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Network Layer in

Wireless

By
Majed Ismaeel Samir
MST Division-

Contents:
1. network layer
2.Routing and Forwarding
3.Routing in Ad-Hoc
4.Routing in wireless sensor
network
5.Routing in mesh network
6.Hand-off in wireless
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Some Important Network L.


Functions
The network layer controls the operation of - 1
. the subnet
2- A key design issue is determining how
packets are routed from source to
destination.
3- Routes can be based on :
static tables
determined at the start of each conversation
highly dynamic, being determined anew for
each packet
4- The control of congestion.
5- quality of service provided (delay, transit
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When a packet has to travel from one network to - 6


another to get to its destination, many problems can
. arise
a-The addressing used by the second network may be
different from the first one.
b- The second one may not accept the packet at all
because it is too large.
c- The protocols may differ, and so on.
It is up to the network layer to overcome all these
problems to allow heterogeneous networks to be
interconnected.
7- In broadcast networks, the routing problem is simple,
so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent .
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The Internet Network layer


:Host, router network layer functions
Transport layer: TCP, UDP

Network
layer

IP protocol
addressing conventions
datagram format
packet handling conventions

Routing protocols
path selection
RIP, OSPF, BGP

forwarding
table

ICMP protocol
error reporting
router
signaling

Link layer
physical layer
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Network Layer
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

5-4

Routing and Forwarding. 2


forwarding:

move
packets from routers
input to appropriate
router output

routing:

determine
route taken by
packets from source
to dest.

analogy:

routing: process of
planning trip from
source to dest

forwarding: process
of getting through
single interchange

routing algorithms

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6-4

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)


Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIPV1)
MST Division
Routing Information Protocol Version
2 (RIPV2)

Routing Protocols
A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with
each other, disseminating information that enables them to
select routes between any two nodes on a computer network
Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route.
Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached
to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first
among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the
network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of
.the network
Although there are many types of routing protocols, three
:major classes are in widespread use on IP networks
Interior gateway protocols type 1, link-state routing
protocols, such as OSPF, Intermediate System to
Intermediate System (IS-IS)
Interior gateway protocols type 2, distance-vector
routing protocols, such as
.Routing Information Protocol, RIPv2, IGRP
Exterior gateway protocols are routing protocols used on
the Internet for exchanging
information between 8
MST routing
Division-

A Comparison of Link State and Distance Vector Routing


1.

Link State Routing

Each node knows the distance to its neighbors


The distance information (=link state) is broadcast to all
nodes in the network
Each node calculates the routing tables independently

2. Distance Vector Routing


Each node knows the distance (=cost) to its directly
connected neighbors
A node sends a list to its neighbors with the current
distances to all nodes
If all nodes update their distances, the routing tables
eventually converge

Dynamic Host Configuration


, Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,
a protocol for assigning dynamic IP
addresses to devices on a network.
With dynamic addressing, a device
can have a different IP address every
time it connects to the network. In
some systems, the device's IP
address can even change while it is
still connected. DHCP also supports a
mix of static and dynamic IP
.addresses
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Some wireless network need no


router
A wireless ad hoc network is defined as a temporary.1

close range connection between wireless devices." An ad


hoc Wi-Fi network allows you to communicate between two
wireless devices without the need for a router or access
.point
Mesh Networking, also know as Mesh Routing happens at.2
OSI layer 3, the network layer. Mesh Routing allows each
device on a network (also called nodes) to act as a router
and re-transmit packets on behalf of any other devices.
Mesh Routing provide the multi-hop facility that Ad-Hoc
mode lacks. By combining Ad-Hoc mode at layer 1 and
Mesh Routing at layer 3 we can create wireless mesh
networks purely between client devices without any need
for centralized Access
P2P
ororPeer-to-Peer
simply means that clients talk
.Points
Routers

directly to each other without the use of a central


server. Both Ad-Hoc and Mesh Routing can be
described as P2P as they are both instances of
MST Divisionclients-to-client communication,
just at different 11

3-flooding in wireless sensors


(1/2)
Every incoming packet forwarded on every
outgoing link except the one it arrived on.
Problem: duplicates.
Constraining the flood:

Hop count.
Keep track of packets that have been flooded.

