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Passive

Components
Resistors

Capacitors
Inductors
Diodes
Interface components

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Resistors
Values specified in ohms (Ω), kiloohms (K), or mega-ohms (M)
Marked with value using a color
code
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5% 10%
B B ROY of Great Britain had a Very Great Wife
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Resistor ratings
Physical size of resistors
determines power handling
ability
Commonly available as 1/8,
1/4, 1/2, 1,
and 2 watt components
Much higher powers
available , usually as
wirewound or ceramic
encapsulated parts
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Resistors are not generally susceptible to ESD damage. Mechanical stress due to lead bending should be minimized. 4 . so special precautions are not required.Resistor handling and installation Resistors are not polarized and may be installed in either direction.

polarized 5 .Capacitors Values specified in microfarads (μF) or picofarads (pF) Marked with actual value or a numeric code Some varieties are +/.

Capacitor types Ceramic disk Monolithic ceramic Dipped siver-mica Mylar Mylar Ceramic disk Monolithic ceramic Dipped silvered-mica Mylar or polyester Aluminum electrolytic (+/-) Tantalum (+/-) Solid tantalum. polarized Radial aluminum electrolytic Axial aluminum electrolytic 6 .

Capacitor ratings Physical size of capacitors is related to voltage handling ability – WVDC – working voltage DC Temperature coefficient may also be important – can be + or – or nearly zero Temperature coefficient depends upon dielectric material 7 .

8 .Capacitor handling and installation Most capacitors are not polarized and may be installed in either direction. Mechanical stress due to lead bending should be minimized. else catastrophic failure! Capacitors are not generally susceptible to ESD damage. Electrolytic capacitors ARE polarized and MUST be installed with proper polarity. so special precautions are not required.

Two coils magnetically coupled form a transformer.Inductors Values specified in henries (H). millihenries (mH) and microhenries (μH) A coil of wire that may be wound on a core of air or other non-magnetic material. 9 . or on a magnetic core such as iron powder or ferrite.

Inductor types Molded inductor & air-wound inductor Ferrite core toroidal transformer Adjustable air-wound inductor Air wound inductor Iron powder toroidal inductor 10 .

then ferrites. Air is best. 11 . Core material will have a temperature dependence. followed by iron powder.Inductor ratings Wire gauge and physical size of the coil determine the current handling capacity.

Inductors in timing or frequency determining circuits should be installed in a mechanically rigid fashion. 12 .Inductor handling and installation Inductors are not polarized and may be installed in either direction. Mechanical stress due to lead bending should be minimized. so special precautions are not required. Inductors are not generally susceptible to ESD damage.

Transformers .

• Stepping down the transmission voltage at various levels for distribution and power utilization. • There are two or more stationary electric circuits that are coupled magnetically.Introduction • A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. . • It involves interchange of electric energy between two or more electric systems • Transformers provide much needed capability of changing the voltage and current levels easily. • They are used to step-up generator voltage to an appropriate voltage level for power transfer.

Transformer Classification • In terms of number of windings • Conventional transformer: two windings • Autotransformer: one winding • Others: more than two windings • In terms of number of phases • Single-phase transformer • Three-phase transformer • Depending on the voltage level at which the winding is operated • Step-up transformer: primary winding is a low voltage (LV) winding • Step-down transformer : primary winding is a high voltage (HV) winding .

Primary and Secondary Windings A two-winding transformer consists of two windings interlinked by a mutual magnetic field. • Primary winding – energized by connecting it to an input source • Secondary winding – winding to which an electrical load is connected and from which output energy is drawn. Primary winding Secondary winding .

It has the following properties: • No iron and copper losses • No leakage fluxes • A core of infinite magnetic permeability and of infinite electrical resistivity • Flux is confined to the core and winding resistances are negligible .Ideal Transformers An ideal transformer is a lossless device with an input winding and an output winding.

Ideal Transformers An ideal transformer is a lossless device with an input winding and an output winding.  The relationships between the input voltage and the output voltage. and between the input current and the output current. are given by the following equations. v p  t  is  t   a In instantaneous quantities vs  t  i p  t  .

Ideal Transformers v p t is  t  N p   a vs  t  i p  t  N s In rms quantities Vp I  s a Vs I p Np: Number of turns on the primary winding Ns: Number of turns on the secondary winding vp(t): voltage applied to the primary side vs(t): voltage at the secondary side a: turns ratio ip(t): current flowing into the primary side is(t): current flowing into the secondary side .

The voltage regulation of a transformer is the change in the magnitude of the secondary terminal voltage from no-load to full-load. the output voltage of a transformer varies with the load even if the input voltage remains constant. V  no  load   Vs  full  load  %Voltage Re gulation  s  100 Vs  full  load   V p  no  load   V p  full  load  V p  full  load   100 Referred to the primary side .Transformer Voltage Regulation Because a real transformer has series impedance within it.

9 to 0.99. the greater is its efficiency. . The higher the rating of a transformer.Transformer Efficiency Power Output Power Input Power Input  Losses  Power Input Losses 1 Power Input Pcopper loss  Pcore loss 1 Pcopper loss  Pcore loss  V s I s cos   Usually the efficiency for a power transformer is between 0.

. when a P-type semiconductor is joined to a N-type semiconductor.PN JUNCTION DIODES • What is a PN junction semiconductor and how it is formed? • It is a combination of P-type semiconductor with N-type semiconductor to achieve the practical utility of both. • It’s formed.

CONT… PN .

• This Phenomenon creates the SPACE CHARGE REGION.SPACE CHARGE REGION • Electrons near the junction moves to the N-type to P-type. . The movement of EF is from N-type to P-type region. • Electrons are available in P-region in the space charge region and holes are available in Nregion in space charge region • Electric field will get created in this space charge region because of the movement of holes and electrons.

CONT… .

. • This movement of electrons and holes in space charge region gives rise to Diffusion Current. • Some holes move back from N to P in the space region.DIFFUSION CURRENT • Some electrons move back from P to N in the space region. • This continues to happen till the equilibrium is reached.

The current flow across the circuit and this current is called as . the electrons in the Nregion is drifts through the junction and migrate to the p region and the holes in the Pregion drift through the junction and migrate to the Nregion.DRIFT CURRENT If the voltage is applied to a semiconductor above a specified region.

•  MOBILITY OF CHARGED PARTICLES • Consider a material having large number of free electrons. • E= • The drift velocity is proportional to the magnitude of an electric field. • It ‘’ is the length of the material and V is the applied voltage then the material gets subjected to an electric field E is given by. • αE i.e =μE μ= units of μ are m2 / V-sec . • There exists a drift current due to drifting of free electrons with a velocity called drift velocity (velocity with which electrons drift) denoted as v. subject to external battery. measured in m/s.

