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UNIT-4

THEODOLITE AND TACHEOMETRY

HISTORY

It was invented by Roemer in 1690


He was a astronomer
12 years of continuous research he developed a theodolite
To observe the passage of stars in celestial system
In 1830 theodolite was modified used in surveying
applications

Definition
A surveying instrument with a rotating
telescope for measuring horizontal and
vertical angles.

Advanced Theodolite
TWO TYPES
a) DIGITAL THEODOLITE
b) NON-DIGITAL THEODOLITE

Theodolite surveying

The system of surveying which the


angles are measured with the help of
theodolite is called Theodolite
surveying

Applications
The Theodolite is a most accurate surveying instrument mainly used for
:

Measuring horizontal and vertical angles.


Locating points on a line.
Prolonging survey lines.
Finding difference of level.
Setting out grades
Ranging curves
Tachometric Survey

Transit theodolite

Scale

Defintions
Centering : Centering means setting the theodolite exactly over an
instrument- station so that its vertical axis lies immediately above
the station- mark. It can be done by means of plumb bob suspended
from a small hook attached to the vertical axis of the theodolite

Transiting : Transiting is also known as plunging or reversing. It


is the process of turning the telescope about its horizontal axis
through 180degree in the vertical plane thus bringing it upside
down and making it point , exactly in opposite direction.

Swinging the telescope

It means turning the telescope about its vertical axis in the


horizontal plane.
A swing is called right or left according as the telescope is
rotated clockwise or counter clockwise.
Face Left
If the vertical circle of the instrument is on the left side of
the observer while taking a reading ,the position is called the
face left and
the observation taken on the horizontal or vertical circle in
this position, is known as the face left observation

Face Right

If the vertical circle of the instrument is on the right side


of the observer while taking a reading ,the position is called
the face right

the observation taken on the horizontal or vertical circle in


this position, is known as the face right observation.
Line of collimation
It is also known as the line of sight .It is an imaginary line
joining the intersection of the cross- hairs of the diaphragm to
the optical centre of the object- glass and its continuation

Axis of the telescope :


It is also known an imaginary line joining the optical
centre of the object- glass to the center of eye piece.

Adjustments of theodolite
A) Temporary adjustments
B) Permanent adjustments

Temporary Adjustments

The temporary adjustments are made at each set up of


the instrument before we start taking observations with the
instrument. There are three temporary adjustments of a
theodolite:i) centering
ii) Levelling
iii) Focusing.

Step :1
Centering : The instrument is placed over the station
mark (check whether its or not)
Check the tripod legs well apart
The plumb bob is suspended from a small hook attached to
the vertical axis of the telescope
Fix the theodolite by means of a wing nut at bottom
carefully

Step : 2

STEP -3
Focusing : check the eye piece is carefully with help of
the focusing screw in a theodolite for better view of
objects from object glass
Once completed with temporary adjustment we will
immediately set for permanent adjustments

Permanent adjustments :
It has also three simple operations to set the permanent
adjustments
a) Adjustment of Horizontal Plate Levels
b) Collimation Adjustment
c )Horizontal axis adjustment

Tacheometer
An ordinary transit theodolite fitted with a stadia
diaphragm is generally used for tachometric survey.

- The stadia diaphragm essentially consists of one stadia


hair above and the other an equal distance below the
horizontal cross-hair, the stadia hairs being mounted in
the ring and on the same vertical plane as the horizontal
and vertical cross-hairs.

Tachometer lens types

Applications
Preparation of topographic maps which require both elevations and horizontal
distances.

Survey work in difficult terrain where direct methods are inconvenient


Detail filling
Reconnaissance surveys for highways, railways, etc.
Checking of already measured distances
Hydrographic surveys and

The aperture of the objective should be 35 to 45 mm in diameter


to have a sufficiently bright image.
For small distances (say unto 100 meters), ordinary levelling
staff may be used. For greater distances a stadia rod may be
used.
A stadia rod is usually of one piece, having 3 5 meters length.
A stadia rod graduated in 5 mm (i.e. 0.005 m) for smaller
distances and while for longer distances, the rod may be
graduated in 1 cm (i.e. 0.01 m).

Stadia rod

Methods :
Ordinary method
Repetition method
Reiteration method