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The Oxygen Cycle

Definition of Oxygen
Oxygen a colorless, odorless,
tasteless gas
Denser than air
Poor conductor of heat and
electricity

Step One of Oxygen Cycle


Plant release oxygen into the
atmosphere as a by-product of
photosynthesis.

oxygen

Step Two of Oxygen Cycle


Animals take in oxygen through the process
of respiration.
Animals then break down sugars and food.

Step Three in Oxygen


Cycle
Carbon dioxide is released by
animals and used in plants in
photosynthesis.
Oxygen is balanced between the
atmosphere and the ocean.

History of Oxygen
Early evolution of Earth, oxygen
released from H2O vapor by UV
radiation and accumulated in the
atmosphere as the hydrogen escaped
into the earth's atmosphere
Photosynthesis became a source of
oxygen
Oxygen released as organic carbon
and gets buried in sediments.

Photosynthesis
Definition- process in which green plants use
the energy from the sun to make carbohydrates
from carbon dioxide and water in the presence
of chlorophyll.

How is Photosynthesis
Carried Out?
Photosynthesis only occurs in plants containing
chlorophyll:
Water is absorbed by the roots and carried to
the leaves by the xylem
Carbon dioxide is obtained from air that enters
the leaves through the stomata and diffuses to
the cells containing chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll is uniquely capable of converting
the energy from light into a dormant form that
can be stored and used when needed.

Steps in Photosynthesis

The light energy strikes the leaf, passes into the


leaf and hits a chloroplast inside an individual
cell
The light energy, upon entering the chloroplasts,
is captured by the chlorophyll inside a grana.
Inside the grana some of the energy is used to
split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
The oxygen is released into the air.
The hydrogen is taken to the stroma along with
the grana's remaining light energy.

Steps Continued:
Carbon dioxide enters the leaf and passes into
the chloroplast.
In the stroma the remaining light energy is
used to combine hydrogen and carbon dioxide
to make carbohydrates.
The energyrich carbohydrates are carried to
the plant's cells.
The energyrich carbohydrates are used by the
cells to drive the plant's life processes.

Respiration
Process by which an organism
exchanges gases with its environment
Process oxygen is abstracted from
air, transported to cells for the
oxidation of organic molecules while
CO2 and H2O, the products of
oxidation, are returned to the
environment

Earths Layers
The lithosphere is Earth's surrounding layer,
composed of solids such as soil and rock.
The atmosphere is the surrounding thin
layer of gas.
The hydrosphere refers to liquid
environments such as lakes and oceans
that lie between the lithosphere and
atmosphere.
The biosphere's creation and continuous
existence results from chemical, biological,
and physical processes.

Today
The Earths atmosphere consists
of:

21% Oxygen
The Earths lithosphere consists
of:

99.5% Oxygen
The Earths hydrosphere consists
of:

46.60% Oxygen
The Earths biosphere consists of:

0.01% Oxygen

Biological Importance of
Oxygen
Humans need it to breathe
Needed for decomposition of
organic waste
Water can dissolve oxygen and
it is this dissolved oxygen that
supports aquatic life.

Ecological Importance of
Oxygen
Without oxygen at the bottom of the water body, anaerobic
bacteria (those that live without oxygen) produce acids.
These acids not only increase acidity, but also cause a
massive release of phosphorus and nitrogen, two major
fertilizers, from the organic sediment and into the water
column.
These same anaerobic bacteria put toxic gases in the water
including hydrogen sulfide (that rotten egg smell), ammonia,
carbon dioxide and methane. These gases are all toxic to
fish, beneficial bacteria and insects.
Lack of bottom oxygen is the cause of odors produced by
anaerobic bacteria.

Ecological Importance of
Oxygen Cont.
Lack of fish enables disease-hosting mosquitoes to
thrive, as mosquitoes are natural food for fish.
Without oxygen at the bottom at all times, beneficial
bacteria and insects cannot biodegrade the organic
sediment. Large accumulations of organic sediment
follow.