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Prevention and

Control Program
Updates and
Directions

Program Thrust
To find hidden cases of leprosy and put them
on Multi- Drug Therapy (MDT)

Guide to
ELIMINATE LEPROSY

as PUBLIC HEALTH
PROBLEM

To eliminate leprosy we NEED to
detect ALL patients and cure
them with MDT.
Improving ACCESS to leprosy
diagnosis and treatment is
crucial

 Ensuring that all leprosy patients are cured .  Enabling every health worker to diagnose and treat leprosy  Dispelling the fear of leprosy. at all health centers.This final push to eliminate leprosy involves:  Making leprosy diagnosis and treatment available. free of charge. improving awareness of its early signs. and motivating people to seek treatment.

 WHO has defined “elimination” as a prevalence of less than 1 case per 10.Number of ongoing treatment X 10.000 Population .The Final Push to Eliminate Leprosy  Elimination means bringing the disease burden down to a very low level.000 inhabitants  PR . so that leprosy is likely to disappear naturally as it already has in many parts of the world. This will lead to a reduction in the source of infection.

Sangla Hansen’s Disease Ketong .

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Hansen in 1873  It mainly affects NERVES with skin manifestations  It progresses SLOWLY with an average incubation period of 3-15 years  Leprosy can affect all ages and both sexes .What is leprosy?  Leprosy is COMMUNICABLE disease caused by Mycobacteruim leprae by Dr.

MDT kills the bacteria and stops the spread of the disease. bathing in the river.  Leprosy patients can lead completely NORMAL LIVES. leprosy will NOT lead to disabilities It is NOT TRUE that leprosy is caused by evil spirits.What is leprosy?  Leprosy can be CURED. or sudden exposure to hot or cold temperature (pasma) .  If detected early and treated with MDT. eating certain kinds of foods.

• Leprosy is an infectious disease directly transmitted from man to man. . • It is acquired through prolonged exposure.TRANSMISSION Transmission is mainly airborne. • It is transmitted from one untreated person to another via the respiratory tract.

Untreated leprosy patients 2.SOURCES OF LEPROSY INFECTION 1.  Children are considered more susceptible than adults  . Patients who do not take adequate treatment regularly These patients most probably transmit the disease to susceptible individuals through sneezing or coughing.

. enough rest and exercise. Young children should avoid direct contact with untreated patients 3. Maintain body resistance by healthful living: good nutrition.PREVENTION AND CONTROL 1. clean environment. Practice personal hygiene 4. Treat all known leprosy cases to prevent infection 2.

How to diagnose leprosy?  Signs of leprosy    A leprosy patient is someone who: Has a SKIN PATCH or patches with a definite LOSS OF SENSATION. touch. and has not completed a full course of treatment with MDT Leprosy patches       Can be pale or reddish or copper-colored Can be flat or raised Do not itch Usually do not hurt Lack of sensation to heat. or pain Can appear anywhere .

Signs of leprosy  Pale or slightly reddish patch (PATCH)  Definite loss of sensation in the patch (ANESTHESIA)  Signs of damage to nerves (NERVE DAMAGE)  definite loss of sensation in hands/feet  weakness of muscles of hands/feet/face  visible deformity of hands/feet/face .

Diagnosis of leprosy is mainly based on clinical signs and symptoms. i .

Other signs of leprosy are:  Skin lesion(s) with a decrease or loss of sweating and/or hair growth. .

Other signs of leprosy are:   Skin lesion(s) with a decrease or loss of sweating and/or hair growth. . Constant redness in the eyes from irritation and dryness.

Constant redness in the eyes from irritation and dryness.Other signs of leprosy are:    Skin lesion(s) with a decrease or loss of sweating and/or hair growth. Loss of eyebrows and eyelashes (madarosis). .

. Nasal congestion / obstruction and frequent nosebleed.Other signs of leprosy are:     Skin lesion(s) with a decrease or loss of sweating and/or hair growth. Loss of eyebrows and eyelashes (madarosis). Constant redness in the eyes from irritation and dryness.

.Other signs of leprosy are:  Collapse of nose bridge.

 Enlargement of the breast in males (gynecomastia).Other signs of leprosy are:  Collapse of nose bridge. .

Mobile or stiff clawing of fingers and toes.Other signs of leprosy are:  Collapse of nose bridge.  .  Enlargement of the breast in males (gynecomastia).

Mobile or stiff clawing of fingers and toes. Chronic ulcers.   .  Enlargement of the breast in males (gynecomastia). palm of the hands and fingers. usually in the sole of the foot.Other signs of leprosy are:  Collapse of nose bridge.

CLINICAL MANIFESTATION ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF LESION(S) 3 TYPES: 1 patch is Single Lesion Paucibacillary (SLPB) leprosy 2-5 patches is Paucibacillar y (PB) leprosy More than 5 patches is Multibacillary (MB) leprosy .Classification of leprosy 1.

SKIN-SMEAR RESULT ANY PATIENT SHOWING A POSITIVE SKIN SMEAR. SHOULD BE CLASSIFIED MB AND TREATED WITH THE MDT REGIMEN FOR MB LEPROSY.Classification of leprosy Based on: 2. IRRESPECTIVE OF THE CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION. .

it cannot be leprosy  Test only one or two skin patches for sensory loss  If there is a definite loss of sensation. If so. face. . and feet • When in doubt about the diagnosis. hands. always send the patient to the nearest referral center • If you suspect leprosy without sensory loss or have any doubts. please refer.How to EXAMINE a patient for leprosy? • Ask about treatment  received in the past Examine the skin in daylight or in a well-lit room  Examine the whole body. taking care to respect the patient’s privacy  Ask the patient if the patch itches. it is leprosy • A person who has completed a full course of MDT very rarely needs further treatment • Look for any visible disability of eyes.

normal skin and  Lightly touch the skin with a on the same patch pen again  Ask the person to point to where they felt the pen • If the person feels  Now ask them to close their nothing on the eyes so that they cannot see skin patch. it is what you are doing leprosy  Lightly touch the center of • the most prominent skin patch • Start treatment and ask them to point to immediately where they felt the pen  .How to test for Sensory Loss? Take a pointed object such as ballpen  Show the person what you are • Repeat the procedure on going to do.

Treating a case with MDT .

Your help is what we need! .

How can YOU help eliminate leprosy in your community?  LOOK out for skin lesions during the routine activities  Diagnose leprosy and START MDT treatment immediately  Give Accompanied MDT to all patients who cannot visit the health center regularly  ENCOURAGE patients to complete the full course of treatment  Keep ADEQUATE stocks of MDT at the health center .

which DO NOT ITCH. can be leprosy Treatment to cure leprosy is available FREE of charge at all health center The drugs STOP the spread of leprosy EARLY treatment prevents disabilities Patients who have completed treatment are CURED even if they have deformities Patients can lead perfectly NORMAL lives .How can YOU help eliminate leprosy in your community?  INFORM       the Community that : Skin patches without sensation.

religious authorities.How can YOU help eliminate leprosy in your community?  Display posters about leprosy in public places  Enlist the support of others (community leaders. and traditional practitioners ) to SPREAD POSITIVE MESSAGES ABOUT LEPROSY . teachers.

.How can you help in the fight against leprosy?  Recognize that ….  Leprosy is preventable  Leprosy is curable  Free treatment is available  Social discrimination has no place  Leprosy patients deserves respect and dignity  Offer support to the patient and their family.

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Let’s work together towards Leprosy – free Caraga .

Thank you for listening! .