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Flexible Pavement Distress

Fatigue (alligator) cracking
Bleeding
Corrugation and shoving
Depression
Joint reflection cracking
Longitudinal cracking
Patching Polished aggregate
Potholes
Raveling
Rutting or consolidation of pavement layer.
Slippage cracking
Stripping
Transverse (thermal) cracking
Water bleeding and pumping

Failure in flexible Pavement
Failure in subgrade:
 Inadequate stability
 Excessive application of Stress – Consolidation
Deformation
Plastic Deformation
Failure in Sub base or Base course:
 Inadequate stability
 Loss of binding action.
 Loss of bearing course material
 Inadequate wearing course

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Construction
Practices
&
Quality Control

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Construction
Practices
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Quality Control

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SOURCES OF PREMATURE PAVEMENT FAILURE

Construction
Practices
&
Quality Control

Inadequately Designed Pavements Will Fail Prematurely
Inspite of Best Quality Control & Construction Practices

Causes of Premature Failure
 Rutting due to high variations in
ambient temperature.
 Uncontrolled heavy axle loads.
 Limitations of pavement design
procedures
to
meet
local
environmental conditions.

PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCESS Climate/Environment Load Magnitude Volume Traffic Asphalt Concrete Material Properties Base Subase Roadbed Soil (Subgrade) .

Truck Asphalt Concrete Thickness ? Base Course ? Thickness ? Sub-base Course Thickness ? • Pavement Design Life = Selected • Structural/Functional Performance = Desired • Design Traffic = Predicted .

Failure Mechanism (Fatigue and Rut) Nearside Wheel Track Rut Depth Bitumen Layer Fatigue Crack Unbound Layer .

Fatigue (Alligator) Cracking Bad fatigue cracking Fatigue cracking from frost action .

down cracking). • In thick pavements. may further deteriorate to a pothole . roughness. • After repeated loading. the cracks initiate from the top in areas of high localized tensile stresses resulting from tire-pavement interaction and asphalt binder aging (top. cracks allow moisture infiltration. • In thin pavements.Fatigue (Alligator) Cracking • Series of interconnected cracks caused by fatigue failure under repeated traffic loading. cracking initiates at the bottom of the HMA layer where the tensile stress is the highest then propagates to the surface as one or more longitudinal cracks ( "bottom-up" or "classical" fatigue cracking). the longitudinal cracks connect forming many-sided sharp-angled pieces that develop into a pattern resembling the back of an alligator or crocodile. • Problem: Indicator of structural failure.

• Patch over the repaired subgrade. .Increase in loading.g.Fatigue (Alligator) Cracking Causes: – Inadequate structural support. – Decrease in pavement load supporting characteristics  Loss of base. inadequate compaction) Repair: – Small. localized fatigue cracking indicative of a loss of subgrade support. • Remove the cracked pavement area .  Stripping on the bottom of the HMA(hot mix asphalt) layer. – Inadequate structural design – Poor construction (e.dig out and replace the area of poor subgrade and improve the drainage of that area if necessary. .. • Place an Hot Mix Asphalt over the entire pavement surface. – Large fatigue cracked areas indicative of general structural failure. subbase or subgrade support due to poor drainage.

Corrugation and Shoving .

Corrugation and Shoving .

• The distortion is perpendicular to the traffic direction. Remove the damaged pavement and overlay.Corrugation and Shoving Description: • A form of plastic movement typified by ripples (corrugation) or an abrupt wave (shoving) across the pavement surface.e. lack of aeration of liquid asphalt emulsions Excessive moisture in the subgrade Repair: Small. Problem: roughness Possible Causes: traffic action (starting and stopping) – – – – – An unstable (i. • Occurs at points where traffic starts and stops (corrugation) or areas where HMA abuts a rigid object (shoving). low stiffness) HMA layer (caused by mix contamination. • Large corrugated or shoved areas indicative of general HMA failure. Remove the distorted pavement and patch. . poor mix design. localized areas of corrugation or shoving. poor HMA manufacturing.

Depression .

Depression • Description: – Localized pavement surface areas with slightly lower elevations than the surrounding pavement. – repaired by removing the affected pavement then digging out and replacing the area of poor subgrade. – Patch over the repaired subgrade. • Repair: depressions are small localized areas. depressions filled with substantial water can cause vehicle hydroplaning • Possible Causes: Frost heave or subgrade settlement resulting from inadequate compaction during construction. . – Depressions are very noticeable after a rain when they fill with water. • Problem: Roughness.

Joint Reflection Cracking Joint reflection cracking Joint reflection cracking on an arterial .

High severity cracks (> 1/2 inch wide and numerous cracks). • Possible Causes: Movement of the PCC slab beneath the HMA surface because of thermal and moisture changes. . • Problem: Allows moisture infiltration. – The cracks occur directly over the underlying rigid pavement joints. Generally not load initiated. • Repair: Strategies depend upon the severity and extent of the cracking: Low severity cracks (< 1/2 inch wide and infrequent cracks). Remove and replace the cracked pavement layer with an overlay. roughness.Joint Reflection Cracking • Description: – Cracks in a flexible overlay of a rigid pavement. – Crack seal to prevent entry of moisture into the subgrade through the cracks and further raveling of the crack edges. however loading can hasten deterioration.

Longitudinal Cracking .

• Repair: : – Low severity cracks (< 1/2 inch wide and infrequent cracks). Crack Seal to prevent entry of water and raveling. indicates possible onset of alligator cracking and structural failure. – A reflective crack from an underlying layer (not including joint reflection cracking) – HMA fatigue (indicates the onset of future alligator cracking) – Top – Down Cracking. Causes: – Poor joint contraction or location. Problem: Allows moisture infiltration. roughness.Longitudinal Cracking Description: Cracks parallel to the pavement's centerline or laydown direction. – High severity cracks (> 1/2 inch wide and numerous cracks). Remove and replace the cracked pavement layer with an overlay. Usually a type of fatigue cracking. .

