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EXAMPLE
Consider a gas mixture that consists of 3 kg of O2, 5 kg of N2, and
12 kg of CH4. Determine (a) the mass fraction of each component,
(b) the mole fraction of each component, and (c) the average molar
mass and gas constant of the mixture.

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Solution
(a) The total mass of the mixture is
mm = mO2 + mN2 + mCH4 = 3 + 5 + 12 = 20 kg
The mass fraction of each component is thus

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we need to determine the mole numbers of each component first: Thus 5 .(b) To find the mole fractions.

and 6 .

Or Also 7 .(c) The average molar mass and gas constant of the mixture are determined from their definitions.

and the two gases form a homogeneous mixture at 25°C. The valve connecting the two tanks is now opened. Detremine the final pressure in the tank.Example An insulated tank that contains 1 kg of O2 at 15°C and 300 kPa is connected to a 2-m3 uninsulated tank that contains N2 at 50°C and 500 kPa.   8 .

25 m  P 300 kPa 1  O  2 m N2  PV  1 1   RT 1 N  2  500 kPa   2 m3    0.25 m3  2.25 m 3 9 .2968 kJ/kg K   323 K   10.0 m 3  2.43 kg Vtotal  V1.O2 1 kg   0.2598 kJ/kg K   mRT1  3    0.N 2  0.O2  V1.Solution   The volume of the O2 tank and mass of the nitrogen are:   V1.

03125  0.40375 kmol Thus  NRu T  0.25 m 1  N  VVtotal 2 10 .3725 kmol 28 kg/kmol N m  N O2  N N 2  0.43 kg   0.03125 kmol 32 kg/kmol m N2 M N2 10.43 kg m O2 M O2  N N2  1 kg   0.40375 kmol   8.3725 =0.Also m O2  1 kg  N O2  m N2  10.6 kPa   3 2.314 kJ/kmol K   298 K  Pm    444.

One compartment contains 7 kg of oxygen gas at 40°C and 100 kPa.Example An insulated rigid tank is divided into two compartments by a partition.O2 = 0. Now the partition is removed.743 kJ/kg · K and cv. Properties: The constant-volume specific heats of N2 and O2 at room temperature are cv.658 kJ/kg · K. and the two gases are allowed to mix. 11 . Determine (a) the mixture temperature and (b) the mixture pressure after equilibrium has been established. and the other compartment contains 4 kg of nitrogen gas at 20°C and 150 kPa.N2 = 0.

(a) Noting that there is no energy transfer to or from the tank.Solution We take the entire contents of the tank (both compartments) as the system. This is a closed system since no mass crosses the boundary during the process. We note that the volume of a rigid tank is constant and thus there is no boundary work done. the energy balance for the system can be expressed as the final temperature of the mixture is determined to be 12 .

(b) The final pressure of the mixture is determined from the idealgas relation where 13 .

and Thus 14 .

Estimate The volume of the tank on the basis of (a) the ideal-gas equation of state. and (b) Kay’s rule.P-v-T Behavior of Nonideal Gas Mixtures A rigid tank contains 2 kmol of N2 and 6 kmol of CO2 gases at 300 K and 15 MPa. 15 . Solution (a) When the mixture is assumed to behave as an ideal gas. the volume of the mixture is easily determined from the ideal-gas relation for the mixture: since Nm = NN2 + NCO2 = 2 + 6 = 8 kmol.EXAMPLE .

first we need to determine the mole fraction of each component: 16 . However.(b) To use Kay’s rule. we need to determine the pseudocritical temperature and pseudocritical pressure of the mixture by using the critical-point properties of N2 and CO2 from Table A–1.

17 .

and (b) Kay’s rule.5 m3  of N2 at the same temperature and pressure.3 m3 of O2 at 200 K and 8 MPa is mixed with 0.Example A volume of 0. . using (a)  the ideal-gas equation of state. Determine the volume of the mixture. forming a mixture at  200 K and 8 MPa.

Solution (a) Treating the mixture as an ideal gas. .

.(b) First. we need to determine the Z and the mole numbers of each  component at the mixture temperature and pressure.

The mole fractions are .

Then  .

Exercise 1.CH4 = 191. Estimate the volume of the tank. Tcr.2 K.N2 = 3. Pcr. Note: Critical temperatures and pressures of of N2 and CH4 are: Tcr. A rigid tank contains 2 kmol of N2 and 6 kmol of CH4 gases at 200  K and 12 MPa.64 MPa . and (b) Kay’s rule. using (a) the idealgas equation of state.1 K Pcr.CH4 = 4.N2 = 126.39 MPa.

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and 3.005 kJ/kg · K. The saturation pressure of water is 1. and its gas constant is Ra = 0. The enthalpy of saturated water vapor is 2519.0 kJ/kg at 22°C. and 2541. determine (a) the rate of heat supply in the heating section. Properties: The constant-pressure specific heat of air at room temperature is cp = 1. 25 .287 kJ/kgK.Example An air-conditioning system is to take in outdoor air at 10°C and 30 percent relative humidity at a steady rate of 45 m3/min and to condition it to 25°C and 60 percent relative humidity. Assuming the entire process takes place at a pressure of 100 kPa.2281 kPa at 10°C. The outdoor air is first heated to 22°C in the heating section and then humidified by the injection of hot steam in the humidifying section.2 kJ/kg at 10°C.1698 kPa at 25°C. and (b) the mass flow rate of the steam required in the humidifying section.

as appropriate. 26 .Solution We take the system to be the heating or the humidifying section. We note that the amount of water vapor in the air remains constant in the heating section but increases in the humidifying section.

