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Introduction to Reservoir

Stimulation
Kellyville Training Center

Well Stimulation
Stimulation is a chemical or mechanical method of increasing flow capacity to a well.
Dowell Schlumberger is mainly concerned with three methods of stimulation:
1. Wellbore Clean-up :
Fluids not injected into formation
a. Chemical Treatment
b. Perf Wash
2. Matrix Treatment :
Injection below frac pressure
a. Matrix Acidizing
b. Chemical Treatment
3. Fracturing
Injection above frac pressure
a. Acid Frac
b. Propped Frac

Stimulation Techniques
Restores Flow Capacity:
Wellbore Clean-up
Matrix Treatment

These procedures are performed below fracture pressure.


Create New Flow Capacity:
Hydraulic Fracturing (Acid and Sand)

These procedures are performed above fracture pressure.

Areas Where Reduction in Flow Capacity May Occur


1. Wellbore:
Scale Damage
Sand Fill
Plugged Perforations
Paraffin Plugging
Asphalt Deposits
Etc.
2. Critical Matrix:
Drilling Mud Damage
Cement Damage
Completion Fluids
Production
Native Clays/Fines

WELLBORE
Primary Purpose :
Restore flow capacity by removing restrictive damage to
fluid flow in the wellbore.
Methods :
Mechanical
Chemical Treatment
Acidizing Treatment

Critical Matrix

What is It?
The area of formation that is 3' to 5' from the wellbore.
Why is it critical?
r
(Drainage Radius)
(Pe)

(Pwf)

2,000 ft
1,000 ft
100 ft
50 ft
20 ft
10 ft
5 ft
3 ft
2 ft
1 ft
0 ft

P (psi)
5,000
4,934
4,719
4,654
4,568
4,503
4,439
4,391
4,000
3,150
2,000

P/ft
0.07 psi/ft
1.3 psi/ft
6.5 psi/ft
850 psi/ft
1,150 psi/f

% Pressure Drop
(Pe - P) (Pe - Pwf) * 100

0
2.5
10.8
13.3
16.6
19.0
21.5
23.3
24.8
27.3
100

Major Goals of Matrix Treatment


1. Restore Natural Permeability
By Treating the Critical Matrix
2. Minor Stimulation
3. Leave Zone Barrier Intact

Matrix Acidizing

1. Sandstone:
Major Effects:
Dissolves/Disperses Damage
Restores Permeability
Minor Effects:
Minor Stimulation

2. Limestone:
Major Effects:
Enlarge Flow Channels/Fractures
Disperse Damage by Dissolving Surrounding Rock
Creation of Highly Conductive Wormholes

Applications For Matrix Treatment


High Permeability Formation with Damage.
Unproppable Formations.
Treating Limitations.
Thick Zones.
To Supplement Fracturing.

Low Permeability Reservoir

Increase well productivity by creating a highly conductive path


compared to the reservoir permeability.
Damage

XL = Fracture half length

XL

The fracture will extend through the damaged near wellbore area.
The fracture size is limited to two criteria :
Drainage Radius
Cost
Fracturing is : Pumping fluid into the formation above fracture pressure.

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Darcys Equation
Oil Well :

Gas Well :

kh (P e - P wf)
q=
e
141.2 (In rrw
+ S)

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kh (P e 2 - Pwf2 )
q=
e
1424 zT (In rrw
+ S)

Skin (s)

The total Skin (ST) is the combination of mechanical and pseudo-skins. It is


the total skin value that is obtained directly from a well-test analysis.
Mechanical Skin:
Mathematically defined as an infinitely thin zone that creates a steadystate pressure drop at the sand face.
S>0
Damaged Formation
S=0
Neither damaged nor stimulated
S<0
Stimulated formation
Pseudo Skin:
Includes situations such as fractures, partial penetration, turbulence, and
fissures.
The Mechanical Skin is the only type that can be removed by stimulation.

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Skin Example

Pseudo Skin:
Producing at high rates --> turbulence
Collapsed tubing, perforations
Partial penetration / Partial perforation
Low Perforation Density (Shots/ft)
Etc.
Formation Damage:
Scales
Organic/Mixed Deposits
Silts & Clays
Emulsions
Water Block
Wettability Change

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Example
An oil well produces 57 B/D under the following reservoir and producing
conditions:
k
=
h =
o =

10 md
50 ft
1.23 res bbl/stb

0.6 cp

Pr

2,000 psi

Pwf =

500 psi

rw

.33 ft

re

1,320 ft

What is the Skin Factor?


Is there potential for Stimulation?

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INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX
TREATMENT

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Formation Damage
Damage Definition :
Partial or complete plugging of the near wellbore area

which reduces the original permeability of the formation.

Damage is quantified by the skin factor ( S ).

