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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools
6th Edition

Krar • Gill • Smid

The Lathe
Section 11
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.

History
• Lathe forerunner of all machine tools
• First application was potter's wheel
– Rotated clay and enabled it to be formed into
cylindrical shape

• Very versatile (many attachments)
– Used for turning, tapering, form turning, screw
cutting, facing, drilling, boring, spinning,
grinding and polishing operations
• Cutting tool fed either parallel or right angles

Special Types of Lathes
• Engine lathe
– Not production lathe, found in school shops,
toolrooms, and jobbing shops
– Basic to all lathes

• Turret lathe
– Used when many duplicate parts required
– Equipped with multisided toolpost (turret) to
which several different cutting tools mounted
• Employed in given sequence

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Engine Lathe Parts Unit 45 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

threading. and polishing • Three common – Toolroom – Heavy-duty – Gap-bed . facing. tapering. boring.Engine Lathe • Accurate and versatile machine • Operations – Turning. form turning. grinding. drilling.

swing with capacity of 16 in. to 12 feet between centers – Typical lathe: 13 in.to 30.Lathe Size and Capacity • Designated by largest work diameter that can be swung over lathe ways and generally the maximum distance between centers • Manufactured in wide range of sizes – Most common: 9. – Average metric lathe: 230-330 mm swing and bed length of 500 – 3000 mm . 6 ft long bed.in. swing. 36 in.

Lathe Size Indicated by the swing and the length of the bed Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Parts of the Lathe Headstock Tailstock Bed Quick Change Gearbox Carriage Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

and back gear drive • Geared-head lathe – Speeds changed by moving speed levers into proper positions according to r/min chart fastened to headstock .Setting Speeds on a Lathe • Speeds measured in revolutions per minute – Changed by stepped pulleys or gear levers •Safety Belt-driven lathe Note!! NEVER change speeds – Various speeds obtained by changing flat belt when lathe is running.

lead screw.Shear Pins and Slip Clutches • Prevents damage to feed mechanism from overload or sudden torque • Shear pins – Made of brass – Found on feed rod. and end gear train • Spring-loaded slip clutches – Found only on feed rods – When feed mechanism overloaded. shear pin will break or slip clutch will slip causing feed to stop .

Inc.Shear pin in end gear train prevents damage to the gears in case of an overload Spring-ball clutch will slip when too much strain is applied to feed rod Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Lathe Accessories Unit 46 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

chucks.46-15 Lathe Accessories • Divided into two categories – Work-holding. -supporting. drive plates – Cutting-tool-holding devices • Straight and offset toolholders • Threading toolholders. and –driving devices • Lathe centers. faceplates • Mandrels. steady and follower rests • Lathe dogs. boring bars • Turret-type toolposts .

Permission required for reproduction or display. . steel with carbide tips • Care to adjust and lubricate occasionally Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.46-16 Lathe Centers • Work to be turned between centers must have center hole drilled in each end – Provides bearing surface • Support during cutting • Most common have solid Morse taper shank 60º centers. Inc.

46-17 Chucks • Used extensively for holding work for machining operations – Work large or unusual shape • Most commonly used lathe chucks – Three-jaw universal – Four-jaw independent – Collet chuck .

46-18 Three-jaw Universal Chuck • Holds round and hexagonal work • Grasps work quickly and accurate within few thousandths/inch • Three jaws move simultaneously when adjusted by chuck wrench – Caused by scroll plate into which all three jaws fit • Two sets of jaw: outside chucking and inside chucking Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.

square. and irregularly shaped workpieces • Has four jaws – Each can be adjusted independently by chuck wrench • Jaws can be reversed to hold work by inside diameter .46-19 Four-Jaw Independent Chuck • Used to hold round. hexagonal.

Inc. .46-20 Headstock Spindles Universal and independent chuck fitted to three types of headstock spindles 1. Tapered spindle nose – Held by lock nut that tightens on chuck Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Threaded spindle nose – Screws on in a clockwise direction 2. Permission required for reproduction or display.

. Inc. Cam-lock spindle nose • • Held by tightening cam-locks using T-wrench Chuck aligned by taper on spindle nose Registration lines on spindle nose Registration lines on cam-lock Cam-locks Cam-lock mating stud on chuck or faceplate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.46-21 Headstock Spindles 3. Permission required for reproduction or display.

46-22 Collet Chuck • Most accurate chuck • Used for high-precision work • Spring collets available to hold round. square. or hexagon-shaped workpieces • Each collet has range of only few thousandths of an inch over or under size stamped on collet .

