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Chapter 11 Work  

Chapter Goal: To develop a more complete understanding
of energy and its conservation.
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Chapter 11 Preview

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Chapter 11 Preview

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Slide 11-5 .Chapter 11 Preview © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.Chapter 11 Preview © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-6 .

Slide 11-7 . Inc.Chapter 11 Preview © 2013 Pearson Education.

Inc.Chapter 11 Preview © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-8 .

© 2013 Pearson Education. Inc. Slide 11-21 .The Basic Energy Model W > 0: The environment does work on the system and the system’s energy increases. W < 0: The system does work on the environment and the system’s energy decreases.

This process changes the energy of the system: Esys = W. and its thermal energy Eth. 2. Energy can be transferred to or from a system by doing work W on the system. and Eth.  The change in system energy is: 1. its potential energy U. Slide 11-22 . Energy can be transformed within the system among K. These processes don’t change the energy of the system: Esys = 0.The Basic Energy Model  The energy of a system is a sum of its kinetic energy K. Inc. © 2013 Pearson Education. U.

Work and Kinetic Energy  The word “work” has a very specific meaning in physics. Slide 11-25 .  This pitcher is increasing the ball’s kinetic energy by doing work on it. Inc.  Work is energy transferred to or from a body or system by the application of force. © 2013 Pearson Education.

 The force does work on the particle:  The units of work are N m. Inc.Work and Kinetic Energy  Consider a force acting on a particle which moves along the s-axis. Slide 11-26 . © 2013 Pearson Education. where 1 N m = 1 kg m2/s2 = 1 J.  The force component Fs causes the particle to speed up or slow down. transferring energy to or from the particle.

© 2013 Pearson Education.The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem  The net force is the vector sum of all the forces acting on a particle .  The net work done on a particle causes the particle’s kinetic energy to change.  The net work is the sum Wnet = Wi. Slide 11-27 . Inc. where Wi is the work done by each force .

An Analogy with the Impulse-Momentum Theorem  The impulse-momentum theorem is:  The work-kinetic energy theorem is:  Impulse and work are both the area under a force graph. Slide 11-28 . but it’s very important to know what the horizontal axis is! © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.Work Done by a Constant Force  A force acts with a constant strength and in a constant direction as a particle moves along a straight line through a displacement .  The work done by this force is:  Here  is the angle © 2013 Pearson Education. makes relative to . Slide 11-31 .

Slide 11-32 .1 Pulling a Suitcase © 2013 Pearson Education.Example 11. Inc.

Example 11. Slide 11-33 . Inc.1 Pulling a Suitcase © 2013 Pearson Education.

Inc.Tactics: Calculating the Work Done by a Constant Force © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-36 .

Inc.Tactics: Calculating the Work Done by a Constant Force © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-37 .

Inc.Tactics: Calculating the Work Done by a Constant Force © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-38 .

Inc.Example 11. Slide 11-43 .2 Work During a Rocket Launch © 2013 Pearson Education.

Slide 11-44 .Example 11.2 Work During a Rocket Launch © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.

Example 11.2 Work During a Rocket Launch

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Example 11.2 Work During a Rocket Launch

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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QuickCheck 11.6
Which force below does the most work? All three
displacements are the same.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The 10 N force.
The 8 N force
The 6 N force.
They all do the same work.

© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

sin60 = 0.87
cos60 = 0.50

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A.   The 6 N force. © 2013 Pearson Education. The 10 N force.6 Which force below does the most work? All three displacements are the same. Inc. B. sin60 = 0. They all do the same work. The 8 N force C.87 cos60 = 0.50 Slide 11-48 . D.QuickCheck 11.

starting from rest.7 A light plastic cart and a heavy steel cart are both pushed with the same force for a distance of 1. C.QuickCheck 11. B. After the force is removed. Slide 11-49 .0 m. © 2013 Pearson Education. greater than equal to less than Can’t say. the kinetic energy of the light plastic cart is ________ that of the heavy steel cart. Inc. D. It depends on how big the force is. A.

It depends on how big the force is.QuickCheck 11. After the force is removed.7 A light plastic cart and a heavy steel cart are both pushed with the same force for a distance of 1. B. Inc. A. Slide 11-50 . the kinetic energy of the light plastic cart is ________ that of the heavy steel cart. greater than Same force. C. same distance  same work done equal to Same work  change of kinetic energy less than Can’t say. D. starting from rest.0 m. © 2013 Pearson Education.

 A force everywhere perpendicular to the motion  does no work. the component of the force parallel to the instantaneous displacement.  At every point in the motion. © 2013 Pearson Education. doesn’t change. so W = K = 0. is zero. Fs. Inc.Force Perpendicular to the Direction of Motion  The figure shows a particle moving in uniform circular motion.  The particle’s speed. Slide 11-51 . and hence its kinetic energy.

QuickCheck 11. zero © 2013 Pearson Education. You learned in Chapter 8 that static friction causes the centripetal acceleration. positive B. Slide 11-52 . Inc. negative C.8 A car on a level road turns a quarter circle ccw. A. The work done by static friction is _____.

The work done by static friction is _____.    zero © 2013 Pearson Education.8 A car on a level road turns a quarter circle ccw. negative C. Slide 11-53 . positive B. You learned in Chapter 8 that static friction causes the centripetal acceleration. A.QuickCheck 11. Inc.

