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Chapter 16 Section 4
DNA and Genes
Parents pass their characteristics on to their offspring Heredity- process in which characteristics pass from parents to offspring Genetics- scientific study of heredity Traits- organism¶s physical characteristics Traits are controlled by the genetic materials in an organisms chromosomes (rodlike structures located in the nucleus of the cell) Chromosomes also control an organism¶s inherited characteristics Chromosomes are made partly of long-chain molecules called DNA DNA contains segments called genes Gene- a segment of DNA molecule that contains information that governs a specific trait
Sexual reproduction- reproduction involving 2 parents whose combined genetic material produces a new organism Male sperm cell joins with a female egg cell to produce offspring Egg an sperm cells contain half the number of chromosomes that are in the other cells
Asexual reproduction- the reproductive process in which the offspring have only one parent Offspring of asexually reproducing organisms inherit genes from only that parent; therefore they are genetically identical to the parent Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are not exactly like either parent. Offspring of sexually reproducing organisms are more diverse than the offspring of those that reproduce asexually
Traits are controlled by genes Chromosomes exist in pairs Both chromosomes in a pair have the same genes Allele- different forms of a gene An organism has 2 alleles for each trait, one from each parent
Dominant and Recessive Alleles
Dominant allele- one whose trait always shows up in the organism Recessive allele- hidden, covered up trait in an organism Two dominant alleles express the dominant trait Two recessive alleles express the recessive trait One dominant and one recessive trait expresses a dominant trait
What is a gene? Why are offspring that result from asexual reproduction so much like their parents, while the offspring of sexually reproducing organisms are not exactly like their parents? What is the difference between a dominant and recessive allele? Give an example. What kind of alleles must an organism inherit in order for a recessive trait to show up? Baby Amanda Ortiz inherited one allele for attached earlobes and one for free earlobes. Predict the shape of her earlobes.