. and hollow draw bar having internal thread inserted in opposite end of headstock spindle. Permission required for reproduction or display.46-23 Collet Chuck | Special adapter fitted into taper of headstock spindle. It draws collet into tapered adapter causing collet to tighten on workpiece. Inc. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. .46-24 Types of Lathe Dogs • Standard bent-tail lathe dog – Most commonly used for round workpieces – Available with square-head setscrews of headless setscrews • Straight-tail lathe dog – Driven by stud in driveplate – Used in precision turning Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

46-25 Types of Lathe Dogs • Safety clamp lathe dog – Used to hold variety of work – Wide range of adjustment • Clamp lathe dog – Wider range than others – Used on all shapes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .

Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.46-26 Left-Hand Offset Toolholder • Offset to the right • Designed for machining work close to chuck or faceplate and cutting right to left • Designated by letter L Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.46-27 Right-Hand Offset Toolholder • Offset to the left • Designed for machining work close to the tailstock and cutting left to right – Also for facing operations • Designated by letter R Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Permission required for reproduction or display.46-28 Straight Toolholder • General-purpose type • Used for taking cuts in either direction and for general machining operations • Designated by letter S Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .

46-29 Toolholders for Indexable Carbide Inserts • Held in holder by cam action or clamps • Types available – Conventional – Turret-type – Heavy-duty toolposts .

46-30 Cutting-Off (Parting) Tools • Used when work must be grooved or parted off • Long. thin cutting-off blade locked securely in toolholder by either cam lock or locking nut • Three types of parting toolholders – Left-hand – Right-hand – Straight .

46-31 Threading Toolholder • Designed to hold special form-relieved thread-cutting tool • Has accurately ground 60º angle – Maintained throughout life of tool • Only top of cutting surface sharpened when becomes dull .

. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.46-32 Super Quick-Change Toolpost Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Cutting Speed. Inc. Feed. Permission required for reproduction or display. and Depth of Cut Unit 47 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

47-34 Cutting Speed • Rate at which point on work circumference travels past cutting tool • Always expressed in feet per minute (ft/min) or meters per minute (m/min) • Important to use correct speed for material – Too high: cutting-tool breaks down rapidly – Too low: time lost. low production rates .

47-35

Lathe Cutting Speeds in Feet and Meters per
Minute Using High-Speed Steel Toolbit
Turning and Boring
Rough Cut Finish Cut Threading
Material

ft/min

m/min

ft/min

m/min
11

Machine steel

90

27

100

30

35

Tool steel

70

21

90

27

30

9

Cast iron

60

18

80

24

25

8

Bronze

90

27

100

30

25

Aluminum 200

61

300

93

60

18

8

47-36

Calculating Lathe Spindle Speed
• Given in revolutions per minute
• Cutting speed of metal and diameter of
work must be known
• Proper spindle speed set by dividing
CS (in/min) by circumference of work (in)

CS x 12 CS x 4
r/min 

D
D

47-37

Example:
Calculate r/min required to rough-turn 2 in. diameter
piece of machine steel (CS 90):

CS x 4
r/min 
D
90 x 4
r/min 
 180
2
CS x 320
r/min 
Metric Formula
D

47-38 Lathe Feed • Distance cutting tool advances along length of work for every revolution of the spindle • Feed of engine lathe dependent on speed of lead screw for feed rod – Speed controlled by change gears in quick-change gearbox .

015-in.005-in (0.to 0.25.010.to .012-mm) .003.07.4-mm) • Finishing cut – Used to bring diameter to size – Fine feed: Produce good finish • .to .to 0.47-39 Two Cuts Used to Bring Diameter to Size • Roughing cut – Purpose to remove excess material quickly – Coarse feed: surface finish not too important • . (0.

015–.5 . Machine steel Finish Cuts mm in.010–.010 0 .4–0.005–.25–0.003–.030 0.005–.4–0.5 .003–.012 0.025 0.015–.020 0.75 . .13–0 .07–0 Cast iron .010–.020 0.010 0.010 0.003–.65 .47-40 Feeds for Various Materials (using high-speed steel cutting tool) Rough Cuts Material in.015–.010 0 Tool steel .65 Aluminum .13–0 Bronze .25–0.4–0.025 0.

005 in.040 in. .76  to 1 mm) of size required – Finishing cut should not be less than . (0.030 to .47-41 Depth of Cut • Depth of chip taken by cutting tool and onehalf total amount removed from workpiece in one cut • Only one roughing and one finishing cut  – Roughing cut should be deep as possible to  reduce diameter to within .

Permission required for reproduction or display.47-42 Example: Depth of cut on a lathe Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .

and cutting tool • Rate of feed .47-43 Factors Determining Depth of Rough-Turning Cut • Condition of machine • Type and shape of cutting tool used • Rigidity of workpiece. machine.

