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Seminar Presentation

Hydrogen storage and its application
Name : Patel Dhaval B.
Roll No : 810
Guide : Dr. Bina R Sengupta
Co Guide: Ms. Manjeet Mukhi


Sources of Hydrogen

Properties of Hydrogen

Hydrogen storage methods

- Storage as Gas under normal pressure
- Storage as compressed Gas
- Storage as compound medium

High Pressure Gas Cylinder Classification


Sources of Hydrogen
Reforming fossil fuels
Heat hydrocarbons with steam
Produce H2 and CO
Electrolysis of water
Use electricity to split water into O2 and H2
Biological processes
Very common in nature
Experimental in laboratories
95% of hydrogen is currently produced by steam reforming
Sushant kumar, hydrogen production methods springer publication 2012

Properties of Hydrogen




Combustible gas but non-toxic

Lighter than air

Insoluble in water

Its melting point is -291.88

Hydrogen gas does not usually react with other chemicals at room
temperature, because the bond between the hydrogen atoms is very strong
and can only be broken with a large amount of energy.

It accomplishes reactions by loss of one e- to give H + & gain of an e- to

form H-

C & boiling point is -252.9 C.

Isao abe, energy carrier and conversion system, volume 1- physical and chemical properties of hydrogen

Hydrogen Storage methods

Method of storing hydrogen can be divided into three categories :


Storage as gas under normal pressure and compressed. The Vessel used
for storage is cylindrical tank.


Storage as liquid at super cold temperature. Hydrogen is stored in special

insulated vessel.

3. Storage as compound or united with a medium (adsorbent or the like)

. Such Compound include metal hydride as an inorganic compound and
methanol, ammonia, methyl Cyclohexane and others as organic
. Typical adsorption mediums are zeolite, activated carbon and graphite

Brian d. James, overview of hydrogen storage technologies, Direrect technologies Inc. 4001 north
fairfax drive suite 775 Artington VA 22032

Storage as gas under normal pressure

Wet or Dry type storage

Large capacity feasible, normally the capacity is upto about 3000 m 3 for
wet storage of hydrogen.
Advantage : Relatively easy handling of gaseous hydrogen because of low
Disadvantage : Rather poor efficiency of storage

Storage as compressed gas

High pressure and ordinary temperature

For Tank :
Pressure :- 1-2 MPa
Maximum Volume :- 25000 m3
For Gas cylinders: Pressure :- 15-20 MPa
Maximum Volume :- 2800 m3
Advantage: Low energy consumption
Disadvantages: High Pressure, Low packing density, better suited for small
or medium size storage vessel

Storage as liquid

Pressure : Atmospheric
Temperature : -252.86 C
Liquid Density : 70.8 kg/m3
Insulated vessel ( Spherical or
Maximum capacity : 3200 m
Advantages :
High compressive density
high bulk density,
large storage capacity.
Disadvantages :
Large power requirement
high cost of liquefaction
boil off flashing.

Storage as compound medium

Storage as metal hydride :

Technically a chemical reaction, but acts like a physical storage method
Hydrogen is absorbed like in a sponge.
Operates at 3-30 atm, much lower than 200-700 atm for compressed gas
Comparatively very heavy, but with good volumetric efficiency, good for
small storage.
Advantage : Greater safety and large volume density.
Disadvantage : Expensive Alloy material, Need of initial Activation.

Storage as compound medium

Activated Carbon adsorption :
Low Temperature : -203.15 C to -53.15 C
High pressure
: 5-10 MPa
Combined use of Physical adsorption and compressive packing.
Advantages :
Density higher as compared with compressed gas
Light weight and cheap price.
Disadvantages :
This method requires liquid nitrogen or other coolant
Vessel used in this method must have sufficient pressure tightness
Selective absorbency.


High Pressure Gas Cylinder Classification



Type 1

A cylinder made by wholly steel or Aluminium

Type 2

A cylinder with a metal line of steel or aluminium and hoopwrapped ( Circumferential ) composite overwrap

Type 3

A cylinder with a thin metal liner of steel or aluminium and a

fully wound composite overwrap

Type 4

A cylinder with a plastic liner and a fully wound composite


Type 3 Cylinder Construction

Andreas zettle, materials for hydrogen

storage, elsevler ltd, 2003, ISSN:1369 7021


Application of Hydrogen

Most used in petroleum refining and petrochemical production (93%)

Metal processing (2.7%)

Manufacture of electronics components (1.5%)

Food processing (0.7 %)

Manufacture of glass (0.3%)

Utility & power generation (0.2%)