Robust, shortest delay (picks shortest path as


one of the paths).
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Flooding(2/2)
A

classical mechanisms to relay


data in sensor networks without
the need for any routing
algorithms and topology
maintenance.

drawbacks:

Implosion
Overlap
Resource blindness
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Routing In Ad-Hoc.3
AWireless Ad-Hoc
NETwork(WANET)is a
Network
decentralized type ofwireless network.The
network isAd-Hocbecause it does not rely on a
preexisting infrastructure, such asroutersin
wired networks or access pointsin managed
(infrastructure) wireless networks. Instead, each
nodeparticipates in routing by forwarding data
for other nodes, so the determination of which
nodes forward data is made dynamically on the
basis of network connectivity. In addition to the
classic routing , ad hoc networks can use flooding
for forwarding data.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this
purpose.
In Computing Network, an Ad hoc Network

Types Of Wireless Ad- Hoc


Networks
Wireless Mesh Network
Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)
Vehicular Ad- Hoc Network (VANET)
Intelligent Vehicle Ad-hoc Network( In VANET)
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

Operating principle 1
Single hop communication:- Mobile node A
communicates
directly with Mobile node B when a channel is available.

Operating principle 2
Multi-hop communication:- If channel is not
available, then multi-hop communication is necessary
E.g.- A C D E For multi-hop communication
to work, the intermediate nodes should route the
packet i.e. they should act as a router.
For communication between node A node E, C,D act as
router .

: Multi-hop Wireless Networks (MHWNs)


It is defined as a collection of nodes that communicate
with each other wirelessly by using radio signals with a
.shared common channel
Hop

Path, chain or route


Host

Switching Unit

Routing in wireless sensor network.4

Wireless Sensor Networks is a collection


of sensors (Sensor nodes) which are
used for the transfer, the follow-up
phenomenon physical or specific
chemistry (such as heat, humidity,
vibration, light, etc ...) and then
transfer of information about the
phenomenon wirelessly to the data
processing center to take advantage of
.them without human intervention
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Architectural connect to
the wireless sensors
Wireless sensors concept explain
routing and energy to keep power
As the complete between data and
network protocols and provides
architectural communication
network Wireless amid the
.available sensors Power wireless
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Wireless Sensor Network


(WSN) 1
The more modern networks are bi-directional, also
enablingcontrolof sensor activity.
The development of wireless sensor networks was
motivated by military applications such as battlefield
surveillance; today such networks are used in many
industrial and consumer applications, such as
industrial process monitoring and control, machine
health monitoring, and so on.
The WSN is built of "nodes" from a few to several
hundreds or even thousands, where each node is
connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) 2


Each such sensor network node has typically several
parts: aradiotransceiverwith an internalantennaor
connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller,
an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors
and an energy source, usually a battery or an
embedded form ofenergy harvesting.
Asensor nodemight vary in size from that of a
shoebox down to the size of a grain of dust, although
functioning "motes" of genuine microscopic
dimensions have yet to be created.
The cost of sensor nodes is similarly variable, ranging
from a few to hundreds of dollars, depending on the
complexity of the individual sensor nodes.
Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in

Routing in wireless mesh network.5

A network of devices called each device


connected to a wireless node and each
device connected to the other without a
central server unlike as in traditional
networks deployed and all of the
network device contains a list of the
other are
devices
in the
network
:-There
two type
of mesh
network wireless
:-Full Mesh

.Each point linked to mesh the entire network to all other points

:- partially Partial Mesh

in part, from mesh networks points are associated with some of the other
points, but not all
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WMNs will be tightly integrated


with the Internet, and IP has
been accepted as a network
layer protocol for many wireless
net works including WMNs. It
should include all the points
within the mesh network the
same program (Protocol)
routing and Usually a steady
.prepared hand
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?Why WMN
Multi-hop

wireless network
Support for ad-hoc networking, and
capability of self-forming, self healing and
self organization.
Multiple types of network access
Mobility dependence on the type of mesh
nodes
Compatibility and interpretability with
existing wireless technologies

Routing Layer In WMN


Features of routing protocol for WMNs:
Multiple Performance Metrics

Hop-count is not an effective routing metric.


Other performance metrics, e.g., link quality and
round trip time (RTT), must be considered.

RTT is the time required for a signal


pulse or packet to travel from a specific
source to a specific destination and
back again.
Scalability

Routing setup in large network is time consuming.


