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# CAMBRIDGE SECONDARY ONE SCIENCE

Matter

Solids

Liquids

Gases

Solid

Liquid

Gas

container

container

## The volume can change

Cannot be compressed
or poured

Cannot be compressed
but can be poured

Can be compressed
easily and can be poured

## Particles are tightly

packed in an orderly
arrangement

## Particles touch each

Particles are far apart
other but not arranged in and not arranged in an
an orderly manner
orderly manner

## Particles can move past

one another but remain
touching each other

## Matter can only flow if the particles can

move past each other.
Matter can only change volume if the
particles in it can spread out or move
closer together.

## 5.2 PARTICLE THEORY

Solids
Solids have a fixed shape because the
particles are held together by strong
attractive forces. These forces stop the
particles from moving around and
therefore, solids cannot flow.
The particles are very close together
which makes it hard to compress a solid.

## 5.2 PARTICLE THEORY

Liquids
The attractive forces between the liquid
particles are weak enough to allow them
to move but strong enough to hold them
together. Thus, liquids can flow.
The particles are close together and
thus, liquids cannot be compressed.

## 5.2 PARTICLE THEORY

Gases
The particles can move freely because
there are no attractive forces between
them. Therefore, gases can flow easily.
The particles are far apart and thus, gases
can be compressed.

Freezing

Condensation

When
cooled

When cooled

When
heated
Ice

When
heated
Water

Melting

Steam
Boiling

## When you measure the volume of a liquid

you use a measuring cylinder.
The liquid forms a meniscus at the top.
You measure the volume from the bottom
of the meniscus. To do this, you must put
your eye level with the bottom of the
meniscus.

## When you measure temperature, you use

a thermometer.
The liquid inside the thermometer expands
as it gets hotter. You read the temperature
from the scale. Place your eye level with
the top of the meniscus in the thermometer.

## When solids are heated they expand.

As heat energy is transferred to the
particles, they vibrate faster and take up
more space. This causes the solid to
expand.

## 5.4 EXPLAINING CHANGES OF STATE

The particles vibrate so much
that some escape the strong
forces and can move around
as a liquid

## The particles have so little

energy they can only vibrate
and form a fixed pattern to
form a solid

## The particles move so quickly

that some escape as a gas

## When the particles hit a cold

surface, their movement slows
down and they get closer
together to form a liquid