001 in.010 in. so . • Check machine for its' graduations . cutting tool moved .020 in. toward work • Lathe revolves.47-44 Inch System • Circumference of crossfeed and compound rest screw collars divided into 100-125 equal divisions – Each has value of .010 depth of cut taken from entire work circumference reducing diameter . • Turn crossfeed screw clockwise 10 graduations.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .47-45 On machines where the workpiece revolves. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. the cutting tool should be set in for only half the amount to be removed from the diameter.

Permission required for reproduction or display. the cutting tool should be set in for the amount of material to be removed.47-46 On machines where the workpiece does not revolve. Inc. . Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Make sure collar is secure before setting a depth of cut 2. must be turned backward half-turn and fed into proper setting to remove backlash 4.47-47 Hints on Graduated Collar Use 1. All depths of cut must be made by feeding cutting tool toward workpiece 3. If graduated collar turned past desired setting. Never hold graduated collar when setting depth of cut .

amount removed from length of work = ½ amount of feed on collar Machining accurate diameters • • Set compound rest to 84º16' to the cross-slide . accuracy Compound rest swung to 30º. Graduated collar on compound rest can be used for accurately setting depth of cut • Shoulder turning • • • • Facing • • Compound rest set at 90º to cross-slide Lock carriage in place Spacing of shoulders to within . infeed movement .47-48 5.001 in.0001-in.001 in movement = .

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .47-49 The compound rest is set at 84º16' for making fine settings. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Lathe Safety Unit 48 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

48-51 Safety • Be aware of safety requirements in any area of shop • Always attempt to observe safety rules • Failure results in: – Serious injury – Resultant loss of time and pay – Loss of production to company .

48-52 Safety Precautions • Lathe hazardous if not operated properly • Important to keep machine and surrounding area clean and tidy • Accidents usually caused by carelessness .

remove tie and tuck in loose clothing • Never wear ring or watch .48-53 Safety Precautions • Always wear approved safety glasses • Rollup sleeves.

oil or adjust machine • Do not use rag to clean work or machine when in operation – Rag can get caught and drag in hand .48-54 Safety Precautions • Do not operate lathe until understand controls • Never operate machine if safety guards removed • Stop lathe before measure work or clean.

48-55

Safety Precautions
• Never attempt to stop a lathe chuck or
driveplate by hand
• Be sure chuck or faceplate mounted securely
before starting
– If loose, becomes dangerous missile

• Always remove chuck wrench after use
– Fly out and injure someone
– Become jammed, damaging wrench or lathe

48-56

Safety Precautions
• Move carriage to farthest position of cut and
revolve lathe spindle one turn by hand
– Ensure all parts clear without jamming
– Prevent accident and damage to lathe

• Keep floor around machine free from grease,
oil, metal cuttings, tools and workpieces
– Oil and grease can cause falls
– Objects on floor become tripping hazards

48-57

Safety Precautions
• Avoid horseplay at all times
• Always remove chips with brush
– Chips can cause cuts if use hands
– Chips become embedded if use cloths

• Always remove sharp toolbit from
toolholder when polishing, filing, cleaning,
or making adjustments

PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Mounting. Removing. Permission required for reproduction or display. and Aligning Lathe Centers Unit 49 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Inc.

49-59 Objectives • Mount and/or remove lathe centers properly • Align lathe centers by visual. trialcut. and dial-indicator methods .

49-60 Lathe Centers • Work machined between centers turned for some portion of length. then reversed. and other end finished • Critical when machining work between centers that live center be absolutely true – Concentric work .

49-61 To Mount Lathe Centers • Remove any burrs from lathe spindle. or spindle sleeves • Clean tapers on lathe centers and in headstock and tailstock spindles • Partially insert cleaned center in lathe spindle • Force center into spindle • Follow same procedure when mounting tailstock center • Check trueness of center . centers.

forcing it out of spindle .49-62 To Remove Lathe Centers • Live center – Use knockout bar pushed through headstock spindle (slight tap) – Use cloth over center and hold to prevent damage • Dead center – Turn tailstock handwheel to draw spindle back into tailstock • End of screw contacts end of dead center.

.49-63 Alignment of Lathe Centers • • Parallel diameter produced when lathe center aligned Three common methods used to align 1. Aligning centerlines on back of tailstock with each other – Only a visual check and not too accurate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.

Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.49-64 Alignment of Lathe Centers 2. . Using parallel test bar and dial indicator • Fastest and most accurate method Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Using the trial-cut method where small cut taken from each end of work and diameters measured with a micrometer 3.

