensor Installation

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Material
logistics

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