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EARTHQUAKES

Earthquakes
are caused as the result of a sudden release of energy in
the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Eearthquakes
are also known as a quake ,tremoror
trembler.The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of
an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes
experienced over a period of time.

CAUSE OF EARTHQUAKE
Earthquakes are caused by
movements of plates
underneath the Earth's
surface. The places where
these plates meet are breaks
in the Earth's crust called
faults. Earthquakes often
happen when these plates
along the faults move in
different directions. These
shifting plates create energy
that is called seismic waves.
These waves move outward
just like waves that are
formed by a disturbance in a
body of water (picture the
rings in a lake when you
throw in a pebble).

MEASUREMENT OF
EARTHQUAKES
Earthquakes can be recorded by seismometers
up to great distances, because seismic
waves travel through the whole Earth's interior.
The absolute magnitude of a quake is
conventionally reported by numbers on
the Moment magnitude scale (formerly Richter
scale, magnitude 7 causing serious damage
over large areas), whereas the felt magnitude is
reported using the modified Mercalli intensity
scale.

Here is an approximate and basic description of what happens when


earthquakes of different strengths strike. Youll notice that the higher the
number gets, the worse the damage becomes.
9.0 and above Causes complete devastation and large-scale loss of life.
8.0 Very few buildings stay up. Bridges fall down. Underground pipes
burst. Railroad rails bend. Large rocks move. Smaller objects are tossed
into the air. Some objects are swallowed up by the earth.
7.0 It is hard to keep your balance. The ground cracks. Roads shake.
Weak buildings fall down. Other buildings are badly damaged.
6.0 Pictures can fall off walls. Furniture moves. In some buildings, walls
may crack.
5.0 If you are in a car, it may rock. Glasses and dishes may rattle.
Windows may break.
4.0 Buildings shake a little. It feels like a truck is passing by your house.
3.0 You may notice this quake if you are sitting still, or upstairs in a
house. A hanging object, like a model airplane, may swing.
2.0 Trees sway. Small ponds ripple. Doors swing slowly. But you can't tell
that an earthquake is to blame.
1.0 Earthquakes this small happen below ground. You can't feel them.

EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKES

Shaking and ground rupture


Landslides and avalanches
Tsunami
Floods
Soil Liquefaction

WAYS TO SURVIVE AN
EARTHQUAKE

If you're outside, get into the open. Stay clear of buildings, power
lines or anything else that could fall on you. Glass looks smooth and
still, but when broken apart, a small piece can damage your foot.
This is why you wear heavy shoes to protect your feet at such times.
Be aware that items may fall out of cupboards or closets when the
door is opened, and also that chimneys can be weakened and fall
with a touch. Check for cracks and damage to the roof and
foundation of your home.
Things You'll Need: Blanket, Sturdy shoes, Dust mask to help filter
contaminated air and plastic sheeting and duct tape to shelter-inplace, basic hygiene supplies, e.g. soap, Feminine supplies and
personal hygiene item
Securing water heaters, major appliances and tall, heavy furniture to
prevent them from toppling are prudent steps. So, too, are storing
hazardous or flammable liquids, heavy objects and breakables on
low shelves or in secure cabinets