Make sure tailstock lines still aligned 5. Tighten screw to lock both halves in place 4. Lock tailstock clamp nut or lever . Loosen tailstock clamp nut or level 2.49-65 To Align Centers by Adjusting the Tailstock 1. depending on direction tailstock must be moved and tighten other until line on top aligns with line on bottom half 3. Loosen on of the adjusting screws.

Take a light cut (~.49-66 To Align Centers by Trial-Cut Method 1.250 in. long 2. Stop feed and note reading on graduated collar of crossfeed handle 3. Move cutting tool away from work with crossfeed handle 4. Bring cutting tool close to headstock end .005 in.) to true diameter from section A at tailstock end for .

Measure both diameters with micrometer .500-in (13 mm) length at section B and stop lathe 7. Return cutting tool to same graduated collar setting as at section A 6. Cut a .49-67 To Align Centers by Trial-Cut Method 5.

adjust tailstock either toward or away from cutting tool ½ difference of two readings 9. If both diameters not same size.49-68 To Align Centers by Trial-Cut Method 8. . Take another light cut at A and B at same crossfeed graduated collar setting. Measure diameters and adjust tailstock.

Mount dial indicator on toolpost or lathe carriage – Indicator plunger should be parallel to lathe bed and contact point set on center .49-69 To Align Centers Using Dial Indicator and Test Bar 1. Clean lathe and work center. Adjust test bar snugly between centers and tighten tailstock spindle clamp 3. mount test bar 2.

49-70

To Align Centers Using Dial
Indicator and Test Bar
4. Adjust cross-slide

Indicator registers approximately .025 in at
tailstock, indicator bezel to 0

5. Move carriage by hand so indicator
registers on diameter at headstock end and
not indicator reading
6. If both indicator readings not same, adjust
tailstock with adjusting screws until
indicator registers same at both ends

49-71

To Align Centers Using Dial
Indicator and Test Bar
7. Tighten adjusting screw that was loosened
8. Tighten tailstock clamp nut
9. Adjust tailstock spindle until test bar snug
between lathe centers
10. Recheck indicator readings at both ends
and adjust tailstock, if necessary

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools
6th Edition

Krar • Gill • Smid

Grinding Lathe
Cutting Tools
Unit 50
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .50-73 Grinding Lathe Cutting Tool • Wide variety of cutting tools for lathe – All have certain angles and clearances regardless of shape Shape and Dimensions of General-purpose Lathe Toolbit Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

50-74 To Grind a General-Purpose Toolbit 1. Hold toolbit at proper angel to grind cutting edge angle • Tilt bottom of toolbit toward wheel and grind 10º side relief or clearance angle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Dress face of grinding wheel 2. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Grip toolbit firmly. supporting hands on grinder toolrest 3.

Permission required for reproduction or display. .50-75 Cutting edge ~ ½ In long and extend over ¼ width of toolbit 10º side relief or clearance angle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

Toolbit must be cooled frequently during grinding • • • Never overheat toolbit! Never quench stellite or cemented-carbide tools Never grind carbides with aluminum oxide wheel . move toolbit back and forth across face of wheel • Prevents grooving wheel 5.50-76 4. While grinding.

. Permission required for reproduction or display. Grind end cutting edge so it forms angle of a little less than 90º with side cutting edge – Hold tool so that end cutting edge angle and end relief angle of 15º ground at same time 70º to 80º Point Angle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.50-77 6. Inc.

50-78 7. Permission required for reproduction or display. Using toolbit grinding gage. . Inc. check amount of end relief when toolbit is in toolholder Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Permission required for reproduction or display. . Hold top of toolbit approximately 45º to axis of wheel and grind side rake to approximately 14º – Do not grind below top of toolbit • Creates a chip trap Side rake ground the length of the cutting edge Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.50-79 8. Inc.

50-80 9. With oilstone. being sure to maintain same front and side clearance angle 10. Grind slight radius on point of cutting tool. hone cutting edge of toolbit slightly • • Lengthen life of toolbit Enable it to produce better surface finish on workpiece .

Inc.PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Machining Between Centers Unit 52 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display.

filing and polishing . rough and finish-turning. shoulder turning.52-82 Machining Between Centers • Training programs (schools) – Remove and replace work in lathe many times before completed – Need assurance that machined diameter will run true with other diameters • Machining between centers saves time in setting up • Common operations – Facing.

52-83 Setting Up a Cutting Tool 1. Mount toolholder in toolpost so setscrew in toolholder 1 in. Move toolpost to the left-hand side of the T-slot in the compound rest 2. Inc. . beyond toolpost Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

.52-84 Heavy Cuts: Set toolholder at right angles to work Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Tighten toolpost securely to prevent it from moving during a cut .500 in. Insert proper cutting tool into toolholder. 3. having tool extend .52-85 Setting Up a Cutting Tool: cont. Set cutting-tool point to center height • Check it against lathe center point 5. beyond toolholder and never more than twice its thickness 4.