(a) Applying the mass and energy balances on the heating section gives The psychrometric chart offers great convenience in determining the properties of moist air. as follows: 27 . At pressures other than 1 atm. However. either other charts for that pressure or the relations developed earlier should be used. we use the applicable relations. which is 1 atm (for the one given in the appendix). In this example. its use is limited to a specified pressure only.

28 .since 2 = 1.

Then the rate of heat transfer to air in the heating section becomes (b) The mass balance for water in the humidifying section is 29 .

If the relative humidity reaches undesirably  high levels. This requires cooling the air below its dew-point temperature.  to dehumidify it. that is. 30 .  but its relative humidity increases.Cooling with Dehumidification The specific humidity of air remains constant during a simple cooling process. it may be necessary to remove some moisture from the air.

Determine the rates of heat and moisture removal from the air. and the total pressure is 1 atm. the inlet and the exit states of the air are completely specified. and 80 percent relative humidity at a rate of 10 m3/min. Therefore. Properties: The enthalpy of saturated liquid water at 14°C is 58.Example Air enters a window air conditioner at 1 atm. Part of the moisture in the air that condenses during the process is also removed at 14°C. we can determine the properties of the air at both states from the psychrometric chart to be 31 . Also. 30°C. and it leaves as saturated air at 14°C.8 kJ/kg (Table A–4).

Solution We take the cooling section to be the system. 32 . We note that the amount of water vapor in the air decreases during the process due to dehumidification.

respectively.Applying the mass and energy balances on the cooling and dehumidification section gives Therefore.131 kg/min and 511 kJ/min. 33 . this air-conditioning unit removes moisture and heat from the air at rates of 0.

Balancing the Combustion Equation One kmol of octane (C8H18) is burned with air that contains  20 kmol of O2. determine the mole number of each gas in  the products and the air–fuel ratio for this combustion  process. O2.Example .  H2O. Assuming the products contain only CO2. 34 . and N2.

and w represent the unknown mole  numbers of the gases in the products. by  requiring that the total mass or mole number of each element in the  reactants be equal to that in the products: Thus 35 . z.Solution The chemical equation for this combustion process can be written as  where the terms in the parentheses represent the composition of dry air  that contains 1 kmol of O2 and x. y. These unknowns are determined  by applying the mass balance to each of the elements - that is.

36 .The air–fuel ratio (AF) is determined  by taking the ratio of the mass of the  air and the mass of the fuel.

37 .Example Ethane (C2H6) is burned with 20 percent excess air during  a combustion process. Assuming complete combustion  and a total pressure of 100 kPa. determine (a) the air-fuel  ratio and (b) the dew-point temperature of the products.

The coefficient ath is determined from the O2 balance to be Substituting.Solution The combustion products contain CO2. and some excess O2 only.2 athO2) appears in the combustion  products as unused oxygen. H2O. 38 . We have accounted for  the 20 percent excess air by using the factor 1.  The stoichiometric amount of oxygen (athO2) is used to oxidize the fuel. and the remaining excess amount (0. Then the combustion equation can be written as where ath  is the stoichiometric coefficient for air. N2.2ath instead of ath for air.

(b) The dew-point temperature of the products is the temperature at  which  the water vapor in the products starts to condense as the products  are cooled at constant pressure. we have Thus.The air–fuel ratio is determined  by taking the ratio of the mass of the air  to the mass of the fuel. 39 . we need to determine  the partial pressure of the water vapor Pv in the products first. The dew-point temperature of a gasvapor mixture is the saturation temperature of the water vapor  corresponding to its partial pressure. Therefore. Assuming  ideal-gas behavior for the combustion gases.

Example .Reverse Combustion Analysis 40 .

a.  but we do not know how much fuel or air is used during the combustion  process. they can be determined from mass balances. and b are determined from mass balances.  For ideal gases. the  combustion equation can be written as The unknown coefficients x.Solution Note that we know the relative composition of the combustion products. (The O2 balance is used to check the values obtained from the other mass  balances. However. Considering 100 kmol of dry products for convenience.)  41 . the volume fractions are equivalent to the mole  fractions.

36. (a) The air–fuel ratio is determined by taking the ratio of the mass of the air to the mass of the fuel. The combustion equation for 1 kmol of fuel is obtained by dividing the above equation by 1.Substituting. 42 .

Then. we need to know the  theoretical amount of air. 43 .(b) To find the percentage of theoretical air used. which is determined from the theoretical  combustion equation of the fuel. Notice that some carbon formed carbon monoxide even though there was considerably more oxygen than needed for complete combustion.

some of the  water vapor will condense as the products are cooled to 25°C. Nw is determined by equating the mole fraction of the water  vapor to its pressure fraction.53  Nw) as a result.37 + 0. there will be (9  Nw) kmol of water vapor left in the  products. Assuming that the dew-point temperature of the products is above 25°C.65 + 4.(c) For each kmol of fuel burned. 7.53  kmol of products are formed. If Nw kmol  of H2O condenses. By treating the product gases (including the remaining water vapor) as  ideal gases. including 9 kmol of H2O.13 + 61. Psat @ 25C 44 . The mole number of the products in the gas phase will also  decrease to (82.38  + 9 = 82.

Example One kmol of ethane (C2H6) is burned with an unknown amount of air during a combustion process. An analysis of the combustion products reveals that the combustion is complete. Determine (a) the air–fuel ratio and (b) the percentage of theoretical air used during this process. Solution (a)The combustion equation in this case can be written as Substituting 45 . and there are 3 kmol of free O2 in the products.

applying the x + y/4 formula. ath = 2 + 6/4 = 3. Or. Then 46 . we need to know the theoretical amount of air.The air-fuel ratio is determined by taking the ratio of the mass of the air to the mass of the fuel. (b) To find the percent theoretical air used.5. which is determined from the theoretical combustion equation of C2H6.