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CECE 4131

Course Name

Geotechnical Engineering - II

Mr. Jayaram.D.K

Assessment Plan

(The course is a combination of Theoretical and Practical hours (For 2T

+ 2P contact hours)

2/3 x Theoretical part marks + 1/3 x Practical part

marks= Total marks out of 100

MARK DISTRIBUTION

TOTAL MARKS 100

THEORY -100 MARKS (2/3)-

66.67 MARKS

1. Assignments 10 marks

2.Quizzes 20 marks

3.Mid term exam 20 marks

4.Final exam -50 marks

All assignments are to be

submitted to the lecturer

with in class time only

Penalities (deduction of

marks) for late submissions

Course code

Course

Title(2T+2p)

Student Details

Sl.No

ID

Course Details

Course Lecturer

Group No

Theory

Name

Gend

er

Course Work

Quiz mark Assign

(Total)

ment

Mark

(Total)

20

10

Academic Year

Semester

Credit points

Practical

Passing Marks

Mid

Term

Exam

Final

Exam

Total

Mark

s

(2/3)

Total

Marks

Part I

Report

s

Assess Marks

ment

(1/3)

Total

Marks

Total

Course

marks

(TT+TP

)

20

50

100

TT

60

40

TP

100

100

Lette

r

Grad

e

Grad

e

point

R

e

m

ar

k

s

Attendance Policy

10 Minutes late absent and not

allowed in the class

Health & Safety:

-Lab Coat & Safety Shoes are

compulsory in practical classes.

3 Credit Hours

Goal To introduce the student to the principles of soil mechanics and to enable

him/her

to apply such principles to civil engineering problems

Objectives Outcomes

1. Understand the applications of

Geotechnical Engineering in the design of

footings, retaining walls and in the assessment of

stability of slopes

2. Understand types of deep foundations and their

design principles.

pressure

problems and identify how they affect

structures

2. Solve bearing capacity problems

3. Design retaining walls and footings

4. Apply basic concept to solve slope stability

problems

5. Understand pile foundations and their

design principles.

UNIT-1

EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES

or other earth retaining structures, it is necessary to compute

the lateral pressure exerted by the retained mass of the soil.

A retaining wall is used to for maintaining the ground surfaces

at different elevation on either side of it. The material retained

by the structure is called backfill which may have its top

surface horizontal or inclined. The position of the backfill

lying above a horizontal surface at the elevation of the top of

the wall is called the surcharge and its inclination to the

horizontal is called surcharge angle

During the active state, the wall moves away from backfill and a

certain portion of backfill located immediately behind the wall

breaks away from the rest of the soil mass. This wedge shape

portion of soil is called failure wedge. The resisting force due to

shear strength of soil is developed in an upward direction along the

failure plane (or slip lines) as shown in Fig.

some thrust etc.The magnitude of the lateral earth

pressure depends upon the movement of the wall

relative to the backfill and upon the nature of soil or fill.

When the soil moves away from the backfill, mobilization of the

internal resistance of the soil, which builds up in directions away

from the wall takes place and hence earth pressure on the wall

decreases. The decrease of earth pressure continues upto a point

until the full

resistance has been mobilized. The earth pressure does not

decrease beyond this point with further movement of the wall and

is called as active earth pressure.

If on the other hand, the wall moves towards the fill, the earth pressure increases,

because the shearing resistance builds up in direction towards wall. The

pressure reaches at the point when the shearing resistance of the soil has been fully

mobilized. Any further movement of the wall does not increase the pressure. The

maximum pressure is called the passive earth pressure.

Rankines theory of lateral earth pressure is

applied to uniform cohisionless soil only. Later

it was extended to cohesive soils by Resal

and Bell. The theory has also been extended to

stratified, partially immersed and submerged

soil. This theory is valid when:

The level of the soil behind the wall is horizontal

Soil mass is semi-infinite, homogeneous, dry and

cohesionless

The length of the wall is long in comparison to the height so

that it can be treated two dimensional situations.

friction less unlike assumed in Rankines case the lateral

earth pressure applied by the soil is not normal to the wall

but at an angle or in other word has both horizontal and a

vertical components.