52-86 Purposes of a Trial Cut • Produce accurate turned diameter – Measured with micrometer • Set cutting-tool point to the diameter • Set crossfeed micrometer collar to the diameter .

Set up workpiece and cutting tool as for turning 2.52-87 Procedure to Take a Trial Cut 1. Turn compound rest handle clockwise ¼ of a turn to remove any backlash . Set proper speeds and feed to suit material 3. Start lathe and position toolbit over work approximately . from end 4.125 in.

52-88 5. 8. along length of work 9. Disengage automatic feed and clear toolbit past end of work with carriage handwheel .060 in. feed toolbit into work by turning crossfeed handle clockwise until light ring appears around entire circumference of work 6. Do NOT move crossfeed handle setting 7.250 in. and take trial cut . Turn crossfeed handle clockwise about . Turn carriage handwheel until toolbit clears end of workpiece by about . 010 in.

Test accuracy of micrometer by cleaning and closing measuring faces and then measure trial-cut diameter 12. Calculate how much material must still be removed from diameter of work 13. Turn crossfeed handle clockwise ½ amount of material to be removed . Stop the lathe 11.52-89 10.

Measure diameter and readjust crossfeed handle until diameter is correct 17. Clear toolbit over end of work with carriage handwheel 16. Take another trial cut .250 in.52-90 14. Machine diameter to length . long and stop the lathe 15.

feed recommended • Work rough-turned to – Within . of finished size when removing up to .52-91 Rough Turning • Removes as much metal as possible in shortest length of time • Accuracy and surface finish are not important in this operation – .500 in.030 in. when removing > .020.to . diameter – Within .060 in.030-in.500 in. .

Adjust quick-change gearbox for a . Move toolholder to left-hand side of compound rest and set toolbit height to center .010to . feed • Depends on depth of cut and condition of machine 3.030-in. Set lathe to correct speed for type and size of material being cut 2.52-92 Procedure for Rough Turning 1.

Take light trial cut at right-hand end of work for a . Cut along for .. stop lathe. length 6.250 in. and check diameter for size 1. Diameter . Measure work and adjust toolbit for proper depth of cut 7.52-93 4. Tighten toolpost securely to prevent toolholder from moving during machining 5. if necessary .030 in.250 in. over finish size 8. Readjust depth of cut.

52-94 Finish Turning • Follows rough turning • Produces smooth surface finish and cuts work to an accurate size • Factors affecting type of surface finish – Condition of cutting tool – Rigidity of machine and work – Lathe speeds and feeds .

Set toolbit on center. Set lathe to recommended speed and feed . 2. burrs. Make sure cutting edge of toolbit free from nicks. etc. check it against lathe center point 3.52-95 Procedure For Finish Turning 1.

Stop lathe and measure diameter 6.250 in. stop lathe. long at righthand end of work • • • Produce true diameter Set cutting tool to diameter Set graduated collar to diameter 5.52-96 4.250 in.. Cut along for . Take light trial cut . Set depth of cut for half amount of material to be removed 7. check 8. Readjust depth of cut and finish-turn .

52-97 Filing in a Lathe • Only to remove small amount of stock. file with left hand so arms and hands kept clear of revolving chuck • Remove toolbit from toolholder before filing • Cover lathe bed with paper before filing . or round off sharp corners • Work should be turned to within .002 to .003 in. remove burrs. of size • For safety.

Mount work between centers.52-98 Procedure to File in a Lathe 1. Move carriage as far to right as possible and remove toolpost 4. Select 10. mill file or long-angle lathe file .or 12-in. Disengage lead screw and feed rod 5. and carefully adjust dead center in work 3. lubricate. Set spindle speed to twice that for turning 2.

Grasp file handle in left hand and support file point with fingers of right hand Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.52-99 6. Start lathe 7. Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display.

Apply light pressure and push file forward to its full length. release pressure on return stroke 9. Move file about half width of file for each stroke and continue filing until finished • Use 30-40 strokes per minute 10.52-100 8. Safety precautions • • • • • Roll sleeves above elbow Remove watches and rings Never use file without properly fitted handle Never apply too much pressure Clean file frequently with file brush .

wide Use aluminum oxide abrasive cloth for ferrous metals Use silicon carbide abrasive cloth should be used for nonferrous metals 2. Disengage feed rod and lead screw . Set lathe to run at high speed 3. Select correct type and grade of abrasive cloth for finish desired • • • Piece about 6 – 8 in.52-101 Procedure for Polishing in a Lathe 1. long and 1 in.

