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Chapter 6 : What makes a person

want to learn ?

MP 1512165T
MP 1512400T
MP 1512110T
MP 1522016T


Chapter 6 : What makes
a person want to learn ?
Pg 111-142
Psychology for Language
teachers : Marion Williams and
Robert L. Burden

Language influences
 Motivation- meaningful when the person
wants to learn.
- Interest , curiosity, desire to achieve,
parents, , teachers and exams.

 Various interpretations due to changes in
the theories of psychology

Cognitive approach – learning experiences. learning environment    Effectiveness of rewards system Specific conditioning Identification of basic human needs .6.2 Explains about the behaviorist experiments on animals on their responses and environment that co-relate to that of Factors/ Key questionslearners.

6.1 Achievement motivation  Need to achieve and implication based on learning history  Drive to succeed dominates high achievers in everything they do while others lack this.  WHY? .2.

 Not enough to know an individual level of need to achieve in any specific situation will interact with how likely the individual judges the chances of success to be what value is placed on a successful outcome. .

parental expectation and job openings . Fear of failure  Strength of the tendency to approach a task compared with the strength of the tendency to avoid ( own drive )  Competitive nature of the education system.

 Due to the above: a sophisticated technique was devised in attempt to measure it as precise and accurately as possible to predict the likelihood of people being motivated to perform different activities.  It was perceived individuals with high scores need fewer motivational influences than those who scored poorly .

. Motivation is complicated than implied by achievement theory.

2 Optional arousal  According to Donald Hebb’s text “ The Organization of Behavior 1959” Suggests : i) Both humans and animals seek ‘optimal arousal’ to function best without having to meet other basic needs.6.2. .

 Berlyn (1960) and Hunt (1965) confirmed that even rats were motivated by curiosity and novelty and not edible rewards to avoid pain. .

Awareness of conscious control and beyond our control  Language belongs to a persons whole social being  It’s part of one’s identity  Social impact on the social nature of the learner  Success in learning a foreign language will be influenced by the attitudes towards the community of speakers of the language. .

 Sociolinguist – Howard Giles  It involves communicating with others… the socio relations with individuals and groups of people.Social psychology of language has developed into an important discipline in its own right. context and culture .  Language learning affects social situations.

 The most influential model is Howard Gardner’s       social educational model of language learning ( Gardner 1985) Incorporating the learners : .cultural beliefs -attitudes -learning situations -integrativeness motivation .Models of language learning are social psychological in manner.

 Motivation is defined as effort + desire to achieve the goal of learning the language + favourable attitudes towards learning the language  Attitudes towards the learning situation and integrativeness influences these attributes. .

desire to learn the language.AMTB( Gardner 1985 177-184) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery  Consist of self report questionnaires containing a a battery of questions to measure 19 different subscales that represent different aspects of motivation. .Gardner and associates  Defined motivation is operational for  The purpose of measurement.


. Gardner then stresses that AMTB should be developed so that its appropriate to the particular situation under investigation.  Gardner makes a distinction : Orientation is different from motivation :  i) integrative orientation occurs when the learner is studying the language because of a wish to identify with the culture of the speakers of the language. –contributes to integrative motivation.

promotions. career advancement etc. Instrumental orientation describes a group of factors concerned with motivation arising from external goals –exams.  Integrative motivation : correlates with higher achievement . financial rewards.

Bombay . Other challenges arguing these views i) implying integrative motivation is more important than instrumental motivation. English in USA. -depends on the second language context of learning eg : French in Canada. English in Malaysia. Philippines. India .

 ii) other factors come into play – confidence and friendship  Gardner and Tremblay claim:  -motivation is a dynamic process where many variables play a part in their model that can broaden the view of what makes a learner want to learn. .

a three level categorization related to second language learning i) culture ii) community iii) usefulness of the language . Dörnyei (1994a) uses a model that     proposes: .

Influences the learners :  i) goal set by the learners  ii) choices they make 1. Situational level – related to the course. teacher and group dynamics . Learner level / individual characteristicsneed to achieve and self confidence 2.

. 6.Cognitive perspective –people have a choice over their behavior. control of actions  .4 A cognitive view of motivation  .awareness leads to set goals by deciding the action needed to achieve the goals.

5 A Social Constructivist Perspective  A constructivist view of motivation centres around the premise that each individual is motivated differently  What motivates one person to learn L2 and keeps that person going until he or she is satisfied will differ from individual to individual .6.

6 A proposed definition of motivation     Motivation may be construed as a) a state of cognitive and emotional arousal b) which leads to a conscious decision to act c) which gives rise to a period of sustained intellectual and/or physical effort  in order to attain a previously set goals (or goals) .6.

 The initial arousal may be triggered by different causes. perhaps internal ones such as interest or curiosity or often by external influences such as another person or event  once the activity has begun. . the individual needs to sustain the effort needed to achieve the goal (to persist)  motivation occurs as a result of combination of different influences such as internal and external.

7 A Model of Motivation  First. there are reasons for undertaking a particular activity  Second. we consider what is actually involved in deciding to do something: what makes people choose to embark on a particular task and to invest time and energy in it  Third.6. people need to sustain the effort required to complete the activity to their own satisfaction .

3 Stages of Motivation sustaining the effort or persisting deciding to do something reasons for doing something .

 motivation is more than simply arousing interest.  the first two stages of our model may be seen as more concerned with initiating motivation while the last stage involves sustaining motivation . It also involves sustaining that interest and investing time and energy into putting in the necessary effort to achieve certain goals.


Different Perspectives on Motivation       intrinsic & extrinsic perceived value of the activity locus of control locus of causality effectiveness motivation motivational style .

6.1981) preference for challenge VS preference for easy work curiosity/ interest VS pleasing teacher/getting grades independent mastery VS dependence on teacher in figuring out problems independent judgment VS reliance on teacher’s judgement about what to do internal criteria for success VS external criteria for success .8 Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation (Harter.

 Harter’s first two dimensions are more concerned with reasons for acting  The last two dimensions are more concerned with acting in a motivated way. or sustaining the effort.  She sees the first three as truly motivational and tap into what the child want to learn and the last two as she sees as more concerned with control or judging progress .

 Harter concludes that a child can be intrinsically motivated in the first three and relatively extrinsically motivated in the last two dimensions. .