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FUNDAMENTAL OF WELDING

WELDING : Welding is a joining process in which


metals are heated, melted and mixed to produce a
joint with properties similar to those of the
materials being joined.
ADVANTAGE : Portable, permanent, stronger than the
parent materials with a filler metal, the most
economical method to join in terms of material usage
and fabrication costs .

DISADVANTAGE : Expensive manual Labor, high


energy and dangerous, difficult to disassemble and
remove the defects.

APPLICATIONS
Constructions, Piping, pressure vessels.
Boilers and storage tanks, Shipbuilding,

Aerospace.

Automobile and Railways.


Automation - Machine, Automatic and

Robotic welding.

WELDING PROCESS
COMMONLY USED WELDING PROCESSES ARE:
SHIELDED METAL ARC

WELDING(SMAW)
GAS METAL ARC WELDING(GMAW)
GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING(GTAW)
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING(SAW)
OXYACETYLENE WELDING(OAW)
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING(FCAW)
ELECTROSLAG WELDING
STUD WELDING
RESISTANCE WELDING(RW)

SMAW
SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) is
alsowelding
known as:
Stick
Manual Metal Arc Welding
(MMAW)

SMAW

When an arc is struck between the metal rod (electrode) and the
work piece, both the rod and work piece surface melt to form a
weld pool.

Simultaneous melting of the flux coating on the rod will form gas
and slag which protects the weld pool from the surrounding
atmosphere.

The slag will solidify and cool

Must be chipped off the weld bead once the weld run is complete
or before the next weld pass is deposited.

SMAW

Underc
ut

Measurement of
undercut depth with
VWAC gage.

SMAW
The electrode coating is the feature which classifies the
various types of electrodes. It actually serves the
following Five separate function.
SHIELDING: Coating decomposes to form a gaseous
shield.
DE-OXIDATION : Coating provides a fluxing action to
remove the O2 & other atmospheric gases.
ALLOYING : Coating provides additional alloying
elements for the weld deposit.
IONIZING : Coating improves electrical
characteristics to increase arc stability.
INSULATING : The solidified slag provides insulating
blanket to slow down the weld metal cooling rate.

SMAW
ELECTRODE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

E7 0 1 8
ELECTRODE
TENSILE STRENGTH (ksi)
POSITION
TYPE OF
COATING
&
CURRENT

WELDING POSITIONS

GUESS THE WELD POSITION

SMAW
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIRD DIGIT OF SMAW
IDENTIFICATION
1 INDICATES SUITABLE FOR USE IN ANY
POSITION
2 MEANS THAT MOLTEN METAL IS SO FLUID
THAT ELECTRODE CAN ONLY BE USED IN FLAT
OR HORIZONTAL FILLET POSITION
4 ELECTRODE IS SUITABLE FOR WELDING IN
DOWNHILL
PROGRESSION
3 HAS NO SIGNIFICANCE

SMAW
SIGNIFICANCE OF LAST DIGIT OF SMAW
IDENTIFICATION

SMAW
CURRENT CONDITIONS
ELECTRODE SIZE(mm)

AMPS.(CURRENT)

2.50

70 100

3.15

100 140

3.20

100 140

4.00

140 180

5.00

180 240

6.30

240 280

GENERAL THUMB-RULE FOR CALCULATIG


CURRENT:
( DIA OF ELECTRODE X 40 ) +/- 20

SMAW
LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODES:
Those Electrode ending with 5,6 OR 8
are classified as LOW HYDROGEN Types.
To Maintain the low hydrogen moisture
content, they must be stored in their original
factory sealed container or an acceptable storage
oven.
Oven should be heated electrically & have
temperature control capability in the range of
1500 to 3500 C

SMAW
ADVANTAGES:
Equipment is relatively simple, inexpensive &
portable.
Numerous types of electrodes The process
considered as quite versatile.

LIMITATIONS:

SPEED Welder periodically stop welding &


replace consumed electrode with new one.
There is a layer of solidified slag which must be
removed which affects the productivity.
FOR LOW HYDROGEN ELECTRODE USED :They require to store in an appropriate
electrode baking oven which will help to
maintain their low moisture levels.