• The electrons and holes move in opposite directions in an electric field E. . • One is negative which is the free electron with mobility µn. The current due to each is in same direction. • With each electron-hole pair created.e holes with mobility µp.CONDUCTIVITY OF SEMICONDUCTORS • In a pure semiconductors the number of holes is equal to number of electrons. two chargecarrying particles are formed. • Other is positive i.

THEORY OF PN JUCTION .

PN JUNCTION DIODE IN EQUILIBRIUM WITH NO APPLIED VOLTAGE .

FORWARD BIAS CONDITION .

CONT… • V-I Characteristics of a diode under forward bias: • VF<V0 • When forward bias voltage (VF) less than cut in voltage (V0). . • VF>V0 • The potential barrier at the junction completely disappear and hence. resulting in relatively large current flow in the external circuit. the forward current IF is almost zero because the potential barrier prevents the holes from P-region and the electrons from N-region to flow across the depletion region in the opposite direction. the holes cross the junction from P-type to N-type and the electron cross the junction in opposite direction.

REVERSE BIAS .

• So diode should be operate below this breakdown voltage.CONT… • For large applied reverse bias. This breakdown may damage the diode. . • Thus a large number of free electrons are produced. • The reverse voltage at which the junction breakdown occurs is know as “breakdown voltage”. the free electrons from the N-type moving towards the positive terminal of the battery acquire sufficient energy to move with high velocity and knocks the valence electrons. This lead to breakdown of the junction leading to very large reverse current.

ii. Clampers in TV receivers. Rectifier in dc power supplies.APPLICATION OF PN DIODE i. vii. iii. v. . vi. iv. Diode gates. Voltage doublers in CRT. Switching in digital logic circuits. Comparators. Clippers in wave shaping circuits.

the breakdown voltage remains essentially constant. an essentially a constant voltage across its terminals over a specified range of zener current values.Zener Diode • Zener diode operates only in the reverse-bias region. • It maintains. • As the reverse voltage increases. the reverse current remains negligibly small upto the ‘knee’ of the curve point. • From the bottom of the knee. • This ability of the diode is called regulating ability and is an important feature of a zener diode. the effect of breakdown process begins. . • At this point.

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Hence the zener diode can be used as In this circuit. • Thus the voltage across the zener diode serves as a reference voltage. the voltage across the diode will be constant and hence the load voltage will also be constant. reverse biased and as long as the input voltage does not fall below VZ.ZENER DIODE AS VOLTAGE REGULATOR • Under reverse bias condition. . zener diode is voltage regulator. the voltage across the diode remains almost constant even though the current through the diode increases.

• When the input voltage is above the breakdown voltage. the output varies linearly with the input voltage. . the variation of Vo with respect to Vi is given by line regulation characteristics.REGULATION CHARACTERISTICS • Line regulation • Load regulation • LINE REGULATION • For a fixed load resistance(RL). the output voltage Vo remains constant even though if any variation in the input voltage. • When the input voltage is less than the breakdown voltage.

• As a standard voltage in calibrating the instruments. variation of Vo with respect to load resistor gives the load regulation characteristics. . • Used in voltage clipper circuits.CONT… • LOAD REGULATION • For a fixed input voltage. • The output voltage always remains constant even though the load resistor value changes. • APPLICATION • Used as voltage regulator. • As a reference voltage in comparator circuits.

• APPLICATIONS: • 1. • Advantages of BJT: • 1. Low operation voltage. It is used in amplifier and oscillator circuits. The operation of BJT depends on the interaction of both the majority and minority carriers and the name bipolar. . More efficient due to low power requirement. • 2.INTRODUCTION • BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT): • BJT is a three-terminal semiconductor device. • 2. Smaller in size and light weight. • 3. • 4. Rugged construction. Used as a switch in various digital circuits.

Point-Contact Transistor – first transistor ever made .

• The former is called as NPN transistor. while later is called as PNP transistor.TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION • Structure • The transistor is a threelayer semiconductor device consisting of either two n-and one ptype layers of material or two p.and one n-type layers of material. .

which supplies charge carriers (i. The emitter is a heavily doped region. three region know as emitter.CONT… • A BJT has. as compared to the emitter and is a lightly doped region. .e electrons & holes) to the other two regions. base and collector. Base: It is the middle region that forms two p-n junctions in the transistor. All these three regions are provided with terminals which are labelled as E (for emitter). B (for base) and C (for collector). The base of the transistor is thin. essentially. • 1. Emitter: It is a region situated in one side of transistor. • 2.

e electrons and holes). Collector: It is a region situated in the other side of transistor (i.CONT… • 3.e the side opposite to the emitter). The doping of the collector is intermediate between the heavy doping of emitter and the light doping of the base. . which collect charge carriers (i.

It may be noted that a more heavily doped region has the greater concentration of ions near the junction.3V for germanium transistor.e emitter.7V for silicon transistor and 0. • Under these conditions. with three terminals ( i. • Since the three regions having different doping levels. is called an unbiased transistor or an open-circuited transistor. • The barrier potential. therefore the depletion layers do not have the same width.•  UNBIASED BJT • A transistor. the diffusion of free electrons across the junction produces two depletion layers. . base and collector) left open. for each of these layers at 25 is approximately 0.

CONT… .

• Emitter-base depletion layer width is smaller than that of collector base depletion layer.CONT…. • Similarly. • An emitter-base depletion layer penetrates slightly into the emitter. whereas it penetrates deeply into the base as it’s a lightly doped region. . as it is a heavily doped region. the collector-base depletion layer penetrates more into the base region and less into collector region.

Forward-active: In this mode. • There are different way of biasing a transistor. Each junction of a transistor may be forward biased or reverse-biased independently. which are also known as mode of transistor operation.BJT BIASING… • The application of a suitable dc voltages. . across the transistor terminals. is called biasing. • In forward active biasing the negative terminal of the battery is connected to N-side and positive terminal to Pside. the emitter-base junction of a transistor is forward biased and collector base junction is reverse biased. • 1. The reverse biasing requires all the connections to be opposite to those for forward biasing.

CONT… .

The transistor is operated in this mode.SATURATION: In this mode. In this mode. both the emitter-base and collector-base junctions of a transistor are reverse-biased.• 2. This transistor is operated in this mode. • 3. when it is used as a closed switch. when it is used as open switch. both the emitter-base and collector-base junctions of a transistor are forward-biased. the transistor has practically zero current. the transistor has a very large value of current. .CUT-OFF: In this mode. In this mode.

OPERATION OF AN NPN TRANSISTOR .

