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shing Techniques for Drilling Operations

Definition of Fishing
Types of Fish
Causes of Fish
To fish or not to fish
Different methods to
recover fish
Fisher Man
Conclusions

Fish:-A fish is any undesirable object ;


such as , pipe ,tools, wire line ,which can not
be removed from a borehole with ordinary
practices.

Fishing:-

Fishing is any action taken


which attempts to remove a fish from a
borehole. For example , lowering a magnet
into the bore hole for the purpose of
removing a cone lost from a drill bit is
fishing. Removing a broken wire line and a

Types of fish:Tubular :-drill pipe, drill collars, casing,


logging tools, test tools, and tubing.

Miscellaneous :- wire line, hand tools,


tong parts, slip segments, bit cones,
chains, and junk
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CAUSES OF FISH:Perhaps the most important aspect of


fishing is to ascertain the events which
caused the fish to occur. Without
knowing the causation correct tool
selection and procedures will be
impossible.
Operator error
Equipment decline

DIFFERENTIAL STICKING:
Usually occurs after the drill string is
idle.mud cake thickness is a factor as well
as excessive overbalance. not effective.

CAVING ZONE: Caused by low


density mud. big problem in horizontal
wells and high angle wells . Reactive
filtrate may be a factor in shales. Cant
circulate but may be able to move drill
string a little .
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SWELLING ZONES: Could be salt


or diabetic shale.

FILTER CAKE: Thick filter cake can


reduce the hole diameter . Usually
occur in consort with differential
reduce filter cake thickness ..

EQUIPMENT FAILURE: May


need to polish with mill . Retrieve
with overshot.

REDUCED PIPE DIAMETER:


Try rolling back diameter. May
sidetrack if a mill is used. Probably
abandon well.

JUNK: Try magnet or junk


basket. Try mill .Try jets. Try
acid.

CEMENT ERROR: Try


wash pipe if outside . Try
mill. If inside use drill bit.

PACKET OFF: If can


circulate raise circulation
rate. Raise viscosity if in
near vertical hole. May be
able to wash over .Probably
sidetrack borehole.
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To fish or not to fish:There are at least three popular methods for deciding
whether to fish or not to fish . They are
I.

Fish for no more than two days without progress

II.

Break even Charts as a Decision Tool

III. Estimate of cost

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R NO MORE THAN TWO DAYS WITHOUT PROGRESS MET

sion method based on drilling experience.

hose fishing operations in which the fish not extracted within two days
nsuccessful fish extraction and sidetracks were required with the excepti
fishing operation(3.5 days)

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Different methods to recover fish:-

Free point determination


Selecting a location to back- off a stuck string of
pipe is assisted with a free point tool. In most
cases the desirable location to back off will be at a
collar just above the stuck point .
The free point tool identifies the depth at which a
stuck string can moved and not moved.

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Back off
Procedure
The term back-off refers to separating the free pipe
from the stuck pipe at a threaded connection at or
just above the free point. It is accomplished by
placing an explosive charge(string shot) across
the connection. The string shot consists of
the explosive assembly and equipment
necessary to reach the point of detonation down
The backing off operation is performed by
hole.
running the explosive charge on wire line to
Left hand torque is then applied and
someoverpull is maintained until the explosive
charge is run to the back off point.

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DIFFERENTIAL STICKING
Differential sticking of pipe ,collars ,or casing requires
at least (1) a mud cake and(2)that the pressure within
the wellbore exceeds the pore pressure . The sketch
shows the mechanics of differential sticking.

FREEING DIFFERENTIALLY STUCK PIPE


There are five methods of freeing differentially stuck pipe.
One requires that the mud cake be destroyed. Two are
based on the sound principles that the pressure in the
annulus must be reduced. The circulation of oil into the
annulus is the more popular of the two. The procedure is
to circulate a quantity of oil into the annulus above the
stuck point sufficient to lower the differential pressure
between the mud and the pore pressure.
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FIRST METHOD
The first method involves circulating a volume of oil
into the stuck pipe and displacing it into the annulus
to a location where the oil is above the stuck point.
This reduces the effective pressure at the stuck zone
in the drill hole .

SECOND METHOD:
The second method of freeing differentially stuck pipe
is to pump oil or water into the pipe and then bleed the
oil or water from the pipe. This procedure drops the
mud level in the annulus which in turn reduce the
pressure of the mud at the stuck point.

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THIRD METHOD
The soak method .A chemical wash which is
designed to break the filter cake is circulated
across the stuck zone and is then allowed time to
react with the filter cake . thereafter the chemical
wash which remained be low the zone is
periodically circulated across the zone the zone .
During the soaking , the drill string is stretched and
relaxed in tension . Jarring is through to be of little
practical value . A significant variation is to slack
off and then pull on the drill string .
A volume of chemical wash of 25 to50 barrels is
usually sufficient.

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FOURTH METHOD
A popular method of freeing stuck pipe in which
pressure control is critical is the drill stem test method
. The essentials of the method is that the drill string is
backed off just above the stuck zone ;a drill stem test
tool is run, set, and opened above the zone . The test
tool is pulled out of the hole and the once stuck string
is retrieved with a screw in sub or overshot.

FIFTH METHOD
This is the quickest of all . slack off a portion of all.
Slack off a portion of or all of the weight of the drill
string onto the stuck zone . Increase the pump
pressure until the safety pin in the pop off value
shears . Pull the once stuck string up the hole . The
mechanism is that the drill string up the hole . the
mechanism is that the drill string is buckled by the
slack off and extended by the pump pressure. The

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Conclusion
Fishing is a complex and risky operation. All
members of the drilling team must contribute to its
success. The engineer must approve the selection
of tools and procedures, keeping in mind well
control and safety. The geologist should supply
offset logs for the purpose of determining washout
areas, and he should prepare an evaluation of the
wells progress as a prospect. If sufficient reserves
have been drilled above the fish, it may be cheaper
to plug back. If it is evident that the well is running
low, it may be advisable to abandon it before
throwing good money after bad. Accounting must
keep day to day costs and projections with which to
advise the operations personnel who ultimately
must choose what
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course to follow.

THANK YOU

07/4/2012

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