Move cloth slowly back and forth . press cloth firmly on work while tightly holding other end of abrasive cloth with left hand 10. Lubricate and adjust dead center 6. Roll sleeves up above elbows and tuck in any loose clothing 7. Remove toolpost and toolholder 5. Start lathe 8.52-102 4. With right hand. Hold abrasive cloth on work 9.

52-103 Shoulder • Shoulder: the change in diameters. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. . or step. when turning more than one diameter on a piece of work • Three common types of shoulders – Square – Filleted – Angular or Tapered Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Permission required for reproduction or display. .52-104 Three Types of Shoulders Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Knurling. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Grooving. and Form Turning Unit 53 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

53-106 Knurling • Process if impressing a diamond-shaped or straight-line patter into the surface of the workpiece – Improve its appearance – Provide better gripping surface – Increase workpiece diameter when press fit required .

and straight-pattern rolls available in three styles – Fine – Medium – Course Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.53-107 Knurling • Diamond. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .53-108 Knurling Tool • Toolpost-type toolholder on which pair of hardened-steel rolls mounted Knurling tool with one set of rolls in self-centering head Knurling tool with three sets of rolls in revolving head Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

53-109 Universal Knurling Tool System • Dovetailed shank and as many as seven interchangeable knurling heads that can produce wide range of knurling patterns • Combines in one tool – – – – Versatility Rigidity Ease of handling Simplicity .

Set carriage feed to . Mount work between centers and mark required length to be knurled • If work held in chuck for knurling.53-110 Procedure to Knurl in a Lathe 1. Set lathe to run at one-quarter speed required for turning 3. . right end of work should be supported with revolving tailstock center 2.030 in.015 to .

Set center of floating head of knurling tool even with dead-center point 5. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Set knurling tool at right angles to workpiece and tighten it securely Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.53-111 4. Inc.

Force knurling tool into work approximately . Start machine and lightly touch rolls against work to check tracking 7.025 in.53-112 6. and start lathe OR Start lathe and then force knurling tool into work until diamond pattern come to point . Move knurling tool to end of work so only half the roll face bears against work 8.

engage automatic carriage feed and apply cutting fluid to knurling rolls 11. Once pattern correct. Stop lathe and examine pattern 10.53-113 9. reverse lathe feed and take another pass across work . If knurling pattern not to point after length has been knurled. otherwise. rings will be formed on knurled pattern 12. Knurl to proper length and depth • Do not disengage feed until full length has been knurled.

53-114 Grooving • Done at end of thread to permit full travel of nut up to a shoulder or at edge of Square shoulder for proper fit • Also called recessing. . Inc. or necking • Rounded grooves used Round where there is strain on part V-shaped Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. undercutting. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Lay out location of groove 3. Set toolbit to center height . Grind toolbit to desired size and shape of groove required 2. Set lathe to half the speed for turning 4. Mount workpiece in lathe 5.53-115 Procedure to Cut a Groove 1.

Calculate how far crossfeed screw must be turned to cut groove to proper depth 10. Hold crossfeed handle in position and set graduated collar to zero 9. Feed toolbit into work slowly using crossfeed handle . Start lathe and feed cutting tool toward work using crossfeed handle until toolbit marks work lightly 8.53-116 6. Locate toolbit on work at position where groove is to be cut 7.

Stop lathe and check depth of groove with outside calipers or knife-edge verniers Safety note: Always wear safety goggles when grooving on a lathe . reduce spindle speed 12. Apply cutting fluid to point of cutting tool • • To ensure cutting tool will not bind in groove.53-117 11. move carriage slightly to left and to right while grooving Should chatter develop.

Inc. .PowerPoint to accompany Technology of Machine Tools 6th Edition Krar • Gill • Smid Threads and Thread Cutting Unit 55 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

thread milling. and transmitting power and motion • Art of producing threads continually improved • Massed-produced by taps. and grinding .55-119 Threads • Used for hundreds of years for holding parts together. dies. thread rolling. making adjustments.

studs.55-120 Threads • Thread – Helical ridge of uniform section formed on inside or outside of cylinder or cone • Used for several purposes: – Fasten devices such as screws. bolts. as in micrometer – Transmit motion – Increase force . and nuts – Provide accurate measurement.

. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.55-121 Thread Terminology Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

55-122 Thread Terminology • Screw thread – Helical ridge of uniform section formed on inside or outside of cylinder or cone • External thread – Cut on external surface or cone • Internal thread – Produced on inside of cylinder or cone .

55-123 • Major diameter – Largest diameter of external or internal thread • Minor diameter – Smallest diameter of external or internal thread • Pitch diameter – Diameter of imaginary cylinder that passes through thread at point where groove and thread widths are equal – Equal to major diameter minus single depth of thread – Tolerance and allowances given at pitch diameter line .

