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GlobalGlobalPositioning

SystemMeasurements
Prof.ThomasHerring
DepartmentofEarth,Atmosphereand
PlanetarySciences
http://wwwgpsg.mit.edu/~tah
11/19/01

UTexasAustinSemin

Overview
ReviewofthedevelopmentoftheGPS
systemandbasicsofitsuseandoperation
Selectedregionalapplications
Characterofglobalmeasurements
Originofsystematiceffectsinglobalresults

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GPSOriginalDesign
Starteddevelopmentinthelate1960sas
NAVY/USAFprojecttoreplaceDoppler
positioningsystem
Aim:Realtimepositioningto<10meters,
capableofbeingusedonfastmoving
vehicles.
Limitcivilian(nonauthorized)usersto
100meterpositioning.
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GPSDesign
Innovations:
Usemultiplesatellites(originally21,now~28)
Allsatellitestransmitatsamefrequency
Signalsencodedwithuniquebiphase,quadrature
codegeneratedbypseudorandomsequence
(designatedbyPRN,PRnumber):Spreadspectrum
transmission.
Dualfrequencybandtransmission:
L1~1.575GHz,L2~1.227GHz
Correspondingwavelengthsare190mmand244mm

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LatestBlockIIRsatellite
(1,100kg)
Transmissionarrayis
madeupof12helical
antennaintworingsof
43.8cm(8antennas)and
16,2cm(4antennas)radii
Totaldiameteris87cm
Solarpanelsleadto
largesolarradiation
pressureeffects.
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Measurements
Measurements:
Timedifferencebetweensignaltransmissionfrom
satelliteanditsarrivalatgroundstation(called
pseudorange,preciseto0.110m)
Carrierphasedifferencebetweentransmitterand
receiver(precisetoafewmillimeters)butinitialvalues
unknown(ie.,measureschangeinrangetosatellites).
Insomecase,theintegervaluesoftheinitialphase
ambiguitiescanbedetermined(biasfixing)

Allmeasurementsrelativetoclocksinground
receiverandsatellites(potentiallyposes
problems).
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Measurementusage
Spreadspectrumtransmission:Multiple
satellitescanbemeasuredatsametime.
Sincemeasurementscanbemadeatsame
time,groundreceiverclockerrorcanbe
determined(alongwithposition).
rr
r
Signal V(t, x) =Vo sin[2( ftk.x)+C(t)]

C(t) is code of zeros and ones (binary).


Varies discretely at 1.023 or 10.23 MHz

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Measurements
SincetheC(t)codechangesthesignofthe
signal,satellitecanbeonlybedetectedifthe
codeisknown(PRNcode)
Multiplesatellitescanbeseparatedby
correlatingwithdifferentcodes(onlythe
correctcodewillproduceasignal)
Thetimedelayofthecodeisthepseudo
rangemeasurement.
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UTexasAustinSemin

Position
Determination
(perfect
clocks).
Threesatellites
areneededfor3D
positionwith
perfectclocks.
Twosatellites
areOKifheightis
known)
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Position
determination:
withclock
errors:2Dcase
Receiverclockis
fastinthiscase,so
allpseudorangesare
short

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Positioning
Forpseudorangetobeusedforpositioning
need:
Knowledgeoferrorsinsatelliteclocks
Knowledgeofpositionsofsatellites

Thisinformationistransmittedbysatellite
inbroadcastephemeris
Differentialpositioning(DGPS)
eliminatesneedforaccuratesatelliteclock
knowledge.
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GPSSecuritysystems
Selectiveavailability(SA)isnolongeractivebut
priorto2000deniedcivilianaccuracybetter
than100m
Antispoofing(AS)activesince1992,adds
additionalencryptiontoPcodeonL1andL2.
MakescivilianGPSreceiversmoreexpensiveand
moresensitivetoradiointerference
ImpactofASandSAsmallonresultspresented
here.
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Satelliteconstellation
Sincemultiplesatellitesneedtobeseenat
sametime(fourormore):
Manysatellites(original21butnow28)
HighaltitudesothatlargeportionofEarthcan
beseen(20,000kmaltitudeMEO)