© 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-54 . and .The Dot Product of Two Vectors  The figure shows two vectors.  The dot product of is defined as: and  The dot product is also called the scalar product. with angle  between them. Inc. because the value is a scalar.

The Dot Product of Two Vectors  The dot product © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc. Slide 11-55 . as  ranges from 0 to 180.

Example 11. Slide 11-56 . Inc.3 Calculating a Dot Product © 2013 Pearson Education.

The Dot Product Using Components If and . Slide 11-57 . Inc. the dot product is the sum of the products of the components: © 2013 Pearson Education.

Example 11. Slide 11-58 .4 Calculating a Dot Product Using Components © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.

Work Done by a Constant Force  A force acts with a constant strength and in a constant direction as a particle moves along a straight line through a displacement . Slide 11-59 .  The work done by this force is: © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.

Slide 11-60 .Example 11. Inc.5 Calculating Work Using the Dot Product © 2013 Pearson Education.

Inc.Example 11.5 Calculating Work Using the Dot Product © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-61 .

Slide 11-62 . © 2013 Pearson Education. we use the following: We must evaluate the integral either geometrically. or by actually doing the integration. by finding the area under the curve. Inc.The Work Done by a Variable Force To calculate the work done on an object by a force that either changes in magnitude or direction as the object moves.

Inc.6 Using Work to Find the Speed of a Car © 2013 Pearson Education.Example 11. Slide 11-63 .

Slide 11-64 .6 Using Work to Find the Speed of a Car © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.Example 11.

Example 11. Inc.6 Using Work to Find the Speed of a Car © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-65 .

6 Using Work to Find the Speed of a Car © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.Example 11. Slide 11-66 .

Slide 11-67 .Conservative Forces  The figure shows a particle that can move from A to B along either path 1 or path 2 while a force is exerted on it. Inc. this is a conservative force. © 2013 Pearson Education.  If there is a potential energy associated with the force.  The work done by as the particle moves from A to B is independent of the path followed.

Nonconservative Forces  The figure is a bird’s-eye view of two particles sliding across a surface.  The friction does negative work: Wfric = kmgs.  This is not independent of the path followed. © 2013 Pearson Education.  The work done by friction depends on s. the distance traveled.  A force for which the work is not independent of the path is called a nonconservative force. Slide 11-68 . Inc.

Slide 11-69 . mechanical energy is being transformed into thermal energy. Inc.  As the space shuttle lands. © 2013 Pearson Education.Mechanical Energy  Consider a system of objects interacting via both conservative forces and nonconservative forces.  The change in mechanical energy of the system is equal to the work done by the nonconservative forces:  Mechanical energy isn’t always conserved.

Slide 11-70 . Inc.Example 11.8 Using Work and Potential Energy © 2013 Pearson Education.

Example 11. Slide 11-71 . Inc.8 Using Work and Potential Energy © 2013 Pearson Education.

Slide 11-72 . Inc.Example 11.8 Using Work and Potential Energy © 2013 Pearson Education.

so that: © 2013 Pearson Education. the object’s potential energy changes by U = −W = −FsΔs over this displacement. Slide 11-73 .  The work done over this displacement is:  Because is a conservative force. Inc.Finding Force from Potential Energy  The figure shows an object moving through a small displacement s while being acted on by a conservative force .

Slide 11-74 .Finding Force from Potential Energy  In the limit s  0. © 2013 Pearson Education. we find that the force at position s is:  The force on the object is the negative of the derivative of the potential energy with respect to position. Inc.

the value of F is equal to the negative of the slope of the U-versus-y graph.  Figure (b) shows the corresponding F-versus-y graph.  The force on the object is (FG)y = mg.  At each point. Inc. Slide 11-75 . © 2013 Pearson Education.Finding Force from Potential Energy  Figure (a) shows the potential-energy diagram for an object at height y.

Finding Force from Potential Energy  Figure (a) is a more general potential energy diagram. the force is negative. the force is zero.  Where the slope of U is positive.  At the equilibrium points. Inc. the force is positive.  Where the slope of U is negative. Slide 11-76 . © 2013 Pearson Education.  Figure (b) is the corresponding F-versus-x graph.

1 watt = 1 W = 1 J/s  The English unit of power is the horsepower. hp.  The SI unit of power is the watt. Inc. Slide 11-98 . 1 hp = 746 W © 2013 Pearson Education.Power  The rate at which energy is transferred or transformed is called the power P. which is defined as: Highly trained athletes have a tremendous power output.

Example 11.13 Choosing a Motor © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-99 . Inc.

Inc.13 Choosing a Motor © 2013 Pearson Education.Example 11. Slide 11-100 .

Inc. Slide 11-101 .Examples of Power © 2013 Pearson Education.

Power  When energy is transferred by a force doing work.  If the particle moves at velocity while acted on by force . power is the rate of doing work: P = dW/dt. the power delivered to the particle is: © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc. Slide 11-102 .

Which student has the largest power output? © 2013 Pearson Education. Inc.11 Four students run up the stairs in the time shown. Slide 11-103 .QuickCheck 11.

Slide 11-104 .11 Four students run up the stairs in the time shown. Which student has the largest power output? © 2013 Pearson Education.QuickCheck 11. Inc.

Example 11. Slide 11-105 . Inc.14 Power Output of a Motor © 2013 Pearson Education.

Inc.14 Power Output of a Motor © 2013 Pearson Education. Slide 11-106 .Example 11.