Solutions from the coulomb theory can be obtained from the situations

when the back of the wall is not vertical but is inclined at an angle to

the

horizontal and the soil behind the wall is not horizontal but inclined at

an angle to the horizontal

Assumptions:

The backfill is dry and cohesionless, homogeneous,

istropic and elastically undeformable but breakable.

The slip surface is the plane which passes through the heel

of the wall.

The sliding wedge itself acts as a rigid body and the

value of earth pressure is obtained by considering the

limiting equilibrium of the sliding wedge as a whole.

Foundation

Foundation

* A foundation is required for

distributing the loads of the

superstructure on a large area.

* The foundation should be designed

such that

Basic Definitions :

1)Ultimate Bearing Capacity (qu) :

The ultimate bearing capacity is the

gross pressure at the base of the

foundation at which soil fails in shear.

2)Net ultimate Bearing Capacity

(qnu) :

It is the net soil pressure which can

be safely applied to the soil

considering only shear failure.

Thus, qns = qnu /FOS

FOS - Factor of safety usually taken as

2.00 -3.00

It is the net pressure which the soil can

carry without exceeding allowable

settlement.

6)Net Allowable Bearing Pressure

(qna ):

It is the net bearing pressure which can

be used for design of foundation.

Vesic (1973) classified shear failure

of soil under a foundation base into

three categories depending on the

type of soil & location of

foundation.

1)General Shear failure.

2)Local Shear failure.

3) Punching Shear failure

* The load - Settlement curve in case of footing resting on surface of

dense sand or stiff clays shows pronounced peak & failure occurs at

very small stain.

* A loaded base on such soils sinks or tilts suddenly in to the ground

showing a surface heave of adjoining soil

* The shearing strength is fully mobilized all along the slip surface &

hence failure planes are well defined.

* The failure occurs at very small vertical strains accompanied by large

lateral strains.

* ID > 65 ,N>35, > 360, e < 0.55

* When load is equal to a certain value qu(1),

* The foundation movement is accompanied by sudden jerks.

* The failure surface gradually extend out wards from the foundation.

* The failure starts at localized spot beneath the foundation & migrates out

ward part by part gradually leading to ultimate failure.

* The shear strength of soil is not fully mobilized along planes & hence

failure planes are not defined clearly.

* The failure occurs at large vertical strain & very small lateral strains.

* ID = 15 to 65 , N=10 to 30 , <30, e>0.75

* The

* No

heave is observed.

* Large

deformation.

* Failure

Terzaghi (1943) analysed a shallow continuous

footing by making some assumptions

* The failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane passing through

base of footing

* The failure occurs when the down ward pressure exerted by loads on the soil

adjoining the inclined surfaces on soil wedge is equal to upward pressure.

* Downward forces are due to the load (=qu B) & the weight of soil wedge (1/4

B2 tan)

* Upward forces are the vertical components of resultant passive pressure (Pp)

& the cohesion (c) acting along the inclined surfaces.

Capacity :

* The equation for ultimate bearing

capacity by Terzaghi has been

developed based on assumption that

water table is located at a great

depth .

* If the water table is located close to

base of footing -

effective weight below water table is

base :

* Unit weight in term is

= sub +

y ( sub)

B

Thus,

qu = cNc + Df Nq + 0.5B Nr

When y = B ; W.T. at B below base of footing.

qu = cNc + Df Nq + 0.5 B Nr

Hence when ground water table is at b B, the equation is not

Settlement of foundation :

a) Settlement under loads

Settlement of foundation can be classified as1.Elastic settlement (Si): Elastic or immediate

settlement takes place during or immediately

after the construction of the structure. It is also

known as the distortion settlement as it is due

to distortions within foundation soil.

2.Consolidation settlement (Sc): Consolidation

settlement occurs due to gradual expulsion of

water from the voids at the soil. It is

DESIGN OF RETAINING

WALL AND FOUNDATIONS

Design of simple column square footing

Design of simple column rectangular

footing

Design of combined footing

Design of pile foundation

Design of retaining wall

JAYARAM D K

FOUNDATION

The foundation of a structure is the

part of the structure which transfers

the load to the soil on which it rests.