GMAW
GMAW(Gas Metal Arc Welding) is defined as arc
welding using a continuously fed consumable
electrode and a shielding gas.
Produces high-quality welds
Yields high productivity
Metal
Inert Gas Welding (MIG) : Only inert gases
or gas mixtures are used for the shielding gas when
MIG welding. Typical inert gases used for MIG
welding are argon and helium. These gases are
usually used for MIG welding of aluminum and other
non-ferrous metals.
Metal Active Gas Welding (MAG): Active gas
mixtures have been developed primarily for welding
steels. Typical shielding gases are mixtures of argon,
carbon dioxide and oxygen e.g. CO2, Ar + 2 to 5%

GMAW

POWER SOURCE

General Arrangement

Ar/CO2 GAS CYLINDER

WIRE CONTROL & WIRE FEED MOTOR

GMAW

Advantage:
Disadvantage:
Large gaps filled or
Not suited for field
bridged easily
welding
Welding can be done in Equipment is more
all positions
complex than SMAW.
No slag removal required More spatter found than
High welding speeds
SMAW
High weld quality
Less distortion of work

GTAW

as Tungsten Arc Welding is performed by striking an arc

between a non consumable electrode(Tungsten) and the

base metal.

he external shielding gas(Ar or He) is used for protecting

he molten pool , tungsten electrode & arc from atmospheric

ontaminations.

xternally filler wire may be added depending upon the thick

being welded.

ow process but can not be substituted in certain application

GTAW

GTAW
The GTAW welding process uses a non-consumable
tungsten electrode to provide an arc.
Filler metal, when required, is fed from a separate
filler rod.
A shielding gas, e.g. argon, is fed through the
welding gun to the weld area and provides a gas
shield to prevent contamination by the atmospheric
gases.
When
the are
arc only
used
toprocess.
produce the weld,
No fluxes
used is
with
the
without the addition of separately fed filler wire,
the process is known as Autogenous GTAW

GTAW
ADVANTAGES:
Superior quality welds
Welds can be made with or without filler metal
Precise control of welding variables (heat)
Spatter free
Slag free
Low distortion
LIMITATIONS:
Requires greater welder skill than MIG or stick welding
Lower deposition rates
More costly for welding of thick sections
Low productivity

SAW
SAW is defined as an arc welding process which produces
coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs
between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work piece.
Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the
electrode and sometimes from a supplementary welding rod.

SAW
ADVANTAGES
High weld metal Quality
Smooth and uniform weld bead with no spatters.
Extremely high deposition rate and welding speed.
High Arc time can be achieved through automation.
Minimum operator fatigue.
LIMITATIONS
High initial cost
Limited welding positions.
Requirement of special jigs and fixtures.
Difficulty in welding low thickness metals.
Full penetration weld joints not possible from single side.

OXY ACETYLENE WELDING


There are three distinct flame used in this method
The neutral flame
Equal quantities of oxygen and acetylene
Distinct inner white cone with a rounded tip
Suitable for all carbon steel, cast irons, low alloy steels and
aluminum
The carburizing (carbonizing) flame
Slight excess of acetylene.
Feather around the inner white cone.
Used for welding of high carbon steels and for hard surfacing.
The oxidizing flame
Has an excess of oxygen
Inner white cone is shorter and sharper than the neutral
cone.
This flame is suitable for brass, bronze, zinc applications,
Used for bronze welding and brazing

OXY ACETYLENE WELDING


OXY-GAS WELDING (Contd.)
Three Distinct Flame

OXY ACETYLENE WELDING


Application:
Low-carbon steel, low-alloy steel, cast steel, and wrought iron are
easily welded by the oxy-gas process. A flux is not necessary with
these metals because their oxides melt at a lower temperature
than the base metal. During the welding process, you should
enclose the molten puddle with the flame envelope to ensure the
molten metal does not contact the air. If the metal is exposed to
the air, it will oxidize rapidly. You also should avoid overheating
the metal.
As the carbon content of a steel increases, welding becomes more
difficult. Steels whose carbon content is within the 0.3-percent to
Limitation:
0.5-percent range are welded with a slightly carburizing flame.
The melting is slow compared with arc processes,
limiting the speed of work. The weld pool is shielded
from atmospheric contamination by the burnt gas
mixture which can be made mildly oxidizing or
reducing.

