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# Chapter 11 Work

## ChapterGoal: To develop a more complete understanding

of energy and its conservation.
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Chapter 11 Preview

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Chapter 11 Preview

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Chapter 11 Preview

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Chapter 11 Preview

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Chapter 11 Preview

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Chapter 11 Preview

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## W > 0: The environment does work on the system

and the systems energy increases.
W < 0: The system does work on the environment
and the systems energy decreases.
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## The Basic Energy Model

The energy of a system is a sum of its kinetic energy
K, its potential energy U, and its thermal energy Eth.
The change in system energy is:

## 1. Energy can be transferred to or from a system by

doing work W on the system. This process changes
the energy of the system: Esys = W.
2. Energy can be transformed within the system among
K, U, and Eth. These processes dont change the
energy of the system: Esys = 0.
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## Work and Kinetic Energy

The word work has a
very specific meaning in
physics.
Work is energy transferred
to or from a body or system
by the application of force.
This pitcher is increasing
the balls kinetic energy by
doing work on it.

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## Work and Kinetic Energy

Consider a force acting on
a particle which moves
along the s-axis.
The force component Fs
causes the particle to
speed up or slow down,
transferring energy to or
from the particle.
The force does work on the particle:

## The units of work are N m, where 1 N m = 1 kg m2/s2 = 1 J.

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## The Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

The net force is the vector sum of all the forces
acting on a particle
.
The networkis the sum Wnet = Wi, where Wi is the
work done by each force .
The net work done on a particle causes the particles
kinetic energy to change.

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## An Analogy with the Impulse-Momentum Theorem

The impulse-momentum
theorem is:

theorem is:

## Impulse and work are both

the area under a force graph,
but its very important to know
what the horizontal axis is!
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## Work Done by a Constant Force

A force acts with a constant
strength and in a constant
direction as a particle moves
along a straight line through a
displacement .
The work done by this force is:

## Here is the angle

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makes relative to

.
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Constant Force

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Constant Force

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Constant Force

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QuickCheck 11.6
Which force below does the most work? All three
displacements are the same.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The 10 N force.
The 8 N force
The 6 N force.
They all do the same work.

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sin60 = 0.87
cos60 = 0.50

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QuickCheck 11.6
Which force below does the most work? All three
displacements are the same.
A. The 10 N force.
B. The 8 N force
C.The6 Nforce.
D. They all do the same work.

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sin60 = 0.87
cos60 = 0.50

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QuickCheck 11.7
A light plastic cart and a heavy
steel cart are both pushed with
the same force for a distance
of 1.0 m, starting from rest.
After the force is removed, the
kinetic energy of the light
plastic cart is ________ that of
the heavy steel cart.
A.
B.
C.
D.

greater than
equal to
less than
Cant say. It depends on how big the force is.

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QuickCheck 11.7
A light plastic cart and a heavy
steel cart are both pushed with
the same force for a distance
of 1.0 m, starting from rest.
After the force is removed, the
kinetic energy of the light
plastic cart is ________ that of
the heavy steel cart.
A.
B.
C.
D.

greater than
Same force, same distance same work done
equalto
Same work change of kinetic energy
less than
Cant say. It depends on how big the force is.

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## Force Perpendicular to the Direction of Motion

The figure shows a particle
moving in uniform circular
motion.
At every point in the motion,
Fs, the component of the
force parallel to the
instantaneous displacement,
is zero.
The particles speed, and hence its kinetic energy,
doesnt change, so W = K = 0.
Aforceeverywhereperpendiculartothemotion
doesnowork.
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QuickCheck 11.8
A car on a level road turns a
quarter circle ccw. You learned
in Chapter 8 that static friction
causes the centripetal
acceleration. The work done
by static friction is _____.
A.

positive

B.

negative

C.

zero

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QuickCheck 11.8
A car on a level road turns a
quarter circle ccw. You learned
in Chapter 8 that static friction
causes the centripetal
acceleration. The work done
by static friction is _____.
A.

positive

B.

negative

C.zero

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## The Dot Product of Two Vectors

The figure shows two
vectors, and , with angle
between them.
The dot product of
is defined as:

and

## The dot product is also called the scalar product,

because the value is a scalar.

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The dot product

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If
and

## the dot product is the sum of the products

of the components:

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Using Components

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## Work Done by a Constant Force

A force acts with a
constant strength and
in a constant direction
as a particle moves along
a straight line through a
displacement
.
The work done by this
force is:

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Dot Product

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Dot Product

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## The Work Done by a Variable Force

To calculate the work done on an object by a force
that either changes in magnitude or direction as the
object moves, we use the following:

## We must evaluate the integral either geometrically,

by finding the area under the curve, or by actually
doing the integration.

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of a Car

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of a Car

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of a Car

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of a Car

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Conservative Forces
The figure shows a particle
that can move from A to B
along either path 1 or path
2 while a force is exerted
on it.
If there is a potential energy
associated with the force,
this is a conservativeforce.
The work done by as the
particle moves from A to B
is independent of the path
followed.
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Nonconservative Forces
The figure is a birds-eye view
of two particles sliding across
a surface.
The friction does negative
work: Wfric = kmgs.
The work done by friction
depends on s, the distance
traveled.
This is not independent of
the path followed.
A force for which the work is not independent of the
path is called a nonconservativeforce.
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Mechanical Energy
Consider a system of objects interacting via both
conservative forces and nonconservative forces.
The change in mechanical energy of the system is
equal to the work done by the nonconservative forces:

## Mechanical energy isnt

always conserved.
As the space shuttle lands,
mechanical energy is being
transformed into thermal
energy.
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## Finding Force from Potential Energy

The figure shows an object moving
through a small displacement
s while being acted on by a
conservative force .
The work done over this
displacement is:

## Because is a conservative force, the objects potential

energy changes by U = W = Fss over this
displacement, so that:
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## Finding Force from Potential Energy

In the limit s 0, we
find that the force at
position s is:

## The force on the object is the negative of the

derivative of the potential energy with respect to
position.

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## Finding Force from Potential Energy

Figure (a) shows the
potential-energy diagram
for an object at height y.
The force on the object
is (FG)y = mg.
Figure (b) shows the
corresponding F-versus-y
graph.
At each point, the value
of F is equal to the
negative of the slope
of the U-versus-y graph.
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## Finding Force from Potential Energy

Figure (a) is a more general
potential energy diagram.
Figure (b) is the
corresponding F-versus-x
graph.
Where the slope of U
is negative, the force is
positive.
Where the slope of U is
positive, the force is negative.
At the equilibrium points,
the force is zero.
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Power
The rate at which energy is transferred or transformed
is called the power P.

## The SI unit of power is the

watt, which is defined as:

## Highly trained athletes have a tremendous

power output.

1 watt = 1 W = 1 J/s
The English unit of power
is the horsepower, hp.
1 hp = 746 W
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Examples of Power

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Power
When energy is transferred by a force doing work,
power is the rate of doing work: P = dW/dt.
If the particle moves at velocity while acted on by
force , the power delivered to the particle is:

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QuickCheck 11.11
Four students run up the stairs in the time shown.
Which student has the largest power output?

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QuickCheck 11.11
Four students run up the stairs in the time shown.
Which student has the largest power output?

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