The ground surface in contact with the

lower surface of the foundation is

called the base of the foundation

The ground on which the foundation

rest is called the subgrade or

foundation soil.

STRUCTURE

SUBSTRUCTURE:

The structure below the ground level it

is called sub structure

SUPER STRUCTURE:

The structure above the ground level it

is called as super structure

Types of Foundations

Shallow Foundations

If the depth of the foundation is equal

to or less than its width the foundation

is classified as shallow foundation

(i) Wall Footing

(ii)Column or Isolated Footing

(iii)Combined Footing

(iv)Mat Footing

Deep foundation

If the depth of the foundation is greater than its

width it is called as deep foundation.

(i)Well foundation

(ii)Pile foundation

Bearing Capacity of soil:

Ability of the soil to resists the load with out

failure.

Causes of failure of foundations:

(i)Unequal settlement of subsoil

(ii)Shinkage of soil below the foundation due to

withdrawal of moisture

soils

Types of Soil

Safe Bearing

Capacity of soil

( KN/m2)

2.Sand and clay

mixed

3.Firm clay

4.Fine confined wet

sand

5.Fine dry sand

6.Coarse sand

7.Soft rock

8.Hard rock (mixture

350

200

200

200

350

450

650

900

1100

2750

depth of the foundation:

2

p- Safe bearing capacity of the soil

r-Specific weight of the soil

0-Angle of repose

foundation required for a column carrying an

axial load of 1250 KN. The safe bearing

capacity of the soil is 120 KN/m2 . The

density of the soil is 18 KN/m3 and has an

angle of repose of 30 degree.

Solution:

Load on the column = 1250 KN

Approximate weight of foundation = 125 KN

( take 10 % of total weight)

Total load = load on the column +

approximate weight of the column.

= 1250 + 125 = 1375 KN

bearing

capacity of soil

= 1375/120

= 11.46 m2

Provide a foundation area of 12 m2

Determination of depth of the

foundation:

Minimum depth of

2

the foundation = (p/){(1-sin)/(1+sin )}

= (120/18) {(1-sin30)/(1+sin30)}2

= 0.75 m.

WALL FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING

STRAP FOOTING

CONTINUOUS FOOTING

RAFT FOOTING

WELL FOOTING

PILE FOOTING

Foundation

Pile :

A slender,

structural member

consisting steel or

concrete or

timber.

It is installed in the

ground to transfer

the structural loads

to soils at some

significant depth

below the base of

the structure.

Foundation

Pile caps are thick slabs used

to tie a group of piles together

to support and transmit column

loads to the piles.

Pile Foundations

The term Pile Foundation denotes a construction

for the foundation of a wall or pier which is

supported on piles.

Where Used :

stratum of required bearing capacity is at greater

depth

steep slopes are encountered

Compressible soil or water-logged soil or soil of madeup type

trestle-bridges and water front installations (piers, docks

etc ).

Advantages:

SOFT

STRATA

HARD

STRATA

PILE FOUNDATION

Foundation

Deep foundation :

Deep foundation consists of

pile and pier foundations.

This consists in carrying

down through the soil a huge

masonry cylinder which may

be supported by the sides of

soil or may be supported on

solid rock (hard stratum).

Pile foundation :

Pile is an element of

construction used as

foundation. It may be driven

in the ground vertically or

with some inclination to

transfer the load safely.

Foundation

Pile foundation

Loads are supported in two

ways.

If the load is supported by

the effect of friction between

the soil and the pile skin, it is

called friction pile.

Friction piles may be made of

cast iron, cement concrete,

timber, steel, wrought iron

and composite materials.

If the load is supported by

resting the pile on a very

hard stratum, it is called load

bearing pile.

Load bearing piles are steel

sheet piles, concrete piles

and timber piles.

precast.

They may be cased or

uncased.

