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METRICAL COMPOSITION

Coleridge throws light on the difference between the language
of metrical composition and that of prose.He is of the opinion
the Wordsworth views about language are impracticable.
The power of making the selection implies the previous
possession of the language selected,the reproduction of words
only,but order in which they are used.
This order is defective in the case of the uneducated person
because he lacks the prospective ness of mind which enables
one to foresee the whole of what one is to convey.
Coleridge illustrates from Wordsworth poems how common
words are used,but not in the order in which the rustic would
use them.

Coleridge elaborates Wordsworth’s sentence,there neither
is,nor can be any essential difference between the language o
prose and metrical composition.
He points out that the language of prose differs in itself
according to the purpose for which it its used the prose of
argumentative works differs from the language of conversation.
In Italy and Greece they have not set aside a separate body of
words for poetry,but the same words and phrases are put under
new grabs by declining and conjugating them in a particular
way.

what is beautifully expresses in metre.the inmost principle of a thing which particularizes it.the point of difference or distinction between two modifications of the same subject.But generally it is not so. .Wordsworth has used the word in the latter sense.may stand equally beautiful when stated in prose in the same words.The word essence can mean one of the two things.It maybe that in some cases.• Coleridge considers the exact significance of the words essential difference as used by Wordsworth.

.• Coleridge reflects on the origin and effect of metre.He contends that in both cases for the unfitness of each(language of prose and that of poetry) for the place of other frequently will and ought to exist.

though strictly speaking.But because metre blends delight and emotion into one.First Coleridge ascribes the origin of metre to the spontaneous effort of the mind to hold in check the working of passion and to control emotion.• He advances five points to explain this.it is as good as being the natural language or emotion. .it is artificial.

namely its association to memory.• Secondly as afar as a metre acts in and for it self. .thus metre worthless in itself gives greater vivacity to the main poetic idea and thus resembles yeas.namely.but an additional claim.as its association to memory.but now fitness of the idea must govern the diction.The poet writes in metre because he thinks that a language different from that of prose would be appropriate for the subject.Before the invention of printing metre had an additional claim.it tends to increase the vivacity and susceptibility both of the general feelings and of the attention.

. • Fourthly human beings instinctively seek unity by harmonious adjustment and metre is helpful in this respect.• Thirdly metre is the proper form of poetry and poetry is imperfect and defective without metre.

• Lastly. .there may be.of all countries and in all ages.he appeals to the practice of the best poets.is and ought to be an essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition.as authorizing the opinion that in every import of the word essential.

as authorizing the opinion that in every import of the word essential.there may be.he appeals to the practice of the best poets.• Lastly. .of all countries and in all ages.is and ought to be an essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition.

He was the most apt interpreter of romantic poetry in which imagination played the supreme part.He was dissatisfied with the artifice of the new classical school. In Biographia Literaria. He liked the poems of Bowles and Cowper.the precursor of the Romantic Movement in English poetry.who combined natural thoughts with natural diction:the first two who reconciled the heart with the head.THEORY OF IMAGINATION • • • Coleridge’s contribution to literary criticism is his theory of imagination. .and with the quest for mere novelty and the desire of exciting wonderment..he tells us that he felt but little sympathy for the writings of Pope and his followers.

• Coleridge finds that it was the continuous undercurrent of feeling.• The phrase.with the greatest pleasure. .but that to which wee return.possesses the genuine power and claims the name of essential poetry reminds us of Longinus.He believes that without this there can be no essential poetry.which evoked his genuine admiration in it and the lack of it which disguised him with those who sacrificed the heart to the head or both heart and head to paint and drapery.His remark that not the poem which we have read.The union of heart and head.strikes the keynote of coleridge’s theory of imagination.

he writes.During the first year of their friendship.Coleridge had already formed these ideas.This excellence which in all Wordsworth’s writings is more or less predominant and which constitutes the character of his less predominant and which constitutes the character of his mind.the lower and the higher degree of one and the same power. .He no sooner left.In one dramatic moment. Commenting on Wordsworth’s writings in Biographia Literaria IV.• • • Before meeting Wordsworth.there was awakened in him a conviction which determined his critical attitude.than he sought to understand.according to the general belief. Repeated mediations led me first to suspect that fancy and imagination were two distinct and widely different faculties instead of being.either two names with one meaning or at furthest.