This constitute the emitter current IE. • The forward bias on the emitter-base junction causes the free electrons in the N-type emitter to flow towards the base region. • i.e the emitter-base of a transistor is forward-biased and collector-base junction is reversed biased. • We know that the direction of conventional current • is opposite to the flow of electrons.CONT… • NPN transistor biased in forward-active mode.7V for silicon and 0. . • The emitter-base is forward biased only if VEB is greater than barrier potential which is 0.3 for Ge transistors..

• These free electrons combine with holes in the base. • Most of the electrons will diffuse to the collector region and constitute collector current (IC). • This collector current is also called injected current because this current is produced due to electrons injected from the emitter region. they constitute base current (IB). • Most of the free electrons do not combine with holes in the base. .CONT… • Therefore electrons after reaching the base region tends to combine with the holes.

while collector current is about 98% of the emitter current. The base current is about 2% of the emitter current.CONT… •  • NOTE: 1. • IE=-(IC+IB) • Since the base current is very small.The emitter current of a transistor consist of two components namely base current and collector current. • From the diagram that the emitter current is the sum of the collector and base current. therefore • IE IC .

OPERATION OF PNP TRANSISTOR .

• Hence.CONT… • The forward bias applied to the emitter-base junction of a PNP transistor causes a lot of holes form the emitter region to crossover to the base region as the base is slightly doped with N-type impurity. • The remaining holes (more than 95%) crossover into the collector region to constitute a collector current I c. a few holes combined with electrons to constitute a base current IB. . • The number of electrons in the base region is very small and hence the number of holes combined with electrons in the N-type region is also very small.

e IE = (IC+IB).CONT… • Thus the collector and base current when summed up gives the emitter current i. .

which are used as a common terminals..e.BJT CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION • Transistor has three terminals namely emitter(E). we required four terminals i. • When a transistor is connected in a circuit. two for i/p and two for o/p. base (B) and collector(C). • Depending upon the terminals. • To overcome this difficulty we use one of the three terminal as common terminal to the input and the output terminals. the transistor can be connected in the following three different configurations: • Common-base (CB) configuration • Common-emitter (CE) configuration .

. • The input is applied between the emitter and base terminals. The output is taken between the collector and base terminals.CB CONFIGURATION • The transistor is connected with the base as a common terminal.

. The output is taken between the collector and emitter terminals. • The input is applied between the base and collector terminals.CE CONFIGURATION • The transistor is connected with the emitter as a common terminal.

.CC CONFIGURATION • The transistor is connected with the collector as a common terminal. The output is taken between the collector and emitter terminals. • The input is applied between the base and collector terminals.

therefore we define two type of current gain namely d.c current gain.c current gain and a. • In CB configuration the IE is the input current and IC is the output current. αDC or hFB. . • Common-base d.c current gain (α): It is defined as the ratio of IC to IE and is usually designated by α. • Since the input current and output current may be either direct current or alternating current.CB CONFIGURATION •  • Current Gain: The ratio of output current to the input current is called current gain of a transistor.

• Therefore current gain of a transistor in CB configuration is always less than unity.CONT… • In a transistor. the collector current is always less than the emitter current. Therefore the IB is just 2% of IE. • The value of α is made closer to unity by making the width . • For example. • IC=9.c.8/10 = 0.98 • The above value of indicates that the (IC) is 98% of the IE. current gain.8mA and IE = 10mA then the common-base d. • α =9.

αac or hfb .IE = (1.α)IE • Common-base a. • IE = IB+IC • Therefore IB = IE-IC = IE.CONT… •  • The actual value of α ranges from 0. • α0= • It is designated by α0.α.95 to 0. current gain (α0): It is defined as the ratio of small change in collector current () to a small change in emitter current () for a constant collector-tobase voltage(VCB). • The collector current IC= αIE • We also know that the emitter current.998.c.

. This produces a large voltage gain and hence the large power gain. • α= α0 • Current gain of a transistor in CB NPN is less than unity. • The difference between d.CONT… • The term α0 is also called CB short-circuit current gain or small signal current gain. • Output resistance of the CB transistor is much higher than the input resistance. The values of α0 is also less than unity and approximately the same as α.c current gain (hFB) and a.c current gain (hfb) should be carefully noted. But still it is called as current gain.

Determine the CB d.967=IC/IE = IC/10 .In a CB connection.c current gain.967.20mA • α = IC/IE • Ans : α = 0.PROBLEMS • 1.987 • 2.28mA and the collector current is 6. The common-base d. what is the value of base current? • Given α =0.k. Given: IE=6.t 0.c. IF the emitter current is 10mA.967 and IE= 10mA • W. current gain of a transistor is 0.20mA. the emitter current is 6.28mA and IC = 6.

• 10 = IB+IC = IB+9.33mA .• W.67 • IB =10-9.67 =0.t IE.k.

. • Output characteristics: These curves give the relationship between the output current and the output voltage for a given input current. • Static characteristics curves • Input characteristics • Output characteristics • Input characteristics: These curves give the relationship between the input current and input voltage for a given output voltage.CONT… • NPN transistor in the CB configuration.

CONT… .

• Knee voltage. • The collector-base voltage VCB is kept constant at zero volt • The IE is increased from zero in suitable equal steps by increasing VEB.INPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF CB • To determine the input characteristics. . • This is repeated for higher fixed values of VCB.

• So the emitter current IE increases rapidly with small increase in VEB. the junction behaves as a forward biased diode. • Therefore. • This effect in an increase of IE. the curve shift towards the left as VCB is increased.CONT… • When VCB is equal to zero and the emitter-base junction is forward biased. When VCB is increased keeping VEB constant the width of the base region will decreases. .

This is repeated for different fixed values of IE. .OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS OF CB • To determine the output characteristics. the I is kept E constant at a suitable value by adjusting the VEB. • Then VCB is increased in suitable equal steps and the collector current IC is noted for each value of IE.

.CONT… • From the characteristics. from the emitter are injected into base region. • Due to the action of internal potential barrier at the reverse biased CB junction. they flow to the collector region and give rise to IC even when VCB is equal to zero. the majority carrier i. • As the emitter-base junction is forward biased. IC is independent of VCB. • Further IC flow even when VCB is equal to zero. it is seen that for a constant value of IE.e electrons.

the current of minority carriers .EARLY EFFECT OR BASE WIDTH MODULATION • As the collector voltage VCC is made to increase the reverse bias. • This decrease in effective base-width has three consequences: • (i) There is less chance for recombination within the base region. and consequently. This dependency of base-width on collector-to-emitter voltage is know as the Early effect. Hence.α increases with increasing |VCB|. the space charge width between collector to base tends to increase. with result that the effective width of the base decreases. • (ii) The charge gradient is increased within the base.

causing voltage breakdown in the transistor. the effective base-width may be reduced to zero. They are commonly called as common base hybrid parameters or h-parameters.CONT… • For extremely large voltages. . • Transistor parameters • The slope of the CB characteristics will give the following four transistor parameters. This phenomenon is called the punch through. • (i) Input impedance(hib): It is defined as the ratio of the change in (input) emitter voltage to the change in (input) emitter current with the (output) collector voltage VCB kept constant.