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Currentconstellation
Relativesizes
correct(inertial
spaceview)
Fuzzylines
notduetoorbit
perturbations,
butdueto
satellitesbeing
in6planesat
55oinclination.
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GlobalGPSanalysis
GPSphasemeasurementsatL1andL2fromaglobal
distributionofstationused
Analysishereisunconstrained
Allsitepositionsestimated
Atmosphericdelayparametersestimated
Realbiasparametersforeachsatelliteglobal,integer
valuesforregionalsitecombinations(<500km)
Orbitalparametersforallsatellitesestimated(1dayorbits,
2revolutions)
6Integrationconstants
3constantradiationparameters
6onceperrevolutionradiationparameters

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GlobalGPSanalysis
Datausedbetween19922001
Fullanalysishas~600stations(analysis
hererestrictedto~100sitesthathavemore
than5yearsofdata
Largedensityofsites(~300)inCalifornia
Totaldatasethas>2billionphase
measurements
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GPSAntennas(forprecisepositioning)
Nearlyallantennasarepatchantennas(conducting
patchmountedininsulatingceramic).

Ringsare
called
chokerings
(usedto
suppress
multipath)

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GlobalIGSNetwork(~150stations)

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Specificsitesanalyzed
Totalof100sitesanalyzedofwhich50wereused
torealizecoordinatesystem
Sinceanalysishaslittleconstraint,itis:
Freetorotate
Possiblyfreetotranslate(explicitestimation)
Possiblyfreetochangescale(explicitestimation)

Lattertooeffectsshouldnotbepresentbutthese
wewillexplorehere.
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Networkusedinanalysis

Black:Framesites;Redothersites
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Resultsfromanalysis
Examplesoftimeseriesforsomesites
CommonModeerror,exampleofregional
framedefinition

Satellitephasecenterpositions
ScaleandCenterofMass(CoM)variations

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Exampleofmotionsmeasuredin
Pacific/Asiaregion
Fastestmotionsare
>100mm/yr
Noteconvergence
nearJapan

Moreathttp://wwwgpsg.mit.edu/~fresh/index2.html
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CaliforniaEastresiduals(trendsremoved)

40

20

-20

-40

1994

1995

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1997

1998

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2002

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Eastpositionresiduals(California)

30

20

10

-10

-20

-30
1994

1995

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1996

1997

1998

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Examplefromregionalframedefinition
10

-5

-10
1995

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1996

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DesertCaliforniasite
BULL North (mm)
BULL East (mm)
BULL Height (mm)
5

RMS

0.7 mm

-5

0.6 mm

-10

BULL Position (mm)


-15
-20

2.9 mm

-25
-30
2000

2000.2

2000.4

2000.6

2000.8

2001

Year

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Originofcommonmodeerrors
Unknownatthemoment,butclearlyscales
withdistance(172of500sitesin
S.Californiahavesubmmdailyhorizontal
scatter,23mmvertical)
Possibleeffectsfromsatellitetransmission
system.
Exampleofestimatingcorrectionstophase
centerposition(wrtCoM)ofsatellites
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Phasecenteroffsets

=dhcos;sin=(R/a)sin;(R/a)=0.24
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Elevationangledependence
0.035

0.03

0.025
0.02

0.015
0.01
0.005
0
-0.005

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Fullestimationeffects

0.045
0.04
0.035
0.03
0.025 errorTextEnd
Height
0.02
0.015
0
5
10
15

Min Elev

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60

65

70

75

80

85

90

Max Elev

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Effectsofphasecenterposition
changes
Aunitchangeintheradialphasecenter
positionwillchangetherangetothe
satellitebyaconstantplusupto0.03units.
For1meterchange;rangechangeabout5
partsperbillion
Ifdifferentmodelsofsatelliteshave
differencephasecenterpositions,scale
couldchangewithtime.
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GPS Satellite Phase Center Adjustments


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23
22
21
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16
15
14
13
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
-2.0

