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The Farming Revolution

Around 12,000 years ago,


agriculture triggered such
a change in society and
the way in which people
lived that its development
has
been
dubbed
the
Neolithic Revolution.
The global population
rocketedfrom some five
million
people
10,000
years ago, to more than
seven billion today.
Farming sowed the seeds
for the modern age.

AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION: Patterns of Agricultural Transformation in


Asia

Modern development is a secular decline in


the share of agriculture in both output and
gross domestic product & increase in the
combined share of industry and services.
Agricultures output share is declining
faster than that of employment.
The output share has declined since the
1970s at about 2.51% per annum, the
employment share has declined at about
1.71% per annum

In most Asian developing countries,


the Lewis turning point, where the
shift from surplus labor in agriculture
to labor shortage is reflected in a
rising agriculture wage.
Agricultural output per worker has
risen fast in developing Asia; average
growth in Asia was 2.2% per year
during 19802010

Through the Green Revolution &Technological


change in agriculture since the 1960s led to
significant improvements in yields of
traditional crops. Table 4 shows the yield
improvement in the most important cereal

What is the outlook for agriculture in


the face of these challenges?
1. By 2040, Asias population will reach 5.1
billion, while the world population will
reach 9.0 billion (UN 2013). Bruinsma
projects that by 2050, the worlds food
requirements will increase by 70% from
todays levels.
2. According to Bruinsma, global average
annual growth rate of major crops over the
projection period (20052050) is 0.8%,
compared to 1.7% from 1961 to 2007.
3. Price increases that are driven by rising
demand for food and bioenergy farmers
but it will be harmful to future generations
of poor net food consumers in developing

Rural Development
Indicators of Rural Development:
Changesinagricultural productivity.
Changes in rural employment,
unemployment and underemployment.
Changes in income of different income
groups.
Changes in the distribution of power,
influence and participation in decision.
Changes in thedegree ofmobility, in the
allocation of position and removal of
barriers toaccess public facilities.
Changesin literacy, schooling, literacyrate
and life expectancy.

The non-governmental Organisations (NGO) contributions for rural


development activities

NGO cover an wide range of including:


development of income and
employment,
health and sanitation,
agriculture and rural craft,
vocational education,
relief and rehabilitation,
family planning,
mother and childcare.

Governments contribution:

Women and Children Affairs


Youth Development
Credit Policy and industrial
development
The National Youth Policy of
2011
The National Policy for
Womens Advancement
The Climate Change Action Plan
is a 10-year programme (2009-


Main challenges of rural womens development

Family restriction
Religious legislation
Early marriage
Illiterate guardians
Lack of social awareness
Economic deprivation
Lack of proper health care
system

Impact on women in rural development in Bangladesh

Pathways to Womens Empowerment


Control over assets
Womens contributions to family welfare
from the male point of view
Control and use of their savings
Improvement of standard of living
Improvement of health care
Womens contribution in GDP is US$ 10.58
billion.
Reduction of child marriage
Reduced economic dependence on
husbands