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Types of Formation Damage

Emulsions

Wettability Change
Water Block
Scale Formation
Organic Deposits
Mixed Deposits
Silt & Clay
Bacterial Slime

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Areas of Damage

Tubing
Scales
Organic deposits
Silicates, Aluminosilicates
Emulsion
Water block
Wettability change

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Gravel Pack

Perforations

Formation

Emulsions

Definition:
Formed by invasion of filtrates into oil zones or mixing of oil-based filtrates with
formation brines.
Any two immiscible fluids
Keys to Diagnosis:
Sharp decline in production
Water breakthrough
Production of solids
Fluid samples
Injection of inhibitors
Treatment:
Surfactants
Mutual solvents

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Wettability Change

Definition:
Oil wetting of rock from hydrocarbon deposits or adsorption of an oleophilic
(attracts oil) surfactant from treating fluid.
Keys to Diagnosis: (Normally difficult to diagnose)
Rapid production decline
Casing leak
Water breakthrough
Water coning
Decrease or disappearance of gas
Treatment:
Mutual solvent followed by water-wetting surfactant.

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Water Block

Definition:
Caused by an increase in water saturation near the wellbore which decreases the
relative permeability to hydrocarbons.
Keys to Diagnosis:
Rapid oil or gas production decline
Casing leak
Water breakthrough
Water out
Abnormally high water cut through lower perforations
Treatment:
Mutual solvents or surfactants

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Scale Formation

Definition:
Scales are precipitated mineral deposits. Scale deposition occurs during
production because of lower temperatures and pressures encountered in or
near the wellbore.
Keys to Diagnosis:
Sharp drop in production
Visible scale on rods/tubing
Water breakthrough
Treatment:
Carbonate (Most Common)
HCl, Aqueous Acetic
Sulfate
Iron
EDTA
HCl with various iron control agents
NARS
Silica
Chloride
Mud Acid
1 - 3% HCl

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Keys to Diagnosis of a Sample


Floats in H2O

Yes

Organic

No
Yes

Soluble in H 2O

NaCl (probably)

No
Odor of
rotten eggs

Yes
Soluble in HCl

Yes

No
FeS (possible)

CO 2
Evolves

No

FeCO 3
Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3
CaCO 3
MgCO 3
Ca(SO 4 ) 2 slowly soluble
(also soluble in U42)

Soluble in hot HCl


Yes

No

Yes

Soluble in hot HCl/HF

Iron Oxide

Silica Base (sand/clay)

No
Magnetic
Yes

Yes
Soluble in U42

Magnetite
FeCo 3

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SrSO 4 (slow)
BaSO 4 (very slow)

Scales : Inorganic Mineral Deposits


Types of
Scale

Usual
Occurrence

Treating
Fluids

Carbonates

CaCO3

HCl

Very
Common

CaSO42H 2 O
(gypsum)

EDTA

Common

BaSO 4 /SrSO4

EDTA

Rare

NaCl

H 2 O/HCl

Gas Wells

Fe S

HCl + EDTA

Fe 2 O 3

HCl + Sequestering
Agent

Sulfates

Chlorides

Iron

Silica

SiO 2

HF

Hydroxides

Mg/Ca(OH) 2

HCl

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Comments

CO2 /H 2 S
Possible
Produced

Very Fine

Organic Deposits

Definition:
Organic deposits are precipitated heavy hydrocarbons (parrafins or
asphaltenes). They are typically located in the tubing, perforations and/or
the formation.
The formation of these deposits are usually associated with a change in
temperature or pressure in or near the wellbore during production.
Keys to Diagnosis:
Sharp decline in production
Visual parrafin on rods and pump
Operator is "hot oiling"
Treatment:
Aromatic Solvents (Xylene, Toluene)
Mutual Solvents

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Keys to Diagnosis of Actual Organic Deposit


Floats in water

Yes

Organic Deposit

1. Burns evenly with clean flame

Yes

Paraffin/wax

No
Black sooty flame
2. Soluble in pentane

Yes

Asphaltene

Yes

Paraffin

No
Asphaltene
3. Soluble in Toluene/Xylene

Yes

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Paraffin/
Asphaltene

Silts & Clays

Definition:
Damage from silts and clays includes the invasion of the reservoir permeability
by drilling mud and the swelling and/or migration of reservoir fines.
Keys to Diagnosis:
Sharp drop in production
Lost circulation during drilling
Production tests
ARC tests
Treatment:
HCl: Carbonate Reservoirs
HF Systems: Sandstone
Quaternary Amine Polymers (L55)
Cationic Surfactant (M38B)
Fusion (Clay Acid)

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Bacterial Slime
Definition:
Anaerobic bacteria grows downhole without oxygen up
to 150F. Bacteria may chemically reduce sulfate in a
reservoir to H2S.
Treatment:
M91 (Bleach+Caustic soda)

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Sources of Formation Damage


Drilling

Cementing
Perforating
Completion and Workover
Gravel Packing
Production
Stimulation
Injection Operations

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Successful Matrix Treatment


REQUIREMENTS :
Enough Treating Fluid Volume
Correct Reactive Chemicals
Low Injection Pressure
Total Zone Coverage

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INTRODUCTION TO FRACTURING

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Applications For Hydraulic


Fracturing
If wells natural permeability is low ( Ke < 10 md )
Natural production is below economic potential
Skin By-Pass HyperSTIM or higher permeability and soft
formations.
The injected fluid is pumped at a rate above the fracture
pressure of the reservoir to create cracks or fractures
within the rock itself.