Load

Bearing

Pile

Friction

Piles

Load

bearing pile

Friction Pile

TYPES OF PILES

Concrete Piles

i) Cast-In-Situ Concrete Piles

a) Cased cast-in-situ b) Uncased cast-in-situ

ii) Precast Concrete Piles

Steel Piles

i) H-Piles ii) Cylindrical piles iii) Tapered piles

Timber Piles

Composite Piles

1. Displacement Piles

It cause the soil to be displaced radially as well as vertically as pile

shaft is driven or jacked into the ground.

b) Non Displacement Piles (Replacement piles)

It cause the soil to be removed and the resulting hole filled with

concrete or a pre cast concrete pile is dropped into the hole and

grouted in.

Displacement Pile Non Displacement pile

METHOD OF INSTALLATION

Dropping Weight or Drop Hammers

- commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles

Diesel Hammers

-Most suitable to drive pile in non cohesive granular soil

Vibratory Hammers or vibratory method of pile driving

-very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soil

Jacking Method Of Insertion

Drop Hammer

support the pile that being

driven and to support the pile

Design 2: A square column 500mm X 500mm carries an axial load of

1500 KN . Design the column and the square footing for the

column. The safe bearing capacity of the column is 225 KN/m2. Use

M20 and Fe 415 steel.

Design of Column:

Load on the column W = 1500 KN

Factored load Pu= 1.5 x 1500 = 2250 KN

Over all area of the column section Ag= 500 x 500 = 250000 mm2

Area of the steel = Asc

Area of the concrete = Ac = Ag- Asc

= 250000-Asc

2250000 = 0.4 X 20 X ( 250000 Asc) + 0.67 X 415 x Asc

Asc= 925.75 mm2

Assume 29 mm dia bars

Provide 4 bars of 20 mm dia

Lateral ties :

diameter of the longitudinal bar

5mm

From the above two take the greater one so provide the

diameter of 6 mm dia bar.

Pitch of lateral ties:

(i)Least lateral dimension of the column = 500mm

(ii)16 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars =16 X 20 =

320 mm

Provide 6 mm dia ties at 250 mm c/c.

Design of the foundation:

Load on the column = 1500 KN

Approximate weight of the footing at 10 % of the column load

= 150 KN

Total load = 1650 KN

Safe bearing capacity of the soil = 225 KN/m2

Area of foundation = 1650/225 = 7.333 m2

BX B = 7.333

So the area of the foundation is 2.75 X 2.75 m

Net upward pressure = load on the column / area of the footing

= 1500000/(2.75 X 2.75) = 198347.11 N/m2.

Depth of the foundation =

Minimum depth of the foundation = (p/r){(1-sin)/(1+sin )} 2

= (225/18) {(1-sin30)/(1+sin30)}2

= 1.4 m

Determination of the depth of the concrete slab below the footing.

Critical section for bending moment is = (2750-500)/2 = 1125 mm = 1.125 m

Maximum bending moment = M = 198347.11 x 2.75 X 1.125 x( 1.125/2)

= 345170 Nm

Factored moment Mu = 1.5 X M

= 1.5 X 345170 = 517755 Nm.

Mu= 0.138 fck bd2

517755000 = 0.138 X 20 X 500 (width of column) X d2

d= 613 mm

D= 613 + 12/2 +60 = 691 mm

(12- dia of bar , 60 clear cover for footing)

The depth of slab of the foundation is increased by 30 %

D= 691 X ( 0.3 X 691) = 900 mm

d=900 (12/2)- 60 =822 mm.

Determination of quantity of steel required:

Ast = Pt X b x d

reinforcement:

Ast= Percentage of steel X b X d

Percentage of steel =

2

= 1.5 X 345170 = 517755 Nm

Fck = 20 N/mm2

And

Fe =415 N/mm2

b=500 mm

And

d=822mm

Substitute all the values in the above formula we get

Pt= 0.47 %

Ast = Pt X b x d

= (0.47/100) x 500 x 822 = 1932 mm2

No of bar =Total area/ area of one bar= 1932/ (3.14/4)x12

Assume 12 mm dia bars so provide 18 bars of 12 mm diameter.

Here the column is square so provide the same reinforcement on both

the directions.