Therefore. • hob= • The typical value of this parameter is of the order of 0. . • (ii) Output admittance (hob): It is defined as the ratio of change in the (output) collector current to the corresponding change in the (output) collector voltage with the (input) emitter current IE kept constant.1 to 10μ mhos.CONT… •  • hib = constant • The typical value of hib ranges from 20Ω to 50Ω.

• hfb= gain (hfb): It is defined as a ratio (output) collector current to the in the (input) emitter current collector voltage VCB constant.9 to 1. . Hence. • (iv) Reverse voltage gain (hrb): It is defined as the ratio of the change in the (input) emitter voltage and the corresponding change in (output) collector voltage with constant (input) emitter current IE.0. • hrb= typical value is of the order 10-5 to 10-4. • Its typical value varies from 0.•  CONT… • (iii) Forward current of the change in the corresponding change keeping the (output) Hence.

05mA. if IC =5mA and IB = 0. βdc. the CE d.k. current gain (β): It is defined as the ratio of collector current (IC) to base current (IB) and is designated by β. • (i) Common-emitter d.t IC of a transistor is much larger than the base current (IB).CE CONFIGURATION • Current Gain: The current gain of a transistor in the CE configuration is the ratio of IC to that of IB. • Therefore the value of β is much greater than unity. current gain • β = IC/IB . or hFE. • Example. then common- . IC = (1+ β)ICB0+ βIB • W.c. Mathematically.c.

• β0=/ • β0 is also called common-emitter short circuit . current gain. Mathematically commonemitter a. • It is designated by β0. βac or hFE. Sometimes β of a transistor is also know as large-signal CE current gain. Typical value of β may range from 20 to 250. current gain (β0): It is defined as the ratio of small change in collector current () to the small change in base current () for a constant collector-to-emitter voltage (VCE).CONT… •  • Collector current is 100 times that of base current.c. • (ii) Common emitter a.c.

•  RELATION BETWEEN CURRENT GAIN α and β • W.t IE of a transistor is the sum of its base current (IB) and collector current (IC). i.k.. • = • Since IC/IE = α and IC/IB = β therefore • = +1= •α= . • IE = IB+IC • Dividing the above equation on both side by IC.e.

β+ α = β • α = β.α.α) •β= . β = β(1.CONT… •  • From the equation of α we can get β • α (β+1) = β • α.

the collector to emitter voltage is kept constant at zero volt.INPUT CHARACTERISTICS • To determine the input characteristics. . • Base current is increased from zero in equal steps by increasing VBE.

CONT… • A knee voltage is exists. The value of knee voltage is 0.7 and 0. • Beyond the knee voltage the IB increases with increase in VBE for constant VCE. . where the base current below knee voltage is very small.3.

the curve shift downwards. .CONT… • It may be noted that the value of base current does not increases rapidly as that of the i/p characteristics of a CB transistor. • It mean that input resistance of a transistor in CE is higher than CB configuration. which in turn reduces the base current. the depletion width in the base region increases. The reduces effective base width. It occur because of the fact that as VCE is increased. • As the VCE is increased above 1v.

• The magnitude of collector-emitter voltage VCE is increased in suitable equal steps from zero and the collector current IC is noted. VBE. the base current I B is kept constant at a suitable value by adjusting baseemitter voltage.OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS • To determine the output characteristics. .

then β = 66. If α increases to 0. when α =0. a slight increase in α by about 0. due to Early effect.t • β =. • Here.98.985. a very small change in α is reflected in a very large change in β. • For example. β = 49. for large value of VCE.k.5% results in an increase in β by about 34%. • The output characteristics have three regions.CONT… •  • W. namely • Saturation region • Cut-off region • Active region .

. the collector supply voltage. • The ratio of VCE(sat) to IC in this region is called saturation resistance. • Cut-off region: The region below the curve for IB=0 is called the cut-off region.CONT… • Saturation region: In this region. • Hence the collector current almost zero and the collector voltage almost equals VCC. both junctions are forward biased and an increase in the base current does not cause a corresponding large change in IC. • When the operating point for the transistor enters the cutoff region the transistor is OFF. In this region both junctions are reverse biased.

• (i) Input impedance(hie): It is defined as the ratio of the change in (input) base voltage to the change in (input) base current with the (output) collector voltage VCE kept constant. • hib = constant • The typical value of hie ranges from 500Ω to 2000Ω. . They are commonly called as common base hybrid parameters or h-parameters.•  • Transistor parameters • The slope of the CE characteristics will give the following four transistor parameters.

CONT… •  • (ii) Output admittance (hoe): It is defined as the ratio of change in the (output) collector current to the corresponding change in the (output) collector voltage with the (input) base current IB kept constant.1 to 10μ mhos. . • hob= • The typical value of this parameter is of the order of 0. Therefore.

• hfe= • Its typical value varies from 20 to 200. • (iv) Reverse voltage gain (hrb): It is defined as the ratio of the change in the (input) base voltage and the corresponding change in (output) collector voltage with constant (input) base current IB.CONT… •  • (iii) Forward current gain (hfe): It is defined as a ratio of the change in the (output) collector current to the corresponding change in the (input) base current keeping the (output) collector voltage VCE constant. • hre=typical value is of the order 10-5 to 10-4. Hence. . Hence.

• Therefore the common-collector current gain is given by the relation. •= = • Substituting the value of α= in the above equation. the input current is the base current (IB) and the output current is the emitter current (IE).CC CONFIGURATION •  • Current gain: In a common-collector transistor circuit. CC current gain •= .

k.•  • The output current of a common-collector transistor circuit is (1+β) times that of the input current. • W.t β>>1. therefore common-collector current gain .

. however. FET is also a three terminal device. the principle of operation of FET is completely different from that of BJT. • The three terminals of FET are named as Drain (D). Out of these three terminals gate terminal acts as a controlling terminal. • Like BJT. Source (S) and Gate (G).FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORINTRODUCTION • FET is an another semiconductor device like a BJT which can be used as an amplifier or switch.

• Hence BJT is a current controlled device. • The name field effect is derived from the fact that the output current flow is controlled by an electric field set up in the device by an externally applied voltage between gate and source terminals. • In FET.FEATURES OF FET • Voltage Controlled Device: • In BJT the output current IC is controlled by the base current IB. • Therefore FET is a voltage controlled device. voltage applied between gate and source (VGS) controls the drain current ID. .

