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SIPROTEC 4

Distance Protection
7SA522 and 7SA6
Productmanager Distance Protection
Michael Claus
EV S V 13 Nrnberg H
Phone: +49 911 433 8261
Fax: +49 911 433 8301
Email: Michael.Claus@ev.siemens.de

Distance protection

Info - 1
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4 What it means

SIPROTEC 4
is a family of numerical
Protection, Control and Automation
Devices
from

Distance protection

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

Distance protection: Past and Present


7SA510

SIPROTEC 4
Software System

7SA511
7SA513

7SA522
7SA6
bi
ria
Va
lit
y

Re
qu
ire
m
en

ts

e
nc
rie
pe
Ex

em
t
s
Sy

SIPROTEC 4
Hardware Platform

Distance protection

Info - 3
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection 7SA522 and 7SA6

7SA522 + 7SA6
One family of
distance
protection for
all voltage
applications

Distance protection

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance protection

7SA610

7SA611 + 7SA522

7SA612 + 7SA522

7SA61 + 7SA522
Protection
4-line display
MV, HV and EHV
7SA63
Protection + local control
integrated graphic display
mainly MV

7SA631

7SA632
7SA64
Protection + local control
detached control panel
mainly MV

7SA641

Distance protection

7SA642

All core functions are


available in all the
housing versions
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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection, Scope of functions (1)

ANSI-No.

Distance Protection

21, 21N

full scheme measurement with sophisticated loop selection

fast three phase and single phase tripping

with/without parallel line compensation

special filtering for CVT transients

special algorithm for detection and compensation of CT


saturation Low demand on CT specification

Power swing blocking/out-of-step tripping


Fault Locator with/without parallel line compensation

Distance protection

68
FL

Info - 6
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

17.10.97
en513all7

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection, Scope of functions (2)
Universal teleprotection interface
(PUTT, POTT, Blocking, Unblocking, DTT...)
High resistance earth fault protection
for earthed systems
Teleprotection interface for earth fault protection
(Directional comparison, Blocking, Unblocking)
Weak infeed protection
(Echo and Trip)
Overcurrent protection DMTL/IDMTL as parallel or
emergency function

Distance protection

ANSI-No.
85-21
50N, 51N,
67N
85-67N
WI
50, 51
50N-2,
51N-2

Info - 7
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

17.10.97
en513all8

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection, Scope of functions (3)

ANSI-No.

Voltage protection 1)
Fast tripping with switch-onto-fault condition (12 ms)

59, 27 1)
50HS

STUB Bus Overcurrent protection


Single and three pole multishot automatic reclosure

50-STUB
79

Synchro-check
Circuit-breaker failure protection

25
50BF

Thermal overload protection 2)


Earth fault detection in compensated/isolated systems 2)

49 2)

1)

7SA522: Overvoltage, 7SA6: Over- and Undervoltage

2)

available only in 7SA6

Distance protection

Info - 8
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection, Scope of functions (4)

ANSI-No.

Trip Circuit Supervision


Lock Out

74TC

Oscillographic Fault Recording (total length 15 s)


Voltage Phase Sequence

FR

Interfaces

Time synchronization (IRIG-B, DCF77)

User interface#1 (on the front for DIGSI 4)

User-(Service-)interface #2 (on the rear, DIGSI 4/Modem)

System interface (IEC60870-5-103/Profibus FMS/others)

Remote relay interfaces #1 (planned for teleprotection*)

Remote relay interfaces #2 (planned for teleprotection*)


1)
* available approx. 1st Q/01
available only in 7SA522

86

47

1)

Distance protection

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection, Monitoring
Operating system monitoring

Plausibility monitoring

Auxiliary voltage failure

Current sum

Measured value detection

Current symmetry

Buffer battery

Open conductor

HardwareWatchdog

SoftwareWatchdog

Fuse Failure

1- / 2-pole failures

Working memory

Program memory

Voltage sum

Parameter memory

Voltage symmetry

Sampling frequency

Voltage phase rotation

1/5 Asetting

Calibration data

Earth current
transformer
sensitive/normal

Modules (I/O Boards)

Distance protection

ne w

3-pole failures

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection
Quadrilateral Characteristic

Line

Z5

5 Zones (time delayed)


optionally:
-

Forward
Reverse
Non-directional

Z4
Z2
Z1B

Z1

Load

Load

Dependant Zone Z1b for


Teleprotection and
Auto-recloser

Z3

Prevention of load
encroachment
Distance protection

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Overall Trip Time Curves at SIR = 30
50

If
45

40

trip p in g tim e (m s )

ZL

ZQ
E

VF

35

distance relay

30

25

20
Relay S
15

SIPROTEC 4, 7SA522 + 7SA6


Relay E

10

Relay A

0
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

% of zone 1 setting

Distance protection

Info - 13
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4 Distance Protection,