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


Types of Joints

Types of Welds

Butt joint

Fillet weld

Corner joint

Groove weld

Lap joint

Plug and slot welds

Tee joint

Spot welds

Edge joint

Flange Welds
Seam welds
Stud Weld
Surface weld
Back Weld

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


BUTT JOINT
A joint between two members aligned
approximately in the same plane.

Different Edge Shapes and Symbols for some


Butt-Joints

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


CORNER JOINT
A joint between two members located at right
angles to each other.
Different Edge Shapes and
Symbols for some CornerJoints

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


T JOINT

A joint between two members located


approximately at right angles to each
other in the form of a T.
Different Edge Shapes
and Symbols for some
T-Joints

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


LAP JOINT

A joint between two overlapping


members.
Different Edge Shapes and
Symbols for some LapJoints

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


EDGE JOINT

A joint between the edges of two or more parallel or nearly


parallel members.
Different Edge Shapes
and Symbols for some
edge-Joints

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


FILLET WELD
These welds are roughly triangular in cross section
and between two surfaces not in the same plane
and the weld metal is substantially placed
alongside the components being joined. Deposited
weld metal is external to the profile of the welded
MITRE
elements.
Weld
Symbol

CONVE
X
CONCAV
E

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


GROOVE WELD
The weld metal is substantially placed inside the
components being joined. Deposited weld metal is internal
to the profile of the welded elements.

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


GROOVE WELD TYPES

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


PLUG AND SLOT WELDS
Used with
prepared
holes

Weld
Symbol

TYPE OF JOINTS & WELDS


SPOT OR PROJECTION WELD
Weld at the
interface of the
member .
Used without
prepared holes.
Use Arc or
Resistance
Weld
Symbol

GUESS TYPE OF JOINT

PART OF WELD

WELDING SYMBOL
Reference Line must always be horizontal, Arrow
points to the line or lines on drawing which clearly
identify the proposed joint or weld area.

Tail

Reference Line

Tail omitted when


reference not
used
The
tail of the welding

Arrow connects
reference line to arrow
side member of joint
or arrow side of joint

Arrow

symbol is used to indicate


the welding or cutting processes, as well as the
welding specification, procedures, or the
supplementary information to be used in making

WELDING SYMBOL

Other Side
Arrow side

All
around
A flag at the tangent of the
reference line and arrow means
Field Weld.

Arrow
Side

Other Side

Both
Side

WELDING SYMBOL
FILLET WELD EQUAL LEG

WELDING SYMBOL
FILLET WELD- LENGTH

WELDING SYMBOL
FILLET WELD- STITCH

WELDING SYMBOL
FILLET WELD- UNEQUAL LEG

WELDING SYMBOL
GROOVE WELD- BEVEL

WELDING SYMBOL
GROOVE WELD - V

WELDING SYMBOL
GROOVE WELD- V

GUESS THE WELDING SYMBOL

WELDING INSPECTION

WELDING INSPECTION

WELDING INSPECTION

WELDING DEFECTS
TYPE OF DEFECTS
Defects can be classified as:
Defects involving inadequate bonding
Lack of fusion
Incomplete penetration.
Foreign inclusion
Slag
Oxide films
Tungsten

WELDING DEFECTS
TYPE OF DEFECTS
Geometric defects

Undercut
Excessive reinforcement
Burn through or excessive
penetration
Distortion
Improper weld profile
Metallurgical defects
Cracks
Gas porosity
Arc strikes
Structural notches

