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Construction of earth roads

1. Material : soil survey
2. Location :centre line
and reference pegs driven
3. Preparation of subgrade
4.Pavement construction
5. opening to traffic

Excavation equipments
bull dozers
power shovel
scrapers
drag lines
clamshells
hoes

Gravel Roads:
Theory and Engineering

How Are Roads Built?
• Evolution
– Stock trails
– Double tracks
– Gravel road
– Asphalt road

• Revolution
– New construction

Typical Gravel Road Section

Unimproved double track

Roadbed has been shaped but
no imported gravel.

Slightly improved, with some imported
gravel and ditches

Gravel is added and the road gets higher.

Vertical alignment improvements

More gravel is added, the road is widened

What Happens to Roads?

Rehabilitation
Construction

Maintenance

Performance
Materials

Design

Traffic Loads

Environment

DLS with Excellent Maint
Design Traffic Loads

Heavier Traffic Loads

Very Heavy Traffic Loads

Gravel Roads Basics
• Drainage
– A wet road is a weak road

• Structural Strength
– Each layer must be strong enough to resist
the shear stresses applied to it

• Rideability
– Potholes, Washboards, and Ruts

• Dust Control
• Loose Aggregate
• Safety

Structural Properties of Roads
• Road Components
– Surface, Base, Subgrade

• Road Stresses
• Road Materials

Base Contaminated by Subgrade

Stresses

Compressive
Stress

Shear
Stress

Tire Stresses on Roads

Shear Stress

Compressive Stress

Stress Distribution

Materials
• Gravel surface materials need
several characteristics:
– Strength
• Rutting Resistance

– Cohesion and Moisture Retention
• Aggregate Loss Resistance
• Washboard Resistance
• Dust Control

Gravel Road Materials
• Too much sands
– Washboarding

• Too many silts and clays
– Rutting
– Dust problems

• Not enough larger gravel
– Aggregate loss
– Dust problems

Without MgCl

Same
Gravel
With MgCl

Kittering
Road,
Sheridan
County

Compaction
• Soil must be compacted (densified) to obtain
strength/stability
• Reduce air voids in soil structure

Crushed v Pit Run Aggregate

Crushed v Pit Run Aggregate

Plasticity Limits
• Properties of material passing #40 sieve
• Determined mostly by type and percentage
of clays
• Sometimes referred to as “Atterberg Limits”

Soil
Consistenc
y

Gravel Road
Drainage

Gravel
Surface:
Must Shed
Water
• Sloped for drainage
– Blade to restore proper cross-slope
– Add gravel as needed

• Have system of drains

Drainage
• Estimate time of drainage

Quality of Drainage
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor

Water Removed
Within
2 hours
1 day
1 week
1 month
Does not drain

Traffic

Construction procedure for gravel
road
1.Material
: Gravel to be used to stacked along the side of the proposed roads.

2.Location : pegs and referance pegs for desired vertical profile of the road …

3.Preparation of sub grade :Site is cleaned and fill and cuts
4.Pavement
5. Opening

are completed………

……..
construction: Crushed gravel aggregate are placed to avoid seggregation

to Traffic:

after Final rolling and drying out rut, Road is open for traffic.