--. Hence FET is called unipolar device. as temperature increases drain resistance also increases. reducing the drain current. • FET is more temperature stable compare to BJT. • In FET.preferred in amplifiers where high input impedance is required. • FET has very high input impedance. current is carried by only one type of charge particles.CONT… • Unipolar Device: We know that in BJT the current is carried by both electrons and holes. the parameter of FET are also temperature dependent. . • Like BJT. • In FET. either electrons or holes. and hence the name “bipolar” junction transistor.

CLASSIFICATION OF FET The FETs are categorised as: • Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) • Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) • JFET • n-channel JFET • p-channel JFET • MOSFET • Depletion MOSFET • Enhancement MOSFET .

CONSTRUCTION OF N-CHANNEL JFET • A small bar of extrinsic semiconductor material. the FET is known as n-channel JFET. n type is taken and at its two ends. • Since this channel is in the n type bar. • Heavily doped electrodes of p type material form p-n junctions on each side of the bar. • The electrons enter the channel through the terminal called source . two ohmic contacts are made which are the drain and source terminals of FET. The thin region between the two p gates is called the channel.

OPERATION OF N-CHANNEL JFET • VDD = Drain supply voltage • VDS = Drain to source voltage • VGG = Gate supply voltage • VGS = Gate to source voltage • ID = Drain current • IS = Source current and • IG = Gate current .

Now. . depletion layer located symmetrically about the gates are formed. • We know that there exist space charge regions on either side of a reverse biased P-N junction.CONT… • First the gate has been reverse-biased by the gate voltage source VGG and the drain supply voltage is not connected.

. • The voltage VDD is dropped across the N-channel resistance (say RDS) giving rise to a drain current ID = . Due to this current flow there will be a uniform voltage drop while going from drain to source.CONT… •  • Consider the effect of drain voltage VDD while VGG is removed.

• So due to the progressive voltage drop along the length of the channel. • When both VDD and VGG are applied. • Due to this reason. Certainly. VA>VB. • Let no potential is applied between drain and source.CONT… • Consider two points A and B in N-channel. Let VA and VB be potential drop at these points. the penetration of depletion region at A is more than at B. Now a current ID flow from drain to source which is maximum because the channel is widest. . the reverse biasing effect on P-N junction is stronger near drain than near source.

a stage is reached when two depletion regions touch each other and the drain current becomes zero. according to a fixed drain to source voltage. Since there are no current carriers available in depletion region. • This gate bias. • Due to the decrease of cross sectional area of N-channel. its conductivity is zero. the drain current is a function of reverse bias voltage at gate. .CONT… • Let the gate is reverse-biased by applying a voltage V GG between the gate and source. • When gate-bias is increased further. • So. increases the depletion region and thereby decreases the cross-section of N-channel. the drain current ID decreases.

CHARACTERISTICS OF N-CHANEL JFET • Drain characteristics: The curves between drain current (ID) and drain to source voltage (VDS) for different fixed values of gate to source voltage (VGS) are known as drain characteristics. • Transfer Characteristics: The curves between drain current (ID) and gate to source voltage (VGS) for a fixed value of drain to source voltage (VDS) and known as transfer characteristics. .

CONT… .

• Self pinch-off at no bias (VGS = 0): At VGS = 0. . and the current ID increases linearly with VDS. • VGS and VDS both = 0: When VGS = 0 the channel is entirely open.DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS • In order to draw the drain characteristics set the VGS to zero. • AS VDS increases. • Now. the voltage drop along the channel also increases. increase VDS in small suitable steps and record the corresponding values of ID at each step. the n-type bar acts as a simple semiconductor resistor. VDS = 0. so there is no attractive force for the majority carriers (electrons in n-channel JFET) and drain current does not flow. in response to a small applied voltage VDS.

• Thus. Vp. ID approaches the constant saturation value.CONT… • This increase in voltage drop increases the reverse bias on gate-source junction and cause the depletion regions to penetrate into the channel. • The effect of reduction in channel width provides more opposition to increase in drain current ID. rate of increase in ID with respect to VDS is now reduced. reducing channel width. • The voltage VDS at which the current ID reaches to its constant saturation level is called “Pinch-off Voltage”. drain current ID cannot be increase further. • At some value of VDS. . due to reduction in channel width. • Any further increase in VDS does not increase the drain current ID.

the gate channel junction are further reverse biased . it is observed from the graph that for more negative values of VGS. reducing the effective width of the channel available for the conduction. of say -1V. the pinch-off voltage is reached at lesser values of ID. . is applied between the gate to source.CONT… • VGS with negative bias: When an external bias. • Because of this. drain current will reduced and pinch off voltage is reached at a lower drain current than when VGS=0. • By applying several values of negative external bias voltage (VGS).

Vp. the voltage will be reached at which the gate-channel junction breakdown. • At this point the drain current increases very rapidly and the device ma be destroyed. the drain current ID remains constant.CONT… • Breakdown region: If we increase value of VDS beyond pinch-off voltage. • Ohmic and Saturation regions: • It is seen that the drain characteristics of JFET is divided into two regions: • Ohmic region • Saturation region . due to avalanche effect. • If we further exceed VDS. upto certain value of VDS.

CONT…

• In the ohmic region, the drain current ID varies with VDS and
the JFET is said to behave as voltage variable
resistance.
• In the saturation region, the drain current ID remains fairly
constant and does not vary with VDS.
• Cut-off : As we know, for an n-channel JFET, the more
negative VGS cause drain current to reduce and pinch-off
voltage to reach at a lower drain current.
• When VGS is made sufficiently negative, ID is reduced to 0.
• This is caused by the widening of the depletion region to a
point where it completely closes the channel. The value of
VGS at the cut-off point is designated as VGS(OFF).

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS
• The
 
relationship between the drain current ID and gate to
source voltage VGS is non-linear.
• This relationship is defined by Shockley’s equation
• ID = IDSS(1-)^2
• The square term of the equation will results in a non-linear
relationship between ID and VGS, producing a curve that
grows exponentially with decreasing magnitudes of VGS.
• From equation we can also write,
• VGS = VP(1-)
• In this eqn., IDSS and VP are constants, value of VGS controls
ID.

CONT…
ID =0 when VGS = VGS
(off)

ID = IDSS when VGS =0

Types n-p-n and p-n-p n-channel and pchannel Configurations CE. Device type Current flows due to both.COMPARISON OF BJT AND FET PARAMETERS BJT FET Control element Current controlled device. Current flows only due majority and minority carriers to majority carriers and and hence bipolar device. thus making them useful in IC. Voltage controlled device. Symbols . CB and CC CS. hence unipolar device. CG and CD Input resistance Less compare to JFET High compare to BJT Size Bigger than JFET Smaller in construction than BJT.

