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# Final Coaching

Questions

## Electronics System & Technologies

In pulse-code modulation, it translates
the quantized samples into digital
code words.

encoder

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is an error detection technique in
which a redundant bit is appended to
every data unit so that the total
number of 1s in the unit (including
the parity bit) becomes even.

## Electronics System & Technologies

A local area network topology in which
the individual terminal,
microcomputers or workstations are
connected directly to a central
computer.

Star

## Electronics System & Technologies

The only way to achieve high data rates
with a narrowband channel is to
increase the number of bits per symbol,
the most reliable way to do this is to
use a combination of amplitude and
phase modulation known as _________.

## Electronics System & Technologies

Find the maximum dynamic range for a
linear PCM system using 16-bit
quantizing.

98.08 dB

## Electronics System & Technologies

Compute the baud rate for a 72000 bps
64-QAM signal.

12000 baud

## Electronics System & Technologies

A telephone signal takes 2ms to reach its
destination. Calculate the via net loss
required for an acceptable amount of
echo.

0.8 dB

## Electronics System & Technologies

Telephone switch that connects only to
other switches, and not to individual
customers.

tandem office

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is a form of digital modulation similar
to PSK except the digital information
is contained in both amplitude and the
phase of the transmitted carrier.

QAM

## Electronics System & Technologies

The most common circuit used for
demodulating binary FSK signals.

PLL

## Electronics System & Technologies

We have an audio signal with a bandwidth
of 4KHz.What is the bandwidth needed if
we modulate the signal using AM? Ignore
FCC regulations for now.

8 KHz

## Electronics System & Technologies

We have an audio signal with a
bandwidth of 4 MHz. what is the
bandwidth if we modulate the signal
using FM? Ignore FCC regulations.

40

## Electronics System & Technologies

For PCM system with the following
parameters determine the minimum
number of bits used.
Maximum analog frequency= 4 khz,
maximum decoded voltage=2.55,
Minimum dynamic range= 199.5

## Electronics System & Technologies

A network topology in which data
circulates from one computer to the
next in sequence.

ring

## Electronics System & Technologies

Find the maximum dynamic range for
linear PCM system using 8-bit
quantizing

49.92 dB

## Electronics System & Technologies

What frequencies would be generated
by a telephone using DTMF signalling,
when the number 8 is pressed?

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is a means of transmitting data by
shifting the phase angle of the
transmitted signal.

PSK

## Electronics System & Technologies

The name given for a set of standards for
communicating among computers in which
the primary purpose is to serve as a
structural guideline for exchanging
information between computers,
workstations and networks.

OSI

## Electronics System & Technologies

Any transmission system which conveys
more than one signal simultaneously
can experience this type of
interference due to the reception of
portions of a signal from one channel
in another channel.

Crosstalk

## Electronics System & Technologies

What type of digital modulation
scheme uses two or more different
output frequencies?

FSK

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is an error-correcting code used for
correcting transmission errors in
synchronous data streams.

Hamming Code

## Electronics System & Technologies

A suite of protocols that allows a wide
variety of computers to share the
same network.

TCP/IP

## Electronics System & Technologies

Noise that is primarily caused by
lightning. Often called as Static
Noise.

atmospheric noise

## Electronics System & Technologies

A modulation technique in which the
frequency of the modulated signal
varies with the amplitude of the
modulating signal

AM

## Electronics System & Technologies

Is a form of constant amplitude angle
modulation similar to standard frequency
modulation except the modulating signal
is a binary signal that varies between two
discrete voltage levels rather than a
continuously changing analog waveform.

FSK

## Electronics System & Technologies

The highest layer in the hierarchy and
is analogous to the general manager
of the network by providing access to
the OSI environment.

Application layer

## Electronics System & Technologies

What is the equation for Hartleys Law?

I=ktB

## Electronics System & Technologies

Network topology wherein individual
terminals, microcomputers and
workstations are connected directly to
a central computer.

Star

## Electronics System & Technologies

The loss of data that occurs when two
stations transmit at the same time on
a network

collision

## Electronics System & Technologies

A term used to describe a telephone
instrument whose handset is on its

On hook

## Electronics System & Technologies

The most commonly used digital
modulation scheme.

PCM

## Electronics System & Technologies

Simple form of redundancy error checking
where each character has a numerical value
assigned to it. The characters within a
message are combined together to produce
an error checking character.

Checksum

## Electronics System & Technologies

Is an eight-bit fixed length character
set developed in 1962 by the
Corporation.