Data window position, Adaptive Measuring Algorithm
A
+ 2 .0 0
+ 1 .6 0
+ 1 .2 0
+ 0 .8 0
+ 0 .4 0
+ 0 .0 0
-0 .4 0
-0 .8 0
-1 .2 0

Estimator 1 (n=5)
E s tim a to r 2 ( n = 6 )
E s tim a to r 3 ( n = 8 )
E s tim a to r 4 ( n = 1 0 )
E s tim a to r 5 ( n = 1 3 )
E s tim a to r 6 ( n
N o rm a l s ta g e
(n = 2 1 )
N o rm a l s ta g e
(n = 2 6 )
N o rm a l s ta g e

=15)
1
2
3
0

ju m p d e te c tio n

Distance protection

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80
m s

Info - 14
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SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection Function: Difference 7SA522 - 7SA6
7SA522

for solid earthed systems

quadrilateral and/or MHO characteristic


(MHO circle for specific markets, quadrilateral is preferred)

full market introduction: 1999

primary market outside continental Europe

7SA6

for systems with solid grounding or


reactance (compensated) / isolated treatment of system starpoint
fault detection selectable as either I>, Z<, U/I and U/I/

Market introduction: Summer 2000

Primary market continental Europe

Distance protection

Info - 15
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection 7SA522
X

Line
Z5

Mho Characteristic
Z4
Z1B

5 Zones optionally:
-

Z2

Forward
Reverse

Z1

Load

Dependant Zone Z1b for


Teleprotection and
Auto-recloser
Prevention of load
encroachment
Distance protection

Load
R

Z3 (if revers)

Info - 16
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SIPROTEC 4, Distance Protection


Parallel-line compensation: connection and setting
L1 (A)
L2 (B)
L3 (C)

Busbar
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8

52

Line

Distance protection

Circuit
breaker

IL1(A)
IL2(B)
IL3(C)
I4
52

Circuit
breaker

Parallel line

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

Patented power swing detection provides secure operation with


swing frequencies of up to 6 Hz
iL1/A
0
-2

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

t/s

-4

iL2/A

0
-2

t/s

Example:
400 kV
400 km
fPS 2 Hz
3-pole fault

iL3/A
2

t/s

0
-2

uL1/V
0
-50

t/s

uL2/V
50
0
-50

t/s

uL3/V
50
0
-50

t/s

Power Swing
>DisTel Rec.Ch1
Dis.T.SEND
Dis. forward
Dis. reverse
Relay PICKUP
Relay TRIP
DisTRIP3p Z1Bmf

Distance protection

t/s

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EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Fault locator

Distance protection

Info - 19
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Phase segregated Teleprotection
2

L2-E

Z1

Z1B
A

L1-E
Z1

B
Z1B

A1 trips single-phase in L1 with a phase-segregated L1-receive-signal


Maximum of Selectivity
Note: 3 binary channels for both directions are requested or (in preparation) one serial link

Distance protection

Info - 20
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Teleprotection with three-terminal lines

Software provides
teleprotection of threeterminal lines without
additional logic

Distance protection

Info - 21
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
Earth (zero sequence) current protection, 4 stages
3 definite-time stages
1 inverse-time stage: IEC, logarithmic inverse or ANSI characteristic
this stage can also be used as a 4th definite-time stage
Directional determination with 3V0 and/or Ipol of an earthed power
transformer
Directional determination with V2 and I2 (negative sequence)
Sensitive 3I0-measurement with a dynamic from 0.003 A to 100 x In
Elimination of higher harmonics with special digital filters
Inrush-stabilisation with I0/100Hz
Teleprotection: Directional comparison, Blocking or Unblocking
Operation with weak infeed trip and echo
Instantaneous trip after switch-onto-fault
Distance protection

Info - 22
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
T

Definite-time characteristic

T3I0>
T3I0>>

T3I0>>>
3I0>
Distance protection

3I0>>

3I0>>>

3I0
Info - 23
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
Tripping characteristic Logarithmic Inverse

10

T3I0pmax (P3145)

9
8

T3I0p (P3144)

3I0p(P3140)

Example: t = 5.8 - 1.35 ln(3I0 / 3I0p)


5
4
3

T3I0min
(P3141)

2
1
0

10

3I0p Startpoint(P3154)

Distance protection

15

20

25

30

35

3I0 / 3I0p
Info - 24
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
IEC-characteristic:
normal inverse: t s
extremly inverse: t s

0.14

0.02

Ip

* Tp
1

80
I

Ip

very inverse: t s

* Tp

long time inverse: t s

ANSI-characteristic:

A
t s

B
*D
N
I

Ip 1

13.5
* Tp
I
1
Ip

Inverse
short inverse
long inverse
moderately inverse

120
* Tp
I
1
Ip

very inverse
extremly inverse
definite inverse

Logarithmic-inverse characteristic:
t s T 3I 0P max T 3I 0P * ln

Distance protection

3I 0
for t>T3I0Pmin, otherwise: t[s]=T3I0Pmin
3I 0P
Info - 25
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
T