Thermal noise More in BJT as more charge low carriers cross junctions Much lower in JFET as very few charge carrier cross the junction.COMPARISON OF BJT AND FET PARAMETERS PARAMETERS Less BJT Thermal stability Thermal Relation betweenstability Linear input and output Relation between Ratio input of o/p and to i/p output BJT More Less FET Non-Linear Linear FET More Non-Linear Ratio of o/p to i/p Thermal noise More in BJT as more charge carriers cross junctions Much lower in JFET as very few charge carrier cross the junction. Gain bandwidth product High low Gain bandwidth product High .

• 1. • It is the ratio of a small change in the drain current to the corresponding small change in the gate voltage at a constant drain voltage. g m It is the slope of the transfer characteristic curves. • As one of these variables may be fixed and the relation between the other two are determined. Unit of conductance in mho. Mutual conductance or transconductance.CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS OF THE JFET •  • In a JFET. VDS held constant. the drain current ID depends upon the drain voltage VDS and the gate voltage Vgs. and is defined by • gm = ) VDS = . .

CONT…

•   • 2. Drain resistance, r It is the reciprocal of the slope
d
of the drain characteristics and is defined by
• rd = VGS = , VGS held constant.

• It is the ratio of a small change in the drain voltage to
the corresponding small change in the drain current at a
constant gate voltage. It has the unit of resistance in
ohms.
• The drain resistance at Vgs=0V i.e., when the depletion
region of the channel are absent, is called as drainsource ON resistance, RDS or RDS(ON).
• The reciprocal of rd is called the drain conductance. It is
denoted by gd or gos.

CONT…
•  •
Amplification factor, μ It is defined by
• μ = = - , ID held constant.
• It is ratio of small change in the drain voltage to the
corresponding small change in the gate voltage at a
constant drain current.

MOSFET
• Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor – MOSFET
• The mode of operation of the MOSFET is divided into two
types.
• 1. Depletion Mode
• 2. Enhancement Mode
• In depletion mode of operation the bias voltage on the gate
reduces the number of charge carriers in the channel and
therefore reduces the drain current.
• In enhancement mode of operation the bias voltage on the
gate increases the number of charge carriers in the channel
and therefore increases the drain current .

CONT… .

DEPLETION MOSFET .

• A lightly doped n-type channel is introduced between the two heavily doped source and drain. • A thin layer of (1μm thick) silicon dioxide is coated on the surface. the insulating layer of SiO2 accounts for very high input impedance of MOSFET.DEPLETION MOSFET • Construction of an n-channel depletion MOSFET • It consists of a lightly doped p-type substrate in which two highly doped n-region are diffused. • In addition. . • Due to SiO2 layer the gate is completely insulated from the channel. • The two heavily doped n-regions act as the source and drain. • This permits operation with G-S or gate-channel voltages above and below zero.

lesser the number of free electrons in the channel. • These holes recombine with electrons and reduce the number of free electrons in the n-channel available for conduction. • If the negative voltage is applied to gate with respect to source then holes are induced in the channel. • The more negative the bias. the saturation drain current I DSS flows during pinch-off and it is labelled as IDSS. • Current is established from drain to source similar to JFET. . • Like in JFET.CONT… • BASIC OPERATION: A voltage VDS is applied between the drain and source terminals and the gate-to source voltage is set to zero.

the device is referred to as a depletion MOSFET. . • If a positive voltage is applied to gate with respect to source then the electrons are induced in the channel.CONT… • Since the negative voltage of the gate depletes the channel. • The induced electrons constitute additional current from source to drain. • The mode in which the MOSFET operates for positive values of gate-to-source voltage is known as enhancement mode. • If we increase VGS more in positive direction more number of electrons are induced and hence the drain current increases.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEPELTION MOSFET .

ENHANCEMENT MOSFET .

• The SiO2 layer is present to isolate the gate from the region between the drain and source. a small drain current flows. due to absence of the channel. • When the drain is made positive with respect to source and no potential is applied to gate. • Enhancement MOSFET does not contain diffused channel between the source and drain. .CONT… • Enhancement MOSFET consists of a p-type substrate and two heavily doped n-regions that act as source and drain. • The source and drain terminals are connected through metallic contacts to n-doped regions.

CONT…
• If we apply a positive voltage to the gate with respect to
source and substrate, negative charge carriers are induced in
the substrate.
• The negative charge carriers which are minority carriers in
the P-type substrate from an “inversion layer”.
• As the gate potential is increased more and more negative
charge carriers are induced.
• These negative carriers that are accumulated between
source and drain constitute an n-type channel.
• Thus a drain current flows from source to drain through the
induced channel.
• The magnitude of the drain current depends on the gate
potential.

CONT…
• Since the conduction of the channel is enhanced by the
positive bias voltage on the gate the device is known as
enhancement MOSFET.
• DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS:
• The current IDSS for VGS = 0 is very small of the order of
Nano amperes.
• Note that the drain current increases with positive
increases in gate source bias voltage.

CHARACTERISTICS

• The gate source voltage at which there is significantly increase in drain current is called the threshold voltage (VT) or VGS(th). • As VGS is made positive the current ID increases slowly at first and then more rapidly with an increase in VGS. • Since the drain current is zero for VGS=0.CONT… • The n-channel enhancement MOSFET requires a positive gate to source voltage for its operation. • The equation for transfer characteristics is • ID = k(VGS – VGS(th))2 . the IDSS is zero for this device.

DUAL-GATE MOSFET .

• A dual-gate MOSFET uses two gates to reduce the overall high gate-to-channel capacitance at high frequencies. • The meta plate used for the gate is a conductor. • The silicon dioxide between the gate and channel is a dielectric layer. Since the channel itself is considered a conductor. • In a dual-gate MOSFET. the combination of the three forms a capacitor. .CONSTRUCTION • The operation of conventional MOSFET is limited at high frequencies by its high gate-to-channel capacitance. two gate terminals are provided as compared to a conventional single-gate MOSFET. • The voltages at both the gate terminals control the flow of current through the MOSFET.

CONT… • The device is normally wired so that the two gates are in series. the effect is similar to connecting the two gates in series. • When the dual-gate MOSFET is used as two series MOSFETS. • Here. . the overall capacitance is reduced. the N+ region in the middle acts as drain forMOSFET-1 and source for MOSFET-2.

a channel is formed between the corresponding source and drain.OPERATION • In the N-channel dual-gate MOSFET. the drain current decreases. • When the gate voltage of either of the two gate terminals is made negative. . • The drain current gets enhanced when the gate voltage applied to both gate terminals (gate-1 and gate-2) are made positive. the voltages at both the gate terminals control the flow of current. • When the voltages applied to the gate terminals such as gate-1 and gate-2 are greater than the threshold voltage.