EBCDIC code

## Electronics System & Technologies

The most commonly used digital
modulation scheme.

PCM

## Electronics System & Technologies

The most commonly used digital An
attempt is made to transmit base band
frequency of 30khz using a digital audio
system with a sampling rate of 44.1khz.
What audible frequency would result?

14.1KHz

## Electronics System & Technologies

Calculate the capacity of a telephone
channel that has a S/N of 1023?

30,000 b/s

## Electronics System & Technologies

Designed to send characters of the
message with the specified bit rate but
without any fixed timing relationship
from one character to the next.

asynchronous

## Electronics System & Technologies

Token Ring Standard

802.5

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is the process of extracting a phasecoherent reference carrier from a

Carrier Recovery

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is a potential problem whenever two
metallic conductors carrying
different signals are located in close
proximity to each other.

Crosstalk

## Electronics System & Technologies

What is the termed refer as the rapid
degradation of output signal quality
with channel induced errors?

threshold effect

## Electronics System & Technologies

What was the first fixed-length
character code developed for
machines rather than for people?

Baudot code

## Electronics System & Technologies

A source whose output satisfies the
condition of statistical independence
among letters in the sequence is said
to be_____.

memoryless

## Electronics System & Technologies

Calculate the minimum data rate
needed to transmit audio with
sampling rate of 30 Khz and 14 bits
per sample.

420 Kb/s

## Electronics System & Technologies

Handles error recovery, flow control
(synchronization), and sequencing
(which terminals are sending and
which are receiving). It is considered
the media access control layer.

## Electronics System & Technologies

A MAC protocol for LANs, with stations
connected topologically or logically
in a ring. Or the IEEE 802.5 LAN
standard.

Token Ring

## Electronics System & Technologies

A network topology where each device
is connected to a centre point and all
data is routed through that point.

Star network

## Electronics System & Technologies

A lasers use organic dyes enclosed in a
glass tube for an active medium, dye
is circulated into the tube with a
pump. A powerful pulse of light
excites the organic dye.

Liquid Lasers

## Electronics System & Technologies

Codes that have a restriction on the
number of consecutive 1s or 0s in a
sequence.

## Electronics System & Technologies

Contains seven bytes (56 bits) of
alternating 0s and 1s that alert the
receiving system to the coming frame
and enable it to synchronize its input
timing

preamble

## Electronics System & Technologies

Every letter was encoded into fixed
length of binary code words of length
5.

Baudot Code

## Electronics System & Technologies

The composite signal that modulates
the FM carrier.

baseband

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is a simple means of error detection. It
involves the addition of one extra bit
to the bits that encode a character.

parity

## Electronics System & Technologies

A data compression scheme that uses fewer
bits to represent more frequently occurring
characters or bit patterns and more bits to
represent those occur less frequently.

Huffman coding

## Electronics System & Technologies

Speed at which symbols are
transmitted in a digital
communication systems.

Baud rate

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is the process of converting an
infinite number of possibilities to a
finite number of conditions.

Quantization

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is the ratio of the largest possible
magnitude to the smallest possible
magnitude that can easily be
decoded by the digital to analog
converter in the receiver.

Dynamic Range

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is the institution that developed the
ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Intertchange).

ANSI

## Electronics System & Technologies

Showed mathematically that it is posssible to
reconstruct a band-limited analog signal
from periodic samples, as long as the
sampling rate is at least twice the frequency
of the highest frequency component of the
signal.

Harry Nyquist

## Electronics System & Technologies

Find the maximum dynamic range for a
linear PCM system using 8-bit
quantizing.

49.92 dB

## Electronics System & Technologies

In operation, many modern codecs achieved
compresion by first encoding the signals
using a 12-bit linear PCM code, then
converting the 12-bit linear code into an
8-bit compressed code by discarding some
of the bits. This is a simple example of:

## Electronics System & Technologies

Sampling of an analog signal using a
sample-and-hold circuit such that the
sample has the same amplitude for
its whole duration.

Flat-topped Sampling

## Electronics System & Technologies

The basic building block of the FDM
hierarchy.

Message Channel

## Electronics System & Technologies

The GSM radio system uses GMSK in a
200kHzchannel, with a channel data
rate of 270.883 kbps. Calculate the
frequency shift between mark and
space.

135.4165kHz

## Electronics System & Technologies

For Ethernet system with a length of
2.5km on coaxial cable with a
velocity factor of 0.66. What is the
propagation delay?

12.6s

## Electronics System & Technologies

A signal at the input to a -Law
compressor is positive, with its
volatage one-half the maximum
value. What proportion of the
maximum output voltage is produced?