Inverse-time characteristic: IEC


Tp =1

Pickup: a = 1.1 x 3I0/IP


Reset: b = 1.045 x 3I0/IP

0 ba
Distance protection

20

3I0/Ip
Info - 26
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
Filter characteristic for stages 3I0>>> and 3I0>>

dB
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
-160
0

Distance protection

10

f/fn

11

Info - 27
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
Filter characteristic for stages 3I0> and Inverse time stage
dB

10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90

-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
-160
-170
0

Distance protection

10

f/fn

11

Info - 28
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: High Resistance Earth Fault Protection
Earth fault
direction
Inrushstabilisation

EF IE> Echo
EF Fault Det.

SOTF

Teleprotection

>EF Trip rel.

Direc. 3I0>>>

3I0>>>

=
&
EF>>> Trip

&

3I0>>> Def. Time Stage

>EF>>> block

3I0>> Def. Time Stage


3I0> Def. Time Stage
P Direc. 3I0p
P 3I0p

&

=
&

EFp Trip

P3146 AddTdelay
T(3I0/IN)

Inverse Time Stage

>EFp block

= Input signal
(binary input)

Distance protection

= Parameter

= Output Signal
(alarm, command)
Info - 29
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT)
Z1(A)

Z 1B(B)

Z1B
T1B
(A)

Z 1B(A)

Z 1(B)

& TS
&

Z1 or
further
zones

OR

OR

transmit

Trip
receive

transmit

Trip
receive

OR

TS

OR

&
&

Z1B
T1B
(B)

Z1 or
further
zones

TS

Distance protection

Info - 30
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4 Distance Protection


STUB protection for 11/2-circuit breaker arrangement
Busbar A

CB
(A)

Ik = IA+ IB

line isolator 1

feeder 1

IA

stub fault
CB
(C)

IB

feeder 2

line isolator 2

CB
(B)

Release of STUB-stage with open line isolator:

Busbar B

Distance protection

Info - 31
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Auto-reclosure
TRIP
1-pole
3-pole

T1-act

Auto-reclosure (AR)

1st
dead time

RE- TRIP
CLOSE

RE- final
CLOSE TRIP

T2-act

ON

2nd
dead time

OFF
tzone-delay

ADT = Reclosure, when AR at the remote end was successful


DLC = Reclosure only on dead line
RDT = Reduced dead time, if trip had occurred with zone extension

Distance protection

Info - 32
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

Synchronism-check
application examples

functions
(separately settable for AR and
manual closing)

- combination with internal or


external AR
- activation also for manual closing
(settable)
- asynchronous switching (settable)
- synchronous monitoring time, after which
the closing will be blocked (settable)
parameters

- f asynchronous switching (0.03 ... 1 Hz)


- (1 ... 60)

Distance protection

program selection via parameters


synchro-check / U1 > U2 < /
U1 < U2 > / U1 < U2 < / overrule

all programs separately settable


via binary inputs

measurement

- voltages U<, U>, U


- f synchronous switching (0.01 ... 0.03 Hz)

evaluation of the fundamenta

insensitive against harmonics


-

for dead line check all three phases


are controlled
Info - 33
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

16.10.97
engersyn1

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection: Breaker failure protection
2 stages
Internal initiation and via binary inputs
Extremely short reset time: approx. 10ms
End-fault protection
Pole discrepancy supervision

Distance protection

Info - 34
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4
Distance Protection
7SA522

with light

or electrical
exchangeable
upgradeable
Distance protection

Info - 35
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

SIPROTEC 4 Distance Protection


User friendly Operation

Safe operation,
reduced training
requirements

Flexible Functionality and


Open Communication

Fits all applications

One Family

System concept
SIPROTEC and SICAM

Distance protection

Info - 37
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

Distance Protection 7SA522


What makes these devices so attractive ?
Log. IN 1

F1
Log.OUT1

>1
Log. IN 2

F2

Log.IN3

Full Logic
Functionality

Logic inputs from


the matrix to CFC

CFC
Logic outputs to the
configuration matrix

Additional logic
Interlocking
Measured values
processing
Distance protection

Info - 38
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

Distance Protection 7SA522


What makes these devices so attractive ?
I1 :400.9A
U1:12.22kV
P :+8.03MW
Q :+2.64MVar

Comprehensiv
e measured
value
processing
Distance protection

L1
L2
L3
E

402.1A
401.2A
401.0A
00.0A

% IL
L1 100.0
L2 100.4
L3 100.1

f:50.0Hz
cos

Max450.1A
Max421.2A
Max431.4A

UL-E
100.4
100.3
100.1

UL-L
100.1
100.0
100.4
Info - 39

EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00

Distance Protection 7SA522


What makes these devices so attractive ?

The easy
handling
with DIGSI
4
Distance protection

Info - 40
EV S V13/ Claus/ 23.08.00