APPLICATIONS • Mixers • Demodulators • Cascade amplifiers • RF amplifiers • AGC amplifiers .

VEC is kept at a suitable fixed value. • The base-collector voltage VBC is increased in equal steps and the corresponding increase in IB is noted.INPUT CHARACTERISTICS • To determine the input characteristics. .

•  CURRENT AMPLIFICATION FACTOR • In a transistor amplifier with AC input signal. • In the CE configuration the current amplification factor. . the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current is know as the current amplification factor. • In the CC configuration the current amplification factor. • In the CB configuration the current amplification factor.

forming a p-n junction. • At the other end of slab. • It consists of lightly doped n type silicon slab/bar to which aluminium rod is alloyed at the one end with a p type materials. The third terminal emitter E is taken out from aluminium .UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT) • UJT is a three terminal semiconductor switching device. two base contacts B1 and B2 are attached.

• When IE = 0. • When emitter diode is not conducting. • The p-n junction can be treated as a diode D while internal resistances of two bases are denoted as R B1 and RB2. • Therefore VRB1 = = ηVBB • η = FOR IE=0 = typical value of η = 0.75 • Where η = Intrinsic stand off ratio .CONT… •  • It has only one p-n junction hence called unijunction. then the voltage drop across RB1 is given by. the resistance between two bases is called interbase resistance given by RBB = RB1+RB2. The resistance RB1 is greater than RB2.56 to 0.

• The potential of A is decided by η and is . • The VE is used to forward bias the diode. The drop across diode is VD.WORKING OF UJT • The supply voltage VBB is connected between B1 and B2 while variable emitter voltage VE is applied to emitter.

• Due to this the charge carriers are injected in the R B1 region of the bar. This UJT is said to be OFF. the conductivity of the R B1 region increases i. the p-n junction is reverse biased. • Due to these additional charge carriers.e resistance and due to which the drop across it also decreases.7 V. . Hence we can write. Case 2 : VE > VP • The diode drop VD is generally between 0.3 to 0. Hence emitter current IE will not flow.CONT… Case 1 : VE < VA • As long as VE is less than VA. • VP = VA + VD = ηVBB +VD • When VE become equal to or greater than VP the p-n junction becomes forward biased and current I E flows.

. • Under these conditions. • The current IE is increases to a value determined by the source resistance. the UJT is said to be ON and remains in this condition till the input is open or the current IE gets reduced to very low value.CONT… • This make the p-n junction more forward biased which further increases the current and more charge carriers are injected.

A small amount of reverse saturation current IE0 flow through the device. Negative resistance region : when the emitter voltage VE becomes equal to VP the p-n junction become forward biased and IE starts flowing. which is negligibly small of the order of This condition remains till the peak point. 2. The voltage across the device decreases in this region.UJT CHARACTERISTICS 1. thought the current through the device increases. . Cut-off region : The emitter voltage VE is less than VP and the p-n junction is reverse biased.

UJT CHARACTERISTICS 3. Saturation region: Increase in IE further valley point current IV drives the device in the saturation region. • As the VBB increases.e. • The active region i. negative resistance region. • This cause increase in free electrons in the n-type slab. The voltage corresponding to valley point is called valley point voltage VV. get injected into n-side. In this region. . This increase the conductivity i. decrease the resistivity. further decrease in voltage does not take place. The characteristics is similar to that of a semiconductor diode. in this region.e. Hence the resistance RB1 decreases in this region. the potential VP corresponding to peak point will increase. the holes which are larger in number on p-side.

APPLICATIONS • The various applications of UJT are. In automobile ignition circuits. In timing circuits. Triggering of other devices like SCR. 2. . 4. In a relaxation oscillator. 5. 3. 1. In a sawtooth waveform generator.

• The voltage across the capacitor increases exponentially and when the capacitor voltage reaches the peak point voltage Vp. it provides negative resistance to the discharge path which is useful in the working of the relaxation oscillator. • After the peak point volatge of UJT is reached. • It consists of a UJT and a capacitor C which is discharged through R as the supply voltage VCC or VBB is switched ON. .UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR • For generating sawtooth waveform. the UJT starts conducting and the capacitor voltage is discharged rapidly through EB1 and R1.

SCR / Thyristor • Circuit Symbol and Terminal Identification ANODE GATE SCR 2N3668 CATHODE .

SCR / Thyristor • Anode and Cathode terminals as conventional pn junction diode • Gate terminal for a controlling input signal ANODE GATE SCR 2N3668 CATHODE .

SCR/ Thyristor • An SCR (Thyristor) is a “controlled” rectifier (diode) • Control the conduction under forward bias by applying a current into the Gate terminal • Under reverse bias. looks like conventional pn junction diode .

Cathode as for a conventional pn junction diode • Cathode Gate brought out for controlling input P N Gate P N Cathode .SCR / Thyristor Anode • 4-layer (pnpn) device • Anode.

ANODE Circuit Equivalent ANODE P Q1 N GATE P N BJT_PNP_VIRTUAL Q2 P GATE BJT_NPN_VIRTUAL N CATHODE CATHODE .

both transistors are OFF. IF ANODE (A) Q1 IC2=IB1 BJT_PNP_VIRTUAL GATE (G) IC1 = IB2 Q2 BJT_NPN_VIRTUAL VBreakdown = VBR(F) IF CATHODE (K) .Apply Biasing Variable 50V With the Gate terminal OPEN. As the applied voltage increases. there will be a “breakdown” that causes both transistors to conduct (saturate) making IF > 0 and VAK = 0.

Volt-Ampere Characteristic IF Holding Current IH VBR(F) VAK Breakdown Voltage .

Apply a Gate Current For 0 < VAK < VBR(F). Variable 50V Turn Q2 ON by applying a current into the Gate IF ANODE (A) Q1 This causes Q1 to turn ON. and eventually both transistors SATURATE VAK = VCEsat + VBEsat BJT_PNP_VIRTUAL GATE (G) VG If the Gate pulse is removed. Q1 and Q2 still stay ON! IC2 = IB1 IB2 Q2 BJT_NPN_VIRTUAL IF CATHODE (K) .

How do you turn it OFF? • Cause the forward current to fall below the value if the “holding” current. IH • Reverse bias the device .

D1 2N1776 Rload 15ohm C 0. current flows in the Load for the remainder of the positive half-cycle. . the SCR turns ON.01uF Current flow stops when the applied voltage goes negative.21V_rms 60Hz 0Deg 60% When the voltage across the capacitor reaches the “trigger-point” voltage of the device.SCR Application – Power Control XSC1 G A B T R 25kOhm Key = a Vs 170V 120.