0.876Vo

## Electronics System & Technologies

A telephone signal take 2ms to reach
its destination. Calculate the via net
loss required for an acceptable
amount of echo

0.8dB

## Electronics System & Technologies

Who invented the telegraph?

## Electronics System & Technologies

The simplest modulation technique, where
a binary information signal modulates the
amplitude of an analog carrier.

Amplitude-Shift Keying

## Electronics System & Technologies

Is the lowest Open System
Interconnection hierarchy and is
responsible for the actual propagation
of unstructured data bits (1s and 0s)
through a transmission medium.

Physical Layer

## Electronics System & Technologies

Error-correction scheme that actually
detect and corrects transmission
errors when they are received
without requiring a retransmission.

## Electronics System & Technologies

It allows the overall complexity of the
system to be broken down into
individual function layers- that
operate essentially by themselves.

Transparency

## Electronics System & Technologies

This are very useful pictorial
representations that clearly show the
protocol operations such as words or
convetional drawings.

## Electronics System & Technologies

Pair of wires that connects the central
office to the users phone

Local loop

## Electronics System & Technologies

How long does it take to dial the
number 784-3745 using pulse dialing
with .5s inter digit time?

6.8s

## Electronics System & Technologies

Network that connects users who are in
the same general location

LAN

## Electronics System & Technologies

In operation, many modern codecs achieved
compresion by first encoding the signals
using a 12-bit linear PCM code, then
converting the 12-bit linear code into an 8bit compressed code by discarding some of
the bits. This is a simple example of:

## Electronics System & Technologies

A balanced modulator that will used in
conjuction with a microwave
generator, power amplifier, and bandpass filter, up-converts the IF carrier
to an RF carrier and amplifies the RF
to the desired output power.

Transmit Modulator

## Electronics System & Technologies

The loss of data that occurs when two
stations transmit at the same time on
a network

collision

## Electronics System & Technologies

Used to established a point to point
connection across a network.

TCP

## Electronics System & Technologies

An attempt is made to transmit a
baseband frequency of 25kHz using
digital audio system with a sampling
rate of 44.1 kHz. What audible
frequency would result?

19.1kHz

## Electronics System & Technologies

Defines the rules of the conversation
the message passing among the
network users

network protocol

## Electronics System & Technologies

The typical amount of voltage in dc use
in the battery of the central office
with respect to ground

-48

## Electronics System & Technologies

A network that is composed of a
smaller lan that are closely link. It is
needed for areas spread out
geographically

WAN

## Electronics System & Technologies

How many central office allotted for
each exchange?

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is a method of switching that
provides a separate physical path for
each symbol

space switching

## Electronics System & Technologies

The central office detects a request for
service from a telephone by

## Electronics System & Technologies

The OSI Layer responsible for data
tracking as it moves through a
network. It controls and ensures the
end to end integrity of the data
message propagated through the
network between two devices.

Transport

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is used on long distance circuits, in
an effort to overcome echoes caused
by circuit imbalances.

Echo Suppresors

## Electronics System & Technologies

Systems employing demodulators that
are designed to operate without
knowledge of the absolute value of
the incoming signals phase.

Noncoherent Demodulation

## Electronics System & Technologies

It is defined as the variation in the
delay between consecutive blocks. As
stream of blocks traverses the
network, the spacing between the
information blocks can be altered.

Jitter

## Electronics System & Technologies

A single twisted pair line that can carry
as much as 26 or 52 Mbps in either
direction.

VDSL

## Electronics System & Technologies

A popular code based on the binary
coded decimal format which uses all
8 bits for information.

EBCDIC

## Electronics System & Technologies

A request to transfer data into or out of
a computer, followed by an
acknowledge signal, allowing data
transfer to begin.

handshaking

## Electronics System & Technologies

The minimum distance in the trellis
code.

## Electronics System & Technologies

Variant of FSK which uses the minimum
possible frequency for a given bit
rate

GMSK

## Electronics System & Technologies

A relatively new data communications
technology that uses a high speed
form of packet switching network for
transmission media.

## Electronics System & Technologies

What do you call a circuit for digitizing
voice at a low data rate by using
knowledge of the way in which voice
sounds are produced?

Vocoder

## Electronics System & Technologies

Determine the (a) peak frequency
deviation, (b) minimum bandwidth and
(c) baud for a binary FSK signal with a
mark frequency of 49 kHz, a space
frequency of 51 kHz and an input bit
rate of 2 kbps