Node states on the path may change.
Scalability of routing protocol is critical in WMNs.

Routing Layer In WMN


Robustness

WMNs must be robust to link failures or


congestion.
Routing protocols need to be fault tolerant
with link failures and can achieve load
balancing.

Adaptive

Support of Both Mesh


Routers and Mesh Clients

Mesh routers : minimal mobility, no constraint of


power consumption, routing is simpler
Mesh clients : mobility, power efficiency, routing is
complicated

Hand-off in wireless

A handoff refers to the process of


transferring an active call or data
session from one cell in a cellular
network to another or from one
channel in a cell to another. A
well-implemented handoff is
important for delivering
uninterrupted service to a caller
.or data session user
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Handoff refers to a process of transferring anongoing call or data session from one channel
. connected to the core network to another

Changing the point of connection while


.communicating

When a mobile moves into a different cell while a -


conversation is in progress, MSC (Mobile Switching
center) automatically transfers the call to a new
.channel belonging to the new base station
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BSC

BS1

BS2

BS3

Connect
BS1.. and
.1
out
of BS2s
toconnect
BS3.conversation
3
Moving outMoving
of
BS1s
connect
to
BS2
24 tostart
Conversation
ended
coverage
still
withincoverage
BS3s
coverage
Tor K Moseng, Handoff in Wireless Internet Access
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Reasons for a Handoff to


:- be conducted
To

avoid call termination: call drops


Interference in the channels.
When the user behaviors change.
Speed and mobility

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Basic Notions of Mobility


Q When a host moves, its point of attachment in the
.network changes. This is called a handoff
The point of attachment is a base station (BS) **
for cellular
.network, or an access point (AP) for WLAN
We will assume WLAN in our examples.**
Problem essentially
..the same for cellular networks
Handoff can be handled completely in the link layer,
.if both the APs involved are in the same network
Q Otherwise, a route change in the IP layer may be
.needed. This is called network layer handoff
Q Mobile IP is a standard
protocol
for handling
MST Division
Q

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The difference between WSN and


Ad hoc (1/2)
The

number of nodes
Sensor nodes are densely deployed
Sensor nodes are prone to failures
The topology of a sensor network
changes very frequently

Ian F. Akyildiz, Weilian Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, and Erdal Cayirci Georgia Institute of Technology A Survey on Sensor[1]
51
Networks IEEE Communications Magazine August 2002

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The difference between WSN and


Ad hoc (2/2)
WSN

broadcast but ad hoc pointto point


Sensor node are limited in power
computation capacities and
memory
Sensor nodes may not have
global identification
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Mesh vs. Ad-Hoc Networks


Wireless Mesh
Networks

Ad-Hoc Networks

Multihop

Multihop

,Nodes are wireless


some mobile, some
fixed

,Nodes are wireless


possibly mobile

It relies on
infrastructure

May rely on
infrastructure

-Most traffic is userto


gateway

-Most traffic is userto


user

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Mesh vs. Sensor Networks


Wireless Mesh
Networks
Bandwidth is generous
(1Mbps)<

Wireless Sensor
Networks
Bandwidth is limited
(tens of
(Kbps

Some nodes mobile,


some
fixed

In most application ,
fixed
nodes

Normally not energy


limited

Energy efficiency is an
issue

Resources are not an


issue

Resource constrained

Most traffic is user-togateway

Most traffic is user-togateway

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Differences Between Cellular and AdHoc


Networks
Ad-Hoc Networks

Cellular Networks

No fixed base stations,


very rapid
deployment

Fixed, pre-located cell sites


and base
stations

Highly dynamic network


,topologies
with multi-hop
communications

Static backbone network


topology

Hostile environment
(losses, noise)
and irregular connectivity

Relatively favorable
environment and
stable connectivity

Ad-hoc network
automatically forms
and conforms to change

Detailed planning before


base stations
can be installed

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A horizontal handoff or intra-system


handoff takes place between PoA
(Point of Access) supporting the same
network technology, e.g., two
geographically neighboring BSs of a 3G
cellular network

Vertical Handoff is an inter-technology


handovers where a call's connection is
transferred from one access technology to
another, e.g. a call being transferred from
GSM to UMTS or from CDMAIS-95to
.cdma2000
The 3GPPUMA/GANstandard enables