Input / Output Voltages .

 “Firing” time  Firing Angle () .Look at the LOAD Current Conduction time  Conduction Angle = 180 .

AVE p  LOAD i p L .AVE L    tan (RC ) 1 .Average Load Current i 1 V  sin td(t)  2 R V  (1  cos ) 2 R  L .

It is basically two parallel SCRs turned in opposite directions. • The TRIAC.TRIODE AC SWITCH (TRIAC): • The TRIAC is another important member of the thyristor family. The gate terminal is near MT1. Note: It is a bidirectional device and can conduct in both the directions. It is widely used for the control of power in ac circuits. . • The two main electrodes are called main terminals MT1 and MT2 while common control terminal is called gate G. • The traic can be turned ON by applying either a positive or negative voltage to the gate G with respect to the main terminal MT1. is thus. with common gate terminal. a bidirectional thyristor with three terminals.

WORKING OF TRIAC .

CONT… • With gate open. either MT1 is positive with respect to MT2 or MT2 is positive with respect to MT1. If this voltage is increased beyond breakdown voltage. • Forward blocking region: when gate is open and MT2 is positive with respect to MT1 but the voltage is less than forward breakdown voltage then triac does not conduct. triac conducts in reverse direction. But note that if this voltage is increased beyond the breakdown voltage. This region is called forward blocking region. the triac conducts in the forward direction. This region is called reverse blocking region. • Reverse blocking region: when gate is open and MT2 is negative with respect to MT1 but the voltage is less than breakdown voltage then triac does not conduct. .

This is the gate control of triac and easy way of switching triac ON.• In forward or reverse blocking. • Operation modes of triac: In each biased state. • Four different operating modes of triac. . triac is forward biased while when MT1 is positive and MT2 is negative. • Mode 1: In this mode triac is forward biased and gate is made positive with respect to MT1. triac is reverse biased. The terminal MT2 is positive with respect to MT1 as triac is forward biased. Note: when MT2 is positive and MT1 is negative. gate can be positive or negative. now if gate is made positive or negative with respect to MT1 then also the triac conducts.

triac is forward biased and gate is made negative with respect to MT1. • The gate current is positive and the triac is said to be operating in the first quadrant of its V-I characteristics. Mode 2: In this mode. • Due to negative gate.• In this arrangement the breakdown occurs as a normal SCR.mode of operation. . The gate current is negative but triac still operates in first quadrant of its V-I characteristics. Hence this mode is also called I + mode of operation. • The sensitivity to gate current is less in this mode. this mode is also called I . In this arrangement also the breakdown occurs as a normal SCR.

• The gate current initiates the conduction and due to regenrative action. triac is reverse biased i.e triac current reverses compared to mode 1 and 2 and the polarities of voltage between MT1 and MT2 are also reversed compared to mode 1 and 2 hence triac operates in third quadrant of its V-I characteristics. direction of main SCR i. triac is reverse biased but gate is made negative. • Mode 4: In this mode. • In this mode. But due to positive gate. it is called III+ mode.e MT1 is positive with respect to MT2 and the gate is made positive. . the triac is turned ON .• Mode 3: In this mode.

mode. gate current is negative and due to regenerative action. in this mode only gate current direction is reversed. Hence this mode is called III. In this mode triac is more sensitive than III+ mode. . • The triac operation is in the third quadrant of its V-I characteristics.• In this mode. • Compared to III+ mode. the triac starts conducting.

CHARCTERISTICS OF TRIAC .

Advantages of the TRIAC: • The TRIAC has the following advantages: 1. Triacs with available. It conducts in both the directions hence power control in both the half cycles is possible. conduction and current in both the ratings are . 3. Single gate directions. 2. More economical than SCR. Triac turns off when voltage is reversed. no external circuit is required to turn off. controls high the voltage 5. 4.

The reliability is less than SCR. . 5. Triacs have very small switching frequencies. power applications. 4. Power rating is less than SCR. 2.Disadvantages of the TRIAC: 1.c. Low dv/dt and di/dt rating than SCR hence accidental turning on due to high dv/dt of source voltage is possible. Gate has no control over the conduction when triac is on. Not suitable for d. 3. 6.

C. power flashers. . 8.Applications of the TRIAC 1. switching of applications. 6. The power control to the load. Static a. Light dimmer circuits. Heater controllers or temperature controllers 5. A.c. 7. 9. As a triggering device for SCRs.C. 2. voltage stabilizers. In a three position static switch. Proximity detector circuit. 3. 4. A.

• From the characteristics of a DIAC. the central layer is free from any connection with the terminals.DIAC (DIODE AC SWITCH) • DIAC is a three layer. • It acts as a bidirectional Avalanche diode. two terminal semiconductor device. It does not have any control terminal. it acts as a switch in both directions. • As the doping level at the two ends of the device is the . • It has two transistor. MT1 and MT2 are the two main terminals which are interchangeable.

a very small amount of current called leakage current flows through the device and the device remains in OFF state. • When the voltage level reaches the breakdown voltage. MT1 is positive with respect to MT2 whereas MT2 is positive with respect to MT1 in the negative half cycle. It is used as triggering device in TRIAC phase control circuits used for light dimming. • At voltage less than the breakdown voltage. motor speed control & heater control. i.• During the positive half cycle. • The DIAC is not a control device. .e current flowing in the device starts increasing and the voltage across it starts decreasing. the device start conducting and it exhibits negative resistance characteristics.

I-V characteristics of the DIAC: .

Light Emitting Diode: LED .

What is an LED? • Light-emitting diode • Semiconductor • Has polarity .

LED: How It Works
• When current flows
across a diode

• Negative electrons move one
way and positive holes move
the other way

LED: How It Works
• The wholes exist at
a lower energy
level than the free
electrons

• Therefore when a free electrons
falls it losses energy

LED: How It Works
• This energy is
emitted in a form
of a photon, which
causes light

• The color of the light is
determined by the fall of the
electron and hence energy level
of the photon

Transparent Plastic Case 2. Terminal Pins 3.Inside a Light Emitting Diode 1. Diode .

Kinds of LEDs .

How to Connect a LED: • Requires 1.5~2. use resistor 470 Ω .5V and 10 mA • To prevent overloading.

How to Connect a LED: .

Connect LED to BS2 • LED is on when P0 is high • LED is on when P1 is low .

25mA .Connect Multiple LEDs to BS2 • 8 LEDs are connected to BS2 each I/O pin (P0-P7) is allowed to sink 6.

Case Study: Blinking LED .