55-124 • Number of threads per inch – Number of crests or roots per inch of threaded section (Does not apply to metric threads) • Pitch – Distance from point on one thread to corresponding point on next thread. lead = pitch) . measured parallel to axis – Expressed in millimeters for metric threads • Lead – Distance screw thread advances axially in one revolution (single-start thread.

55-125 • Root – Bottom surface joining sides of two adjacent threads – External thread on minor diameter – Internal thread on major diameter • Crest – Top surface joining two sides of thread – External thread on major diameter – Internal thread on minor diameter • Flank – Thread surface that connects crest with root .

55-126 • Depth of thread – Distance between crest and root measured perpendicular to axis • Angle of thread – Included angle between sides of thread measured in axial plane • Helix angle – Angle that thread makes with plane perpendicular to thread axis .

toolbit advanced from right to left • Left-hand thread – Helical ridge of uniform cross section onto which nut is threaded in counterclockwise direction – When cut on lathe.55-127 • Right-hand thread – Helical ridge of uniform cross section onto which nut is threaded in clockwise direction – When cut on lathe. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. toolbit advanced from left to right Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

8 . 1975 ISO came to an agreement covering standard metric thread profile – Specifies sizes and pitches for various threads in new ISO Metric Thread Standard – Has 25 thread sizes.55-128 Thread Forms • April. and pitch M 5 X 0.6 to 100 mm – Identified by letter M. nominal diameter. range in diameter from 1.

all having same shape and proportions – – – – National Coarse (NC) National Fine (NF) National Special (NS) National Pipe (NPT) • Has 60º angle with root and crest truncated to 1/8th the pitch • Used in fabrication.55-129 American National Standard Thread • Divided into four main series. machine construction .

125 x P or N Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.6134 D  .55-130 American National Standard Thread . . Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.125 F  .6134 x P or N .

S.55-131 Unified Thread • Developed by U. and Canada for standardized thread system • Combination of British Standard Whitworth and American National Standard Thread Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Britain.. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc.

5413 x P or N .125 F (external thread)  .55-132 . Permission required for reproduction or display.6134 x P or N .125 x P or N .250 F (internal thread)  . Inc.6134 D (external thread)  . .5413 D (internal thread)  .250 x P or N Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

010 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.500P + 0.55-133 American National Acme Thread • Replacing square thread in many cases • Used for feed screws. and vises D = minimum .3707P - . F = . jacks.500P = maximum . Inc.3707P C = .0052        (for maximum depth) . Permission required for reproduction or display.

55-134 Brown & Sharpe Worm Thread • Used to mesh worm gears and transmit motion between two shafts at right angles to each other but not in same plane D = . Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.310P Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.335P C = .6866P F = .

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. .002 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.55-135 Square Thread • Being replaced by Acme thread because of difficulty in cutting it D = .500P • Often found on vises F = .500P and jack screws C = .500P + .

Inc.125P R = 0.55-136 International Metric thread • Standardized thread used in Europe D = 0. F = 0.054P (minimum) .7035P (maximum) = 0.6855P (minimum) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.0633P (maximum) = 0. Permission required for reproduction or display.

55-137 Thread Fits and Classifications • Fit – Relationship between two mating parts – Determined by amount of clearance or interference when they are assembled • Nominal size – Designation used to identify size of part • Actual size – Measured size of thread or part – Basic size: size from which tolerances are set .

55-138 Allowance • Permissible difference between largest external thread and smallest internal thread • Difference produces tightest fit acceptable for any given classification The allowance for a 1 in.002 in. Allowance = .9188 in.—8 UNC Class 2A and 2B fit is: Minimum pitch diameter of the internal thread (2B) = .9168 in. Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = . .

9168 in.55-139 Tolerance • • • • Variation permitted in part size May be expressed as plus.9100 in. minus. . Minimum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = . Tolerance = . or both Total tolerance is sum of plus and minus tolerances In Unified and National systems.0068 in. tolerance is plus on external threads and minus on internal threads The tolerance for a 1 in.—8 UNC Class 2A thread is: Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = .

55-140 Limits • Maximum and minimum dimensions of part The limits for a 1 in.—8 UNC Class 2A thread are: Maximum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = .9100 in. Minimum pitch diameter of the external thread (2A) = . ..9168 in.

2A.55-141 Three Categories of Unified Thread Fits • External threads classified as 1A. 3B • Classes 1A and 1B – Threads for work that must be assembled – Loosest fit • Classes 2A and 2B – Used for most commercial fasteners – Medium or free fit • Classes 3A and 3B – Used where more accurate fit and lead required – No allowance provided . 2B. and 3A and internal threads as 1B.

