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HIST ORY

ASSIGN MENT- I

SUBMITTED TO :AR. DEEPSHIKA JINDAL
SUBMITTED BY:GEETANSH KOHLI
13025006008

and glass The industrial revolution began in england about 1760 Architects and engineers devised structures hitherto undreamed of in function. Radical changes at every level of civilization throughout the world 13025006008 . size. and form. steel.The INDUSTRIALREVOLUTION TIME LINE 2100 2000 1900 1800 1800 1700 1700 2008 Growth of heavy industry brought a flood of new building materials— cast iron.

Fundamental change in political culture. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION : spreads from England to Europe and North America. THE ENLIGHTENMENT : Enhanced the significance and the social status of every citizen. who earn hard living in the numerous factories. 13025006008 .INTRODUCTION The swift development of architectural technique and form in this century has roots that go as far back as the 18th century. created a new type of worker : the wage-laborer or proletarian. 19TH CENTURY : An era of revolutionary changes affecting every aspects of life.

NEW INVENTIONS THE STEAM ENGINE : Invented by James Watt in 1785. AMOS BEAM ENGINE 1867 13025006008 . whose proliferation into newly built machine shop and iron foundries engendered an appropriate type of building.

bridges. Christopher Blackett 13025006008 . George & Robert Stephenson Locomotive : 1813. tunnels.NEWINVENTIONS THE RAILWAY : A meaningful symbol of the new age which in turn had consequences for architecture stations. The Rocket : 1829.

Carl Benz Singer sewing machine : 1870 Remington Typewriter No 10: 1907 13025006008 .OTHERNEWINVENTIONS Quadricycle : 1896. Henry Ford Motorwagen : 1888.

This marked the onset of the most Glass can be manufacture in larger significant technological revolution in sizes and volumes. 13025006008 . Cast iron. is approximately four times resistant to tension and bending as as resistant to compression as stone. Solid structures could be replaced by skeleton structures. Francois hennebique developed the reinforced concrete construction. particularly in overcoming the weakness which existed in previous reinforced concrete structures. using prefabricated elements. Structures consisting of metal columns and girders no longer needed walls for their statics. stone.IRONSTEELGLASS&CONCRETE New materials were increasingly used. architectural history. is only four times heavier. It can be form and molded into any shape. making it possible to erect buildings of almost unrestricted height and width very quickly. an essentially brittle Wrought iron. which is forty times as material.

New York 18691883 Brooklyn Bridge. New York 1869-1883 Clifton Suspension Bridge. Bristol. Brooklyn. London 13025006008 . England 1836-1864 Tower Bridge. Brooklyn.IRON The Iron Rail Road Station The Iron Market Place The Iron Commercial Buildings The Iron Cultural and Religious Buildings The Iron Exhibition Buildings Brooklyn Bridge.

PANCRAS STATION. A massive 11. The station which has a single span roof of 243 feet length of 689 ft 100 ft above ground four type AF high friction clamps fixing is used for roof ST.000 tons of steel used for the walkways and towers. LONDON. Two piers were sunk into the river bed to support the weight of the bridge. Completed and opened in the year 1894. 1864 . SIR HORACE JONES It was designed by william henry barlow and building work started in 1863.M. using 5 major contractors and over 400 labourers. R. TOWER BRIDGE. BARLOW. LONDON. WILLIAM H.It was opened by edward 7th when he was prince of wales 8 years in construction. ORDISH2 6 13025006008 . 1886 - .

13025006008 . Charles Dutert (architect) & Victor Contamin (engineer). Paris: Gustave Eiffel Paris World Exhibition 1889 : Machine Hall.WORLDEXPOSITION Paris World Exhibition 1889 Paris World Exhibition 1889 Eiffel Tower.

United States 13025006008 . Philadelphia.WORLDEXPOSITION Centennial Exhibition 1876 Centennial Exhibition 1876.

where it stood until accidentally destroyed by fire in 1936. it was the largest building ever constructed. since their birth in London’s Hyde Park in 1851. It was afterwards re-erected on Sydenham Hill. with an area of 770. In 1851.WORLDEXPOSITION Great exhibitions.ft. were of standard 4 feet lengths.000 sq. London. held in Hyde Park. set into wooden sash-bar. have served repeatedly as testing grounds for new architectural ideas . Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace soon became the model for other experiment in iron and glass. Its iron frame was prefabricated in sections and its glass panels. 13025006008 . The Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851.

000 sq. In 1851.Crystal Palace Floor Plan Facade Its iron frame was prefabricated in sections and its glass panels. with an area of 770. it was the largest building ever constructed. were of standard 4 feet lengths. 13025006008 .Ft.WORLDEXPOSITION . set into wooden sash-bar.

SOCIAL EFFECTS Strike action Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who. The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Even after this. after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the British 13025006008 Labour Party. . thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. Many strikes were painful events for both sides. the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action. unions were still severely restricted. the unions and the management.The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills. In England. factories and mines.

dirty living conditions and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution 13025006008 . Preindustrial society was very static and often cruel . but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. SOCIAL EFFECTS Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories. the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry.child labour.In terms of social structure. However.