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General PLC architecture

RS 232






serial port ethernet
controller controller

parallel bus


field bus




Digital Output







direct Inputs and Outputs

Plc – programmable logical
A digitally operated electronic equipment
which uses a programmable memory for internal
storage of instruction by implementing specific
function through analog or digital modules.
specific instruction such as

Logical sequence




• A PLC (i.e. Programmable Logic Controller) is a device
that was invented to replace the necessary sequential
relay circuits for machine control.

Major Component of PLC
The three basic element of PLC are
Central Processing unit
Input Modules
Output Modules


decided on the appropirate signals. which it transmits to the respective output module. .Central Processing unit(CPU) The CPU receives i\p signals from the various i\p modules and based on the programs stored in the memory.

. Random Access Memory(Read/Write) • Read/write indicates that the information stored in the memory can be retrieved or read.Memory VOLATILE. while write indicates that the user can program or write information into the memory. • Even momentary losses of power will erase any information stored or programmed on a volatile memory chip. • Common Type of Volatile Memory • RAM. • A volatile memory is one that loses its stored information when power is removed.

Ram memory is used for both the user memory (ladder diagrams) and storage memory in many PLC’s. .• The words random access refer to the ability of any location (address) in the memory to be accessed or used. • RAM memory must have battery backup to retain or protect the stored program.

• Common Type of Non-Volatile Memory • ROM. Information in ROM is placed there by the manufacturer for the internal use and operation of the PLC. . These memories do not require battery back-up.• NON-VOLATILE Has the ability to retain stored information when power is removed. Read Only Memory • Read only indicates that the information stored in memory can be read only and cannot be changed. accidentally or intentionally.

This type of memory is used to prevent unauthorized program changes. . • PROM may be written into only once after being received from the PLC manufacturer. Programmable Read Only Memory Allows initial and/or additional information to be written into the chip. • The current melts the fusible links in the device. preventing it from being reprogrammed.• PROM. programming is accomplish by pulses of current.

but when the opaque material is removed and the circuitry exposed to ultra violet light. • The EPROM chip is also referred to as UVPROM. This window normally is covered by an opaque material.• EPROM. • The EPROM chip has a quartz window over a silicon material that contains the electronic integrated circuits. . the memory content can be erased. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory • Ideally suited when program storage is to be semipermanent or additional security is needed to prevent unauthorized program changes.

.EEPROM. is a chip that can be programmed using a standard programming device and can be erased by the proper signal being applied to the erase pin. If the program in RAM is lost or erased. a copy of the program stored on an EEPROM chip can be down loaded into the RAM. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory • Also referred to as E2PROM. • EEPROM is used primarily as a non-volatile backup for the normal RAM memory.

• Input modules converts signals from discrete or analog input devices to logic levels acceptable to PLC’s processor. 12 .INPUT/OUTPUT MODULE • The main purpose of the I/O interface is to condition the various signals received from or sent to the external input and output devices. • Output modules converts signal from the processor to levels capable of driving the connected discrete or analog output devices.

I/O Module DC INPUT MODULE IS NEEDED TO:  Prevent voltage transients from damaging the processor. hysteresis Circuits TO PROCESSOR 13 . Filter. Helps reduce the effects of electrical noise USE TO DROP THE VOLTAGE TO LOGIC LEVEL FROM INPUT DEVICE Current Limiting Resistor OPTOISOLATOR Buffer.

I/O Module AC INPUT MODULE IS NEEDED TO:  Prevent voltage transients from damaging the processor. Helps reduce the effects of electrical noise CONVERTS THE AC INPUT TO DC AND DROPS THE VOLTAGE TO LOGIC LEVEL FROM INPUT DEVICE Rectifier. Hysteresis Circuits TO PROCESSOR 14 . Filter. Resistor Network OPTOISOLATOR Buffer.

Programming the PLC PLC is programmed by means of a programming device. Programming language of PLC are: Ladder diagram Low level language based on boolean expression Functional Block High level languages Most of the programming method used today for plcs are based on ladder logic diagram .

Ladder Diagram Ladder logic uses graphic symbols similar to relay schematic circuit diagrams. . Ladder diagram consists of two vertical lines representing the power rails. Circuits are connected as horizontal lines between these two verticals.

the notation used depending on the PLC manufacturer.Power flows from left to right. 5. 3. Each ouutput can be used only once in the program.Otput on right side can not be connected directly with left side.The inputs a/o outputs are all identified by their addresses. 7. 4. .Each rung contains one output at least. 2.Ladder builder diagram features 1. 6. Contact can not be placed on the right of output.A particular input a/o output can appear in more than one rung of a ladder.

•Logic continuity exists when power flows through the rung from left to right.LADDER DIAGRAM FORMAT •A ladder rung is TRUE when it has logic continuity. •The execution of logic events that enable the output provide this continuity. 18 .

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. 2. 4.There are five program elements/operations commonly used in PLC ladder diagram they are 1. 5. 3. PLC Bit logic operations Timer Operations Counter operations Comparison operations Arithmetic operations.

If any one of the push button is released. PLC wiring diagram and ladder diagram to implement this task.Double acting cylinder is used to perform machinng operation. . Pneumatic cylinder is advanced by pressing two push buttons simultaneously.Example 1. cylinder comes back to start position. Draw the pneumatic circuit.


Output at the coil 01 operated the solenoid coil and cylinder moves foraward to do the required operation. The pushbuttons PB1 and PB2 are connected at memory address I1 and I2. If any one of PB1 and PB2 is pressed. .As shown in the PLC wiring diaram . then corresponding bit addresses turns to 0. as a result power flows thorugh the coil and there will be output at coil 01. When the push buttons PB1 and PB2 are pressed simultaneously. I1 and I2 are connected in series in ladder diagram to relase this AND logic funtion. the addresses I1 and I 2 turn to state 1 from state 0 .

It is described as being a graphical language for depicting signal and data flows through blocks.Functional block The term function block diagram (FBD) is used for PLC programs described in terms of graphical blocks. these being reusable software elements. yields one or more output values. . when executed. A function block is a program instruction unit which.

Enhanced functional block format .

Functional block instructions (a) one enable line and one output (b) one enable line. a start timing command. 27 . and two outputs.

turn the field output devices on or off. then. • This process of sequentially reading the inputs. based on whatever control scheme has been programmed by the user. . and updating the outputs is known as scanning. or perform whatever control is necessary for the process application. executing the program in memory. execute the user program stored in application memory.PLC operation Basic Function of a Typical PLC • Read all field input devices via the input interfaces.

PLC operation PHASE 1 Read Inputs Scan PHASE 2 Program Execution PHASE 3 Diagnostics/ Comm PHASE 4 Output Scan 29 .

PHASE 1 – Input Status scan  A PLC scan cycle begins with the CPU reading the status of its inputs. the CPU performs diagnostics and communication tasks 30 . PHASE 2– Logic Solve/Program Execution  The application program is executed using the status of the inputs PHASE 3– Logic Solve/Program Execution  Once the program is executed.

The cycle ends by updating the outputs. whereby the stored output values are sent to actuators and other field output devices.Output Status Scan • An output status scan is then performed. 31 .PHASE 4 .

They can be programmed and reprogrammed to accommodate frequent changes in program • Monitoring of on line work process is easy.PLC widely used in industries area due to following reasons • Cost of PLC automation is less and PLC is very versatile • PLC can be commissioned and installed easily • Programming of PLC is quite simple. . therefore trouble shooting and maintenance of PLC is not a difficult task. Ladder programming is flexible • They are not hard wired control.