-1.5

-1.0
-0.5
Offset (m)

0.0

GPS Satellite Antenna Phase Center offsets

0.5

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21
19
18
17
PRN16
15
14
13
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
-2.0

X Offset (m)
Y Offset (m)
Z Offset (m)

Block IIR

-1.5

-1.0
-0.5
Offset (m)

0.0

0.5

Totalphasecenterpositionandadjustmenttospecifiedvalues

Scalevariationswithtime
10

-5

-10
1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

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Centerofmassvariationsaswell
300

200

100

-100

-200

-300
1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

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Conclusion
RegionalGPS(e.g.,California)yieldssub
millimeterresultsforgoodstations
GloballyRMSincreaseto23mmforreasonsthat
arenotclear
Secularscalechange1.6mm/yrinheight
(Referencesiteshave0.8mm/yraverage)
InGAMIT:120mmZoffsetinCoMforunknown
reasons
Differencesbetweengenerationsofsatellitesmight
explainsomeoftheseresults.
Systematicnaturesuggestswemightbeableto
resolve
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RelativisticCorrectionsterms
PropagationpathcurvatureduetoEarths
potential(afewcentimeters)
2GM Rr +Rs +
= 3 ln

c
Rr +Rs

Clockeffectsduetochangingpotential
GM
= 2 e asinE
c

Fore=0.02effectis47ns(14m)
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RelativisticEffects
PRN 03 Detrended; e=0.02

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Clock - trend (ns)


GR Effect (ns)

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Clock error (ns)


0

-25

-50

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Time (hrs)

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TectonicDeformationResults
FixedGPSstationsoperatecontinuously
andbydeterminingtheirpositionseachday
wecanmonitortheirmotionsrelativetoa
globalcoordinatesystem
TemporaryGPSsitescanbedeployedon
welldefinedmarksintheEarthandthe
motionsofthesesitescanbemonitored
(campaignGPS)
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MotionafterEarthquakes.Examplefrom
HectorMine,CA
Continuedmotiontellsusaboutmaterialcharacteristics
andhowstressisredistributedafterearthquake
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LDES Site Mojave Desert

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20
10
Hector Mine Earthquake
(166 mm removed)

0
-10
1999

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2000
Year

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Relativisticeffects
GeneralrelativityaffectsGPSinthreeways
Equationsofmotionsofsatellite
Ratesatwhichclockrun
Signalpropagation

InourGPSanalysisweaccountforthe
secondtwoitems
Orbitsonlyintegratedfor13daysand
equationofmotiontermisconsideredsmall
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Clockeffects
GPSiscontrolledby10.23MHzoscillators
OntheEarthssurfacetheseoscillatorsaresetto
10.23x(14.4647x1010)MHz(39,000ns/dayrate
difference)
Thisoffsetaccountsforthechangeinpotential
andaveragevelocityoncethesatelliteislaunched.
ThefirstGPSsatelliteshadaswitchtoturnthis
effecton.TheywerelaunchedwithNewtonian
clocks
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Propagationandclockeffects
Ourtheoreticaldelaycalculationsaremade
inanEarthcentered,nonrotatingframe
usingalighttimeiterationi.e.,the
satellitepositionattransmittimeis
differencedfromgroundstationpositionat
receivetime.
Twocorrectionsarethenappliedtothis
calculation
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EffectsofSelectiveAvailability
PRN 03 (June 14)

800

Clock SA (ns) 1999


Clock NoSA (ns) 2000

600

400

Clock error (ns)


200

-200

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Time (hrs)

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Conclusions
GPSdualusetechnology:Applicationsincivilianworld
widespread
Geophysicalstudies(mmaccuracy)
Engineeringpositioning(<cminrealtime)
Commercialpositioning:cars,aircraft,boats(cmtomlevelin
realtime)

Relativisticeffectsarelargebutlargelyconstant
Howeverduetovaryingpotentialsandvelocitieseffects
canbeseen
Someeffectsareincorporatedbyconvention
Needtokeepinmindnegligibleeffectsasaccuracy
improves
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