2

an axial load of 800 KN . Design a rectangular footing to

support the column . The safe bearing capacity of the soil is

200 KN/m2 . Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

Load on the column = 800000N

Approximate weight of the foundation take 10 % of the

weight of the column = 80000N

Total load = 880000N

Safe bearing capacity of the soil is given as 200 KN/m2

= 200000N/m2

the soil.

= 880000/200000 = 4.40 m2

To find the length and breadth of the foundation

in case of square footing its easy because by taking square

root we get all the values

Area = 4.4

BL = 4.4

B= 4.4 /L

Equating the projections on both sides beyond the footing

( B-0.4) = (L-0.6)

Sub B Value

( {4.4/L}-0.4) = (L-0.6)

Sub this is B value we get

B= 4.4/L = 4.4/ 2.2 = 2 m

Now find the projections on both the axis

= 0.8 m

Net upward pressure = column load / Area of the footing

= 800000/4.4

=181820 N/m2

Determination of reinforcement in section xx axis and YY axis.

Bending moment Myy = 181820 X 2.2X 0.8 X (0.8/2).

= 128000 Nm

= 192000 Nm

Determine the depth

Muy = 0.138 Fck bd2

192000 = 0.138 x 20 x 600 x d2

d= 341 mm.

Bending moment Mxx = 181820 X 2 X 0.8 X (0.8/2).

= 116364.8 Nm

Factored Moment Mux = 116364.8 X 1.5

= 174547.2Nm

Determine the depth

Mux = 0.138 Fck bd2

174547.2 = 0.138 x 20 x 400 x d2

d= 398 mm.

From the above two depth take the greater one

d= 398 mm

D = 398 + (10/2) + 70 = 473 mm

The overall depth may increased by 30%

= 473 + (0.3 X473)

= 614.9 mm

D=620 mm.

Effective Depth of the footing

d= 620 (10/2) 70

= 545 mm.

Factored Moment Muy = 128000 X 1.5

= 192000 Nm

Determination of quantity of steel required:

Ast = Pt X b x d

Sub b= 600mm

d=545mm

Fck=20N/mm2

Fe=415 N/mm2

In the Pt formula and find Pt

Pt=0.32 %

Ast =( 0.32/100) X600 x545=1046.4mm2

2

No of bar =Total area/ area of one bar= 1046.4/ (3.14/4)x12

Assume 12 mm dia bar .

Provide 12 mm dia bars of 10 numbers.

reinforcement:

Ast= Percentage of steel X b X d

Percentage of steel =

2

Factored Moment Factored Moment Mux = 116364.8 X 1.5

= 174547.2Nm

Determination of quantity of steel required:

Ast = Pt X b x d

Sub b= 400mm

d=545mm

Fck=20N/mm2

Fe=415 N/mm2

In the Pt formula and find Pt

Pt=0.45 %

Ast =( 0.45/100) X400 x545=981mm2

2

No of bar =Total area/ area of one bar= 981/ (3.14/4)x12

Assume 12 mm dia bar .

Provide 12 mm dia bars of 9 numbers.

Combined footing

Whenever two or more columns in a straight line are

carried on a single spread footing, it is called a combined

footing. Isolated footings for each column are generally the

economical.

Combined footings are provided only when it is absolutely

necessary, as

1.When two columns are close together, causing overlap

of adjacent isolated footings

2.Where soil bearing capacity is low, causing overlap of

adjacent isolated footings

3.Proximity of building line or existing building or sewer,

adjacent to a building column

1. Slab type

3. Strap type

53

Design Steps

Locate the point of application of the column

loads on the footing.

Proportion the footing such that the resultant of

loads passes through the center of footing.

Compute the area of footing such that the

allowable soil pressure is not exceeded.

Calculate the shear forces and bending moments

at the salient points and hence draw SFD and

BMD.

Fix the depth of footing from the maximum

bending moment.

Calculate the transverse bending moment and

design the transverse section for depth and

reinforcement. Check for anchorage and shear.

