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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

12 December 2007

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Contents
Introduction
The requirements for new aircraft
Looking back: the historical challenges and the recent achievements of
Aerospace Engineering

The changes in the supply base of new Aircraft programs


The new challenges for Engineering and Design
Conclusions

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Ours vs Competition: "DESIGN EFFICIENCY"


Performance
Range M 0.8
VMO

- 3%
+ 9%

Flexibility
Climb
MLW/MTOW
Short Field

=
+15%
=

Comfort
Cabin Vol.
- 10%
Headroom
=
Width
+ 5%
Noise - 4dB SIL

Cost Drivers
MTOW & Fuel - 25% MZFW - 25%
Eng. Thrust - 45%
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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

The challenge in Aircraft Engineering:


Integrate disciplines

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Old challenge: Integration of disciplines


The challenge of Aircraft
design has always been to
achieve multi-diciplinary
optimization
New regulatory
requirements resulted in
additional disciplines
In the past 10 years Design
for Manufacturing with 3D
tools has achieved
tremendous improvements

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Challenge: Apply new materials


Properties
of Aerospace
Carbon Fibers
1000
T-1000GB
Tensile Strength, KSI

900

G40-800
IM7

800

T-700SC

700
AS4

600

T-300

T-800HB
T40/800
G30-700

T-400HB
T650/35
G30-500

M46J
M55J

T-300

500

Toho
Toray
Hexcel
Cytec

400
300
200
0

10

20

30
40
50
Modulus, MSI

60

70

80

Trends in Aerospace Engineering

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Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium
CFI Composite Materials Performance

Cytec
offers
line
performance
High
Performance
Epoxy
CytecFiberite
Fiberite
offersthe
themost
mostcomplete
complete
lineof
ofhigh
highMaterials
performancecomposite
composite
products for the aerospace industry and set the standard in many applications.

products for the aerospace industry and set the standard in many applications.
350

Use Temperature (F, wet)


Use Te mpera ture(F, wet)

325

IM7/8552
Hexcel

300

Cycom 977-3

275
250

IM7/8551-7
Hexcel

Cycom 5250-4(BMI)

Cycom 997

1st Generation
Epoxy

Cycom 977-2
225

Cycom 5276-1
Cycom 970

200
175
20

25

30
35
40
45
Impact
Com Compression
press ion AfterAfter
Impact
- KS (ksi)
I
in-lbs/in)
Cytec Fiberite
(150(1500
0 in-lb/in)
Proprietary

50

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Certification:
test plans
Buckling test plan
16 test panels will be tested:
-> test panels with/without foam
-> test panels with/without impact damage
-> different failure modes (shear/compression loading)

Compression
(local buckling)

Shear

Compression
(Euler buckling)

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Additional requirements:
Lightning strike protection 25.581

The metallic tips of the horizontal stab and the non-structural trailing edges cover the
Zone 1B / 2B areas from SAE ARP5414.

Hence Zone 1A / 2A are to be considered for the torque boxes.


Fokker has recently tested both 140 g/m copper screen and 72 g/m copper mesh on
various thicknesses to support a helicopter certification program:

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

New industrialisation
Proposed manufacturing flow welding tools

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Product Support:
Repairs in the Full-scale test approach

After the test with level 3 / category 3 damage, the proposal is to repair detectable

damages and to continue cycling to substantiate repairs.


Structural repairs will be needed in-service, especially for components which are too
expensive to replace.

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Dilemmas in Aerospace design


Requirement:
low weight for
low DOC

Achieve low weight with low cost


manufacturing

(10,10)

Achieve lowest unit cost for ROS of supplier

Trends in Aerospace Engineering

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The new challenge:


The changing role in the Supply Chain

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

The position in the supply chain


Tier 3
Tier 2

Nu veel
Many
Tier
Tier
1s1s :
Boeing ~4000
Airbus 3500?
?

Tier 1
Tier 0
(Integrator)
PositionFokker
Situatie
Fokker:
soms Tier 1,Tier 1,
sometimes
meestal TierTier
sometimes
2 (of
2 3)

Analyse en graphics door Joost List

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

The number of Tier 1 suppliers will reduce


Changes in the Supply Chain

Tier 1 will grow :


- investment capability
- outsourcing/partnering
- sub-integration
sub-integration
- responsibility

Small Tier 1 Tier 2


- focus on product posities
- technology development
- price competition

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

The new Tier 1 will have some capabilities


of the current integrator
Required competences for a Tier 1 position

Industrialization
Lean Manufacturing
Low Cost Facilities

Supply Chain Management


Six Sigma, CAIV

Engineering capabilites
Design delegation
Design Organization

Political cloud
Offset credits
Markt analysis

Technology position
Wolrd class performance

Analyse en graphics door Joost List

Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Investments
Joint Ventures
Partnerships

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Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

The Challenge of Stork Fokker


Have the best specialist knowledge and expertise in:
Advanced materials
Innovative production methods and industrialization thereof
Innovative product concepts and
Combined with
Integrated and Global Product Development (Integrator know how)

approach based on
Smart and reliable Engineering and industrialization processes and tools

To achieve for our customers


A global supply base of
Innovative products to:
improve the performance (safety, operational costs, greener) and
to reduce the cost of newly developed aircraft

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

What are the consequences for


Engineering and Design?
The knowledge challenge must continue to be a priority
The integration of this knowledge in Product Designs
Use KBE also for knowlegde to get everybody at the same level
Install Configuration Management to manage the iterative design
process

Have excellent project leaders to manage the integration within


budget, schedule and technical contraints

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering

Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Requirement: focussed and Lean


Structures Engineering process
Overall design process has to be 40% shorter and 20% cheaper
Optimization of concept design phase is key in order to exploit

influence on product quality and cost to the maximum


Full Scale Development (FSD) has to start as late as possible (i.e.
shorter lead-time) in order to have robust and stable requirements from
What can we do to
customer
accomplish this?
Focus of concept phase is effectiveLeverage on cost
ness, focus of FSD is efficiency
Feasibility
Effective knowledge build up and
Increase leverage
Concept Design
transfer between projects is becoming
of concept phase, and
vital
Detail Design
Engineering process has to be resilient
Manufacturing
w.r.t. late configuration changes
reduce total
Allocated Product Cost

development time

Time

Trends in Aerospace Engineering

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Stork Fokker AESP B.V.

DCED symposium

Conclusion
The Engineering and Design Disciplines have delivered great results in
the past decade
The globalization of the Supply base will deliver a new challenge

Apart from the required improvements from a product performance


point of view these challenges are:
Spread basic knowledge over the supply base by increased and
smart application of KBE
Manage the date stream and baseline developments by smart
Configuration management, supported by new PLM type
applications

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Trends in Aerospace Engineering