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Modeling and Operation of

an Electric Machine
Dr S.P. Singh
Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
IIT Roorkke

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•   – Flux linkages ( ) and magnetic field energy are expressed in terms of currents and inductances. –  • The result is a set of non-linear differential equations .TORQUE AND VOLTAGE IN NON SALIENT – POLE MACHINES • The machine is regarded as a circuit element whose inductances depend on the angular position of the rotor. –  – Torque can be found from the partial derivative of magnetic field energy or co-energy.

• Generated voltage is expressed as the result of the relative motion between a field and a winding .VIEW POINTS : • Parallel development of following two view points help in obtaining an approximate expression for inductance parameters. They are – • Toque is expressed explicitly as the tendency for two magnetic fields to line up in the same way as permanent magnets tend to align themselves.

•   • Mutual Inductance •   • The maximum positive value when =0 or 2 • is Zero when  =  /2. • The maximum negative value when = •   • Hence : •   • Lsr () = Lsr. • But •   • Stator-rotor mutual inductance depends on the angle ‘’ between the magnetic axes of stator and rotor winding. the stator and rotor self –inductances Lss and Lrr respecting are considered to be constant.Assumptions • Stator and rotor are concentric cylinders and the slot openings are neglected.Cos (i) •   . •  Therefore.

is+ps • vr = rr . i r • r = Lsr().ir = Lss.is+ Lrr. are : • s = Lss.Cos.Mathematical Model of the Machine • Flux linkages of rotor and the stator in terms of inductances.Ir = Lrr Cos .is+ Lrr.ir+pr • p = d/dt = time-derivative operator .is + Lsr.is + Lsr().ir • Terminal voltages Vs and Vr are – • vs = rs .

Terminal voltage Equations for Doubly Excited machine • The dynamics and statics of Electromechanical energy conversion. In a P-pole machine  = P/2  m The above equations are the fundamental equations of the machine and valid for doubly excited ac as well as dc machines.instantaneous speed in electrical radians per second. torque and voltage equations in non salient pole machine vs  rsis  Lss pis  Lsr Cos ( pir )  Lsr ir Sin ( p )     forstator vr  rr ir  Lrr pir  Lsr Cos ( pis )  Lsr isr Sin ( p )      forrotor p . With a little modifications in the above equations are valid for different types of ac and dc machines .

W fld  Te   W fld  m 1 1 L ss . i r )   dWfLd d ( .Sin  m 2 2 2 . i s .i r Cos 2 2 ( m .i r2  L sr .Sin   L sr i s .i s2  Lrr .i r . d d m Therefore Te for a P-pole machine is :- Te   P P P L sr .i s . i s .i s .i r ).i r .

The fourth term .is .Basic Equations vs = rs* is +Lss.(p is)+Lsr Cos (p ir ) – Lsr ir Sin (p) …………(1)   vr = rr* ir +Lrr.ir Sin  m 2 2 2 d r 1  (Te  B m  r  T L ) dt J Electric torque is + ve for motor and – ve in case of generator. For a any dc machine 3rd term of the voltage equations is always absent as field and armature mmf in case of dc machine are at quadrature. is On the basis of above assumption the dynamic equations for separately excited dc motor can derived as follows . speed voltage which is due to relative motion in coils is there for stator voltage equation but absent in rotor voltage equations.ir Sin   Lsr .(p ir)+Lsr Cos (p is) – Lsr is Sin (p) …………(2) And using torsional – mechanical equation: Te   P P P Lsr .is .

i f  m  r  .v a dt La La La di f dt   r f .i a .i a Laf 1   . r  .v f Lf B d r Laf 1  . TL dt J J J .i f Lf  1 .i f .Model of DC Shunt Motor di a  ra .

rf=3.2).2).3).009 5.1.J=0. • (Laf*y(1.5. wr rad/sec').uf=20. • plot(t. • % rated armature and applied field voltages • ua=100.04.tfinal. • disp('End').'-').:)Laf*y(2. • % motor psarameters • ra=0.4.3.1).:)T1)/J].La=0.:)+uf)/Lf. • T1=0. • plot(t. • clear. • % 3rd oreder diff equation for separately excted motor • yprime=[(-ra*y(1.:)+ua)/La. • subplot(2.y(:. pause.'-'). • subplot(2. • (-rf*y(2.Laf=0.t0l=1e-7.trace=1e7.M files in matlab • transient dynamics of separately excited dc motor • t0=0. .:)*y(3. pause.007.18.3).:)-Bm*y(3. • xlabel('Time (second)'):title('Armature currnt ia [A]'). • subplot(2.:)*y(2.y(:.t0l.3.'-'). pause. • xlabel('Time (second)'):title('Field currnt if [A]').y(:.1). • %transient dynamics of separately excited dc machine • function yprime=difer(t.y0.Lf=0.0062.t0. • xlabel('Time (second)'):title('Angular velocity.y).trace). Bm=0. • [t.3.y]=ode45('script2'.tfinal=0.y0=[0 0 0]. • plot(t.

2 0.4 Time (second) .2 0.2 0.Out put Armature currnt ia [A] 300 200 Field currnt if [A] 6 Angular velocity. wr rad/sec 300 4 200 2 100 100 0 -100 0 0.4 Time (second) 0 0 0.4 Time (second) 0 0 0.

5 Transfer Fcn1 if wr .1 Laf1 20 Vf Product1 1 0.04s+0.SIMULINK MODEL TL 1 100 den(s) Subtract Ua Transfer Fcn2 Ia 0.007 Transfer Fcn3 0.1 Laf 1 Armatute Cuurent Subtract1 Product 0 0.0095s+3.

 r  .i a 1   .v f Laf B d r 1  .v a dt La La La di f dt   r f . T L dt J J J .i L f f  1 Lf .i a .i f  m  r  .i f .Separately Excited dc Motor Laf di a  ra .

Separately Excited DC Generator • =90 0 • TL =.TL • Va= -Va .TL • Va= -Va Separately Excited DC Generator • =90 0 • TL =.

Shunt connected dc motor =90 0 va  v f i f  v a / r ff i a  (v a  Laf i f wr ) / ra Te  Laf (1  Laf wr / r f ) * v a2 /(i a r f ) .

Torque-speed quadrant of operation  2 T -ve  +ve Pm -ve 3 T -ve  -ve Pm +ve 1 T +ve  +ve Pm +ve 4 T +ve  -ve Pm -ve T .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 4-quadrant operation m  Te • Direction of positive (forward) speed is arbitrary chosen • Direction of positive torque will produce positive (forward) speed Te m Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2 Forward braking Forward motoring Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4 Reverse motoring Reverse braking Te m T Te m .

Four Quadrant dc motor characteristic Function Quadra nt Speed Torque Power output Forward Motoring (FM) I + + + Forward Regenerati on (FR) IV + _ - Reverse Motoring (RM) III _ _ + Reverse Regenerati on (RR) II _ + _ .

Armature and voltage and current requirement of four quadrant dc drive Function Speed Torque voltage current Power output Forward Motoring (FM) + + + + + Forward + Regenerat ion (FR) - + - - Reverse Motoring (RM) _ _ - + + _ + - _ Reverse _ Regenerat ion (RR) .

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES .MODULE 1 Ratings of converters and motors Torque Transient torque limit Continuous torque limit Power limit for transient torque Power limit for continuous torque Maximum speed limit Speed .

2004. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRIC DRIVES . Kamierkowski. “Direct torque control of PWM inverter-fed AC motors .a .MODULE 1 Classification of IM drives survey”. (Buja.