Transverse (Thermal) Cracking .

• Problem: Allows moisture infiltration.Transverse (Thermal) Cracking • Description: Cracks perpendicular to the pavement's centerline or laydown direction. roughness. Usually a type of thermal cracking. • Possible Causes: Several including: – Shrinkage of the HMA surface due to low temperatures or asphalt binder hardening – Reflective crack caused by cracks beneath the surface HMA layer – top-down cracking. – .

Water Bleeding and Pumping .

Possible Causes: – Porous pavement due to inadequate compaction during construction or poor mix design – High water table – Poor drainage. an indication of high pavement porosity (water bleeding). – Pumping occurs when water and fine material is ejected from underlying layers through cracks in the HMA layer under moving loads. If the problem is a porous mix a fog slurry seal or slurry seal is applied to limit water infiltration.Water Bleeding and Pumping Description: – Water bleeding (left two photos) occurs when water seeps out of joints or cracks or through an excessively porous HMA layer. . Problem: Decreased skid resistance. decreased structural support (pumping). Repair: If the problem is a high water table or poor drainage. subgrade drainage should be improved.

Water Bleeding and Pumping .

Patching Utility cut patch Patch over localized distress .

Patching Description: An area of pavement that has been replaced with new material to repair the existing pavement. Problem: Roughness Possible Causes: – Previous localized pavement deterioration that has been removed and patched – Utility cuts Repair: structural or non structural overlay. .

Potholes Pothole from fatigue cracking Developing pothole .

moisture infiltration.Potholes • Description: Small. The material in pot hole are placed at layer of thickness of 6cm. The remaining hole after the pavement chunk is dislodged is called a pothole Repair : cut to rectangular shape and affected material is removed until sound material is encountered. bowl-shaped depressions in the pavement surface that penetrate all the way through the HMA layer down to the base course. They generally have sharp edges and vertical sides near the top of the hole. • Problem: Roughness (serious vehicular damage can result from driving across potholes at higher speeds).(cut back and emulsion) the pot hole is compacted by ramming. the interconnected cracks create small chunks of pavement. which can be dislodged as vehicles drive over them. As alligator cracking becomes severe. • Possible Causes: Potholes are the end result of alligator cracking. . Excavated patches are cleaned and painted with bituminous binder.

Rutting .

Rutting .

. Subgrade rutting . Problem: Ruts filled with water can cause vehicle hydroplaning. In this case. the pavement settles into the subgrade ruts causing surface depressions in the wheelpath. ruts tend to pull a vehicle towards the rut path as it is steered across the rut. – Subgrade rutting Improper mix design or manufacture. Mix rutting occurs when the subgrade does not rut yet the pavement surface exhibits wheelpath depressions as a result of compaction/mix design problems.when the subgrade exhibits wheelpath depressions due to loading. – Insufficient compaction of HMA layers during construction. • There are two basic types of rutting: mix rutting and subgrade rutting. • Pavement uplift (shearing) occurs along the sides of the rut.Rutting Description: Surface depression in the wheelpath. Possible Causes: – caused by consolidation or lateral movement of the materials due to traffic loading.

poor mix design or studded tire wear).• Repair: A heavily rutted pavement should be investigated to determine the root cause of failure (e.g. • Slight ruts (< 1/3 inch deep) can generally be left untreated. subgrade rutting. insufficient compaction. • Pavement with deeper ruts should be leveled and overlaid. .

Stripping .

Fatigue failure from stripping .

Generally. Poor aggregate surface chemistry Water in the HMA causing moisture damage Overlays over an existing open-graded surface course. Typically. When stripping begins at the surface and progresses downward it is usually called raveling. The third photo show the surface effects of underlying stripping. Based on WSDOT experience. raveling. shoving/corrugations.Stripping • • • • • • • Description: The loss of bond between aggregates and asphalt binder that typically begins at the bottom of the HMA layer and progresses upward. shoving/corrugations. raveling. how did the moisture get in?).e. Problem: Decreased structural support.. . a core must be taken to positively identify stripping as a pavement distress. Repair: A stripped pavement should be investigated to determine the root cause of failure (i. the stripped pavement needs to be removed and replaced after correction of any subsurface drainage issues. rutting. these overlays will tend to strip. or cracking (alligator and longitudinal) Possible Causes: Bottom-up stripping is very difficult to recognize because it manifests itself on the pavement surface as other forms of distress including rutting. or cracking.

Durability Cracking ("D" Cracking) .

Patching .

• Description: An area of pavement that has been replaced with new material to repair the existing pavement. • Problem: Roughness • Possible Causes: • Previous localized pavement deterioration that has been removed and patched • Utility cuts • Repair: Patches are themselves a repair action. A patch is considered a defect no matter how well it performs. . The only way they can be removed is through an overlay or slab replacement.

Due to: Deficiency in mix $presence of impurities. Problem: Roughness and shabby in apperance.Typical rigid pavement failure 1. .Scaling of cement concrete: Observed as over all deterioration of concrete.

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Spalling of joints: 4.2. 3. .Shrinkage cracks: Cracks are both in transverse and longitudinal direction.Warping cracks.

Warping Failure 4. Mud pumping .3.

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Patch repair c.Maintenance of highways 1. Renewal of wearing course 3. Maintenance of cross slope 2.Routine maintenance Filling of pot hole b.Periodic maintenance a.Widening of roads.Strengthening of pavement structures b.Special maintenance a. a.Reconstruction of pavement c. .