628 in.061 in.100 in.(. .61343 x . minor diameter.061  .55-142 Thread Calculations: Example 1 To cut a correct thread on a lathe. tpi 10 P 1 1 Width of flat   x D  .75 . it is necessary first to make calculations so thread will have the proper dimensions.( D  D) P = pitch  . P   . and width of flat for a ¾—10 UNC thread.061) 1 1  . D = single depth of thread Minor dia  Major dia .61343 x P 8 8 10  .  . depth. Calculate pitch.0125 in.100  .

3 X 1 thread? P = pitch = 1 mm D = 0.( D  D)  6.25 x P  0.125 x 1  0.54127 x 1     = 0.54 mm Width of root  0.3 .(.22 mm Width of crest  0. width of crest and width of root for an M 6.125 mm .55-143 Thread Calculations: Example 2 What are the pitch.54  .54)  5.25 mm Minor dia  Major dia . minor diameter.25 x 1  0. depth.125 x P  0.

which is in line with the pitch 4. From chart on quick-change gearbox. engage tumbler lever in hole. With lathe stopped.55-144 Procedure to Set the QuickChange Gearbox for Threading 1. find whole number that represents pitch in threads per inch or in millimeters 3. Set top lever in proper position as indicated on chart . Check drawing for thread pitch required 2.

Recheck lever settings to avoid errors .55-145 5. Engage sliding gear in or out as required 6. Turn lathe spindle by hand to ensure that lead screw revolves 7.

55-146 Thread-Chasing dial • Lathe spindle and lead screw must be in same relative position for each cut – Thread-chasing dial attached to carriage for this purpose • Dial has eight divisions – Even threads use any division – Odd threads either numbered or unnumbered: not both Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. .

55-147 Thread Cutting • Produces a helical ridge of uniform section on workpiece • Performed by taking successive cuts with threading toolbit of same shape as thread form required • Work may be held between centers or in chuck .

Secure 60º threading toolbit and check angle using thread center gage 5.55-148 Procedure to Set Up a Lathe for Threading (60º Thread) 1. Set quick-change gearbox for required pitch in threads per inch or in millimeters 3. Set compound rest at 29º to right. set to left for left-hand thread . Set lathe speed to ¼ speed used for turning 2. Engage lead screw 4.

55-149 6. it must be held tightly 8. Arrange apron controls to allow split-nut lever to be engaged . using thread center gage 9. Set toolbit at right angles to work. Mount work between centers • • Make sure lathe dog is tight on work If work mounted in chuck. Set cutting tool to height of lathe center point 7.

Start lathe and chamfer end of workpiece with side of threading tool to just below minor diameter of thread 3. Mark length to be threaded by cutting light groove at this point with threading tool while lathe revolving . Check major diameter of work for size 2.55-150 Thread-Cutting Operation Procedure to cut a 60º thread 1.

Hold crossfeed handle in this position and set graduated collar to zero 7. but stop when handle is at 3 o'clock position 6. Turn crossfeed handle until threading tool close to diameter. Move carriage until point of threading tool near right-hand end of work 5. Turn compound rest handle until threading tool lightly marks work .55-151 4.

55-152

8. Move carriage to right until toolbit clears
end of work
9. Feed compound rest clockwise about .003 in.
10. Engage split-nut lever on correct line of
thread-chasing dial and take trial cut along
length to be threaded
11. At end of cut, turn crossfeed handle
counterclockwise to move toolbit away from
work and disengage split-nut lever

55-153

12. Stop lathe and check number of tpi with
thread pitch gage, rule, or center gage
13. After each cut, turn carriage handwheel to
bring toolbit to start of thread and return
crossfeed handle to zero
14. Set depth of all threading cuts with
compound rest handle

See Table 55.2 and Table 55.3

55-154

When tool is fed in at 29º, most of the cutting
is done by the leading edge of toolbit.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.

0405 .0537 .050of.0417 .046 14 .036 .031 .037 18 .0674 .041 16 .55-155 Table 55.0465 .059 .0325 .0375 .0308 20 .2  Depth settings for cutting 60° national form threads* Compound Rest Setting tpi 0° 30° 29° 24 .027 .0577 .0468 .057 from textbook 11 .0525 table taken 13 Portion .068 .

Remove burrs from top of thread with file 17.55-156 15. Check thread with master nut and take further cuts . Apply cutting fluid and take successive cuts until top (crest) and bottom (root) of thread are same width 16.

55-157 Six Ways to Check Threads • Depends on accuracy required: 1. Optical comparator . Three wires 4. Master nut or screw 2. Thread micrometer 3. Thread roll or snap gage 5. Thread ring or plug gage 6.