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Hydraulic Fracturing Treatment


Primary Purpose :
To increase the effective wellbore area by creating a fracture
of length XL whose conductivity is greater than that of the
formation.
Dimensionless Conductivity ( Fcd ) = Kf Wf / Ke Xf
Two Methods :
Sand Frac
Acid Frac

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Propped Frac & Acid Frac


open fracture
during job

fracture tends to close


once the pressure has been
released

1/2"

sand used to
prop the
frac open

acid etched frac


walls

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Propped Fracture Optimization


Optimize the reservoir deliverability by balancing fracture characteristics
and reservoir properties
Analyze the effect of production systems :

Perform => Nodal Analysis


Determine the pumping parameters :

DataFRAC
Tailor the fracturing fluid and proppant to the reservoir
Determine treatment size (Fluid & proppant amount)

Calculate XLand FCD


Calculate the benefit of the treatment => $
FracNPV

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Acid Fracture
Bottom hole pressure above fracturing pressure
Acid reacts with the formation
Fracture is etched
Formation must retain integrity without fracture collapse

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Hydraulic Fracturing Accomplishes:


Creates Deep Penetrating Fractures to :

Improve productivity
Interconnect formation permeability
Improve ultimate recovery
Aid in secondary recovery
Increase ease of injectivity
A hydraulic Fracture has to be cost effective to the

customer.

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Fracture Penetration is influenced


FORMATION CHARACTERISTICS :
by:
Type
Hardness
Permeability
Zone Height Presence of Barriers
Drainage Radius

FRAC FLUID CHARACTERISTICS :


Base Fluid
Viscosity
Volume
Pump Rate
Fluid Loss

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Orientation Of The Fracture


The fracture will extend perpendicular to the axis of the
least stress.
Overburden Pressure
X - Y - Z Coordinate :
Favored Fracture Direction

Least Principal Stress


(i.e. Vertical Fracture)

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Vertical Or Horizontal Fracture

Vertical fracture plane is perpendicular


to earths surface due to overburden
stress being too great to overcome

Horizontal fracture with a pancake like


geometry. Usually associated with
shallow wells of less than 3,000 ft. depth

Rule-Of-thumb :
Frac Gradient < 0.8 psi / ft --------> Vertical Fracture
Frac Gradient > 1.0 psi / ft --------> Horizontal Fracture

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Fracture Propagation Models


KGD
XL < h

PKN
XL > h

Radial
XL = h/2

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Rock Mechanical Behavior


Youngs Modulus :
E =

Poissons Ratio :

L1 - L2 / L1
d1 - d2 / d1
D1

D2

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Rock Mechanical Behavior


Youngs Modulus :
E =

Poissons Ratio :

L1 - L2 / L1
d1 - d2 / d1

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Fracture Width
W = ( Q L) 1/4
E

PKN

W = ( QL2)1/4
EH

KGD

= Viscosity of fluid
Q = Injection Rate
H = Gross Height
L = Xf
E = Youngs Modulus

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Net Present Value

BENEFITS :
Design lowest cost job
Realize full production rate potential
Forecast post treatment decline
Study impact of treatment variables

FracNPV

APPLICATION :
Select optimum XL, W & proppant type
Aid in determining whether or not to fracture a new well
Determine size of production equipment
Evaluation of the fracture treatment based on well performance

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FracNPV

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Design
Fra cC AD E *

W e ll XXXX
1235.5//1249.5
0 8 -2 6 -1 9 9 7

N e t P r e s e n t V a lu e
600000

N e t P re s e n t Va lu e - $ (U S )

500000

400000

300000

200000

F luid Typ e

100000

YF 1 2 0 L G
0

-1 0 0 0 0 0

C le a rF R A C (3
0

100

200

300

H yd ra u lic H a lf-L e n g th - ft
P ro d u c t io n t im e 1 y e a r

*Mark o f Sch lu m b erg er

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400

500

Conclusion
Three Types of Stimulation :
Wellbore Clean-up
Matrix Treatment
Hydraulic Fracturing

Well Candidate Selection :


What is it ?
How does Dowell Schlumberger use it ?
What are some of the tools associated with it ?
NPV
What is it ?
How can it be used to design a treatment ?
How does the output benefit our customers and us ?

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