89

Slab and Beam type

1. Two interior columns A and B carry 700 kN and

1000 kN loads respectively. Column A is 350 mm

x 350 mm and column B is 400 mm X 400 mm in

section. The centre to centre spacing between

columns is 4.6 m. The soil on which the footing

rests is capable of providing resistance of 130

kN/m2. Design a combined footing by providing a

central beam joining the two columns. Use

concrete

grade

M25

and

mild

steel

reinforcement.

90

Solution: Data

fck = 25 Nlmm2,

fy= 250 N/mm2,

fb = l30 kN/m2 (SBC),

Column A = 350 mm x 350 mm,

Column B = 400 mm x 400 mm,

c/c spacing of columns = 4.6 m,

PA = 700 kN and PB = 1000 kN

Required: To design combined footing with

central beam joining the two columns.

Ultimate loads

PuA= 1.5 x 700 = 1050 kN, PuB = 1.5 x 1000

= 1500 kN

91

Working load carried by column A = PA = 700 kN

Working load carried by column B = PB = 1000 kN

Self weight of footing 10 % x (PA + PB) = 170 kN

Total working load = 1870 kN

Required area of footing = Af = Total load /SBC

=1870/130 = 14.38 m2

Let the width of the footing = Bf = 2m

Required length of footing = Lf = Af /Bf = 14.38/2 = 7.19m

Provide footing of size 7.2m X 2m,Af = 7.2 x 2 = 14.4 m2

92

the footing should coincide with the C.G. of

column loads. Let x be the distance of C.G.

from the centre line of column A

Then x = (PB x 4.6)/(PA + PB) = (1000 x 4.6)/(1000 +700)

= 2.7 m from column A.

If the cantilever projection of footing beyond column A is a

then, a + 2.7 = Lf /2 = 7.2/2, Therefore a = 0.9 m

Similarly if the cantilever projection of footing beyond B is 'b'

then, b + (4.6-2.7) = Lf /2 = 3.6 m,

Therefore b = 3.6 - 1.9 = 1.7 m

The details are shown in Figure

93

700 kN

1000 kN

a=900

C

4600 mm

A

b=1700

B

pu=177 kN/m2

wu=354 kN/m

Combined footing with loads

94

OF RETAINING WALLS

Learning Outcomes:

complete design and detailing of different types of

retaining walls.

95

RETAINING WALL

Retaining walls are usually

built to hold back soil mass.

However, retaining walls can

also be constructed for

aesthetic

landscaping

purposes.

GL2

BACK

SOIL

GL1

96

with shear key

Batter

Drainage Hole

Toe

97

Photos of Retaining

walls

98

Classification of

Retaining walls

Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain

concrete

Cantilever retaining wall-RCC

(Inverted T and L)

Counterfort retaining wall-RCC

Buttress wall-RCC

99

Classification of Retaining

walls

Backfill

Tile

drain

Gravity RW

Backfill

L-Shaped RW

T-Shaped RW

Backfill

Counterfort

Counterfort RW

Buttress

Weep

hole

Buttress RW

100

Earth pressure is the pressure

exerted by the retaining material

on the retaining wall. This pressure

tends to deflect the wall outward.

Types of earth pressure :

Active earth pressure or earth

pressure (Pa) and

Passive earth pressure (Pp).

Active earth pressure tends to

deflect the wall away from the

backfill.

GL

Pa

101

pressure

backfill, the height of wall and the

soil conditions

Soil conditions: The different soil

conditions are

Moist leveled backfill

Submerged leveled backfill

Leveled backfill with uniform

surcharge

Backfill with sloping surface

102

fills

Maximum pressure at any height, p=kah

Total pressure at any height from top,

pa=1/2[kah]h = [kah2]/2

Bending moment at any height

M=paxh/3= [kah3]/6

Total pressure, Pa= [kaH2]/2

Total Bending moment at bottom,

M = [kaH3]/6

GL

h

H

Pa

GL

M

kaH

H=stem height

103

= (1-sin)/(1+sin)=tan2

= 1/kp, coefficient of passive earth

pressure

repose

=Unit weigh or density of backfill

104

pa= ka H at the bottom and

is parallel to inclined

surface of backfill

GL

ka =

Where =Angle of

surcharge

Total pressure at bottom

=Pa= ka H2/2

105

Stability requirements of RW

It should not slide

It should not subside, i.e Max.