WELDING DEFECTS
REASONS FOR DEFECTS
Lack of know-how and experience of

welder/operator
Welding process and characteristics
Base metal composition
Defective welding & filler metals
Joint design
Welding environment (wind, fit-up,
temperature)

WELDING DEFECTS
LACK OF FUSION
It involve incomplete melting and fusion of some
portion of weld metals in joints. It may occur
either between parent metal and weld metal or
between two layers of weld metals. These
basically occur in fusion and pressure welding.
REASONS:

Improper manipulation of electrodes

Incorrect position of electrodes

Low welding current

Too rapid arc advance

Poor edge preparation


DISADVANTAGES:
Lower strength of joints
Stress concentration will occur

WELDING DEFECTS
LACK OF FUSION

WELDING DEFECTS
INCOMPLETE PENETRATION
This is lack of penetration of the welds
through the thickness of the joints. This
usually occur at the root of the weld or
between deposits made from both sides.
REASONS:
Incorrect joint design
Improper welding parameters particularly
currents.
Incorrect electrode size.
DISADVANTAGES:
It adversely affects the joints which are
subjected to either tensile or bending
stresses.
It can initiate brittle fracture under static or
dynamic loads.

WELDING DEFECTS
INCOMPLETE PENETRATION

WELDING DEFECTS
FOREIGN INCLUSION
SLAG INCUSION:
This is formed due to entrapment of oxides
and non metallic solids in the weld deposits
or between the weld metals and base metals.
Rapid solidification at lower temperature of
weld metals prevent the release of such
entrapments.
OXIDES FILMS:
A thin film of oxides forms due to inadequate
shielding in case of MIG welding. It
affects the ductility of weld metals

WELDING DEFECTS
FOREIGN INCLUSION
TUNGSTEN INCLUSION:
In case of TIG welding some particle may get
deposits from tungsten electrode.
REASONS:
Improper preparation of groove
Preheating the base materials is not done
properly
Improper size of electrode.
Inadequate shielding in case of oxides films.

WELDING DEFECTS
FOREIGN INCLUSION
TUNGSTEN INCLUSION:
In case of TIG welding some particle may
get deposits from tungsten electrode.
REASONS:
Improper preparation of groove
Preheating the base materials is not done
properly
Improper size of electrode.
Inadequate shielding in case of oxides films.

WELDING DEFECTS
GEOMETRIC DEFECTS
UNDERCUT:
It represent a depression into the base
metal adjacent to the toe of the weld
and if it forms a notch it is danger for
the welds.
.

WELDING DEFECTS
GEOMETRIC DEFECTS
REASONS:
In correct choice of current range
Improper travel speed.
Improper design and poor fit-up.
Not following the welding procedure.
Improper electrode size and weaving

WELDING DEFECTS
GEOMETRIC DEFECTS

WELDING DEFECTS
GEOMETRIC DEFECTS

WELDING DEFECTS
DEFECTS (UNDERFILL)

WELDING DEFECTS
METALLURICAL DEFECTS
CRACKS:
These are linear ruptures of the metals under
stress.

CRATOR CRACKS:
Cracks formed from a circular surface with
depression either in the welds or at the end of the
welds.
POROSITY:
Porosity is the presence of the gas pockets of
voids caused by the entrapment of the gas
evolved during weld metal solidification.

WELDING DEFECTS
METALLURGICAL DEFECTS
WELD DEPOSITS:
Sometimes in a particular zone excess welds
accumulate due to high current which can cause
formation of notches and ultimately affect fatigue
strength.
REASONS:
Uneven heating and cooling rate
Improper shielding, rust on the weld face, too much
generation of gas in weld pool, sudden cooling of slag

WELDING DEFECTS
METALLURGICAL DEFECTS

WELDING DEFECTS
DEFECTS

OVERLAP

ROOT
CONCAVITY

PAUSE FOR THOUGHTS

GUESS TYPE OF DEFECTS

GUESS TYPE OF DEFECTS

GUESS TYPE OF DEFECTS

GUESS TYPE OF DEFECTS

GUESS TYPE OF DEFECTS