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# PHYSICS FORM 4

2014

directions

## The pressure exerted by a static

fluid depends only upon the
depth of the fluid, the density of
the fluid, and the acceleration of
gravity.

## Density of liquid, kgm-3

Base surface area, A m2
Depth, h m
The column of liquid exerts a pressure
on the base due to its weight

Column of liquid

## Volume of liquid = A h meter cube (m3)

Mass of liquid = A h kilogram (kg)
Weight of liquid = A h g Newton (N)

Surface area, A

= Ah g / A
=hg

## The pressure at any point in a liquid

acts
Pressure
inequally
liquid, inPall directions
=
hg

=
=

## depth of the liquid

density of the

gravitational field
strength

liquid

## Pressure at any point in a liquid is

due to the weight of the liquid
above that point.

## At the same level or depth, the

liquid pressure must be
the same,

h
P

## A huge metal tank is used to store a certain

type of oil. What is the pressure exerted by
the oil at a depth of 3.5 m if the density of
the oil is 840 kgm-3 and g is 9.8 Nkg-1.

P=hg
= 3.5 x 840 x 9.8
= 28,812 Pa

Other
*

Window of
submarines /
aquariums

Divers suit

## Explain why the aluminium can

crumples when it is brought to
the ocean floor but,

## It does not crumple if a few

holes are made on the can

Eg.
1. An air bubble is a depth of 3 m
below the surface of a lake.
a. What is the pressure of water on the
air bubble?
(density of water, = 1000 kg m-3 )
P =
hg
= -----------b.Calculate the air pressure if the
bubble in the sea?
(density of sea water, = 1250 kg m-3 )

Applications of Pressure in
Liquids

## Public water supply system

a. The water is pumped up to a water
storage tank situated higher than all
the houses in that area.
Due to gravitational pull, water in the
storage tank is maintained at high pressure
and this enables water to flow to the
houses of the consumers which are lower.
b. Fire hose used by a Fire Fighter
c. The walls of a dam

a.
b.

2.5 x 10 5 Pa
The width of the wall of a dam increases with its
depth from the surface of the water so that the
width of the base is much larger than the width at
the surface of the water.
This is to ensure that the wall is able to withstand the
pressure of the water which increases with depth.

## 2. The figure shows a dam with a depth of 25 m

wallwater
a. Calculate the water pressure at the
bottom of the dam when the water is at
the maximum level?
(= 1000 kg m-3, g = 10 N kg-1)
b. Explain why the width of the wall of the
dam is much larger at the base than at
the top?

water

Conclusion
1. Pressure in liquid, P
=
hg
2. Liquid Pressure
i. at the same depth acts
equally in all directions
ii. increases with depth
iii. increases with density
iv. increases with gravitational
strength

topic:

## GAS PRESSURE AND

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

THANK YOU!