He could not discern in them that continuous undercurrent of deep feeling.Then as he himself tells a poem recited by Wordsworth brought home to him in a flash what he had been seeking to realize.which the greater poets had evoked. .IMAGINATION • Coleridge read the faulty elder poets and his contemporaries and found them lifeless or brainless or both.Surely it was by some faculty of the soul that things could be so represented as to be thus both felt and understood.

• In Biographia Literaria he defines imagination as a faculty that dissolves.yet still.Coleridge’s idea of the Imagination in these words.in order to recreate or where this process is rendered impossible.Imagination a unifying creative faculty-this beautiful and beauty making power. • It was a union of opposites.dissipates.diffuses.Fot this experience as Coleridge understood it.at all events.it struggles to idealize and unify.The power which the poet had exercised in thus revealing the beautiful.Its unique quality lay in the fact that it gave satisfaction also to the reason.It bridged the gulf-unbridgeable by the intellect-between perception and understanding. • Coleridge coined a word esemplastic and called Imagination the essemplastic power which literally means the unifying power.emotions passion. .was more than mere feelings. • We can summarize.

The primary Imagination is the living power and prime agent of all human perception and as a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infinite.Coleridge remarks.• In Biographia Literaria.and differing only in degree and its mode of operation. • The secondary Imagination is an echo of the former coexisting with the conscious will yet still as identical with the primary in the kind of its agency.or secondary. .that the Imagination is either primary.

.then the primary imagination is essentially creative and a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infinite.• • • The Primary Imagination merely represents to the minds its own world as external to itself and it exists in every human consciousness.destroying chaos by making its parts intelligible by the assertion of the identity of this designer.as it were. If the act of creation is conceived as being essentially and perpetually the bringing of order out of chaos. Imagination in its primary manifestation is the great ordering principle or rather an agency which enables us both to discriminate and to order to separate and to synthesize and thus makes perception possible for without it we should have only a collection of meaningless sense data.

diffuses. It projects and creates new harmonies of meaning. The secondary imagination is the conscious human use of this power.the secondary imagination is more conscious and less elemental but it does not differ in kind from the primary.The employment of the secondary Imagination is.a poetic activity which dissolves.in the larger sense.dissipates.struggles to idealize and unify is essentially vital.When we imply out primary imagination in the very act of perception.representing and recreating the external world in its completeness.but are exercising the basic faculty of our awareness of ourselves and the external world.in order to recreate. .• • • The secondary imagination is more active capacity belonging to the artist.we are not doing so with our conscious will.

and secondary imagination is the artistic imagination found in a few gifted persons.so primary imagination is the basic imagination found in all human beings.the reconciliation of opposites.• A poem is always the word for a poet of a man employing the secondary imagination and so achieving the harmony of meaning. .

and modified by that empirical phenomenon of the will which we express by the word choice.• • Coleridge makes a difference between fancy and imagination.Its products.and blended with.which. So we gather that the fancy can only manipulate fixities and definites. .are not recreations but mosaic like reassemblies of existing bits and pieces.therefore.But equally with the ordinary memory it must receive all its materials.The fancy is no other than a mode of memory emancipated from the order of time and space.come ready made from perception.ready made from the law of association.

It brings experience from the past to the present and then takes it from the present to the future.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FANCY AND IMAGINATION • Firstly.It brings the experience of the present to the past.The field of imagination on the other hand is vaster.fancy is a limited process based on the law of association. .

memory and associated ideas.• • • Secondly.Imagination is a divine faculty in man.which makes the external.A real artist is never content to copy nature. The process of recreation of nature can take place only when the imagination is active.and fashions new images in its own semblance.imagination works in imitation of nature which is a creative act. It is only the secondary imagination of the poet which works in the same manner as the divine imagination works. .because in doing so he will be copying only a fragment of nature.Fancy works in all copying of nature.internal.fancy can only perceive the dead.which is beautiful only in its totality and unity.mechanical aspects of nature based on bare sensation.

explaining this difference remarks. Of imagination Coleridge says it reveals itself in the balance of reconciliation of opposites.• • • • Thirdly imagination is a unifying power.of discordant qualities. Coleriges writes:Of fancy:its images have no connection natural or moral. David Daiches.while fancy is the fitting together in a design of small pieces of colored glass.Fancy constructs surface decorations out of new combinations of memories and perceptions while imagination generates and produces a form of its own. .but are yoke together by the poet by means of some accidental coincidence.

is and ought to be an essential difference between the language of prose and metrical composition.as authorizing the opinion that in every import of the word essential.of all countries and in all ages.• Lastly. .he appeals to the practice of the best poets.there may be.