pressure at the toe should not

exceed the safe bearing capacity of

the soil under working condition

106

Factor of safety against

overturning

= MR / MO 1.55 (=1.4/0.9)

Where,

MR =Stabilising moment or

restoring moment

MO =overturning moment

MR>1.2 MO, ch. DL + 1.4 MO,

ch. IL

0.9 MR 1.4 MO, ch IL

107

FOS against sliding

= Resisting force to

sliding/

Horizontal force

causing

sliding

= W/Pa 1.55

(=1.4/0.9)

1.4 = ( 0.9W)/Pa

Friction W

SLIDING OF WALL

108

x1

x2

W4

W1

W2

Pa

R

W3

T

x

b/6

b

Pmax

H/3

b/2

Pmin.

Retaining Wall

109

lie at a distance x from the toe.

X = M/W,

M = sum of all moments about toe.

Minimum pressure at heel=

>Zero.

For zero pressure, e=b/6, resultant should cut

the base within the middle third.

Maximum pressure at toe=

SBC of soil.

110

Depth of foundation

Rankines formula:

Df =

Df

111

Preliminary Proportioning

(T

shaped

wall)

Stem: Top width 200 mm to

400 mm

Base slab width b= 0.4H to

0.6H, 0.6H to 0.75H for

surcharged wall

Base slab thickness= H/10 to

H/14

Toe projection= (1/3-1/4)

Base width

200

tp= (1/3-1/4)b

H/10

H/14

b= 0.4H to 0.6H

112

Design of Cantilever RW

Stem, toe and heel acts as cantilever slabs

Stem design: Mu=psf (ka H3/6)

Determine the depth d from Mu = Mu,

2

lim=Qbd

Design as balanced section or URS and

find steel

Mu=0.87 fy Ast[d-fyAst/(fckb)]

113

Curtailment of bars

Effective depth (d) is

Proportional to h

Dist.

from

top

h1

Ast/2

h2

Bending moment is

Every

3

proportional

to

h

alternate

h1c

bar cut

Ldt

Ast

l to h2

h2

Ast/2

Ast

Provided

Ast1 h12

i.e.

2

Ast 2 h2

Ast

Cross section

Curtailment curve

114

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

as cantilever. For this stability analysis should

be performed as explained and determine the

maximum bending moments at the junction.

Determine the reinforcement.

Also check for shear at the junction.

Provide enough development length.

Provide the distribution steel

115

Cantilever RW design

Design a cantilever retaining wall (T type) to retain earth for a

height of 4m. The backfill is horizontal. The density of soil is

18kN/m3. Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 kN/m 2. Take the

co-efficient of friction between concrete and soil as 0.6. The

angle of repose is 30. Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

Solution

Data: h' = 4m, SBC= 200 kN/m 2, = 18 kN/m3, =0.6, =30

116

Depth of foundation

To fix the height of retaining

wall [H]

H= h' +Df

Depth of foundation

Df =

200

h1

Df

b

Therefore H= 5.2m

117

Proportioning of

Thicknesswall

of base slab=(1/10

200

to1/14)H

0.52m to 0.43m, say 450 mm

Width of base slab=b = (0.5 to

0.6) H

2.6m to 3.12m say 3m

Toe projection= pj= (1/3 to )H

1m to 0.75m say 0.75m

Provide 450 mm thickness for

the stem at the base and 200

H=5200 mm

tp= 750 mm

450

b= 3000 mm

118

Design of stem

Ph= x 1/3 x 18 x 4.752=67.68 kN

M = Ph h/3 = 0.333 x 18 x 4.753/6

= 107.1 kN-m

Mu= 1.5 x M = 160.6 kN-m

h

P

Taking 1m length of wall,

Mu/bd2= 1.004 < 2.76, URS

M

(Here d=450- eff. Cover=450-50=400

D

mm)

k h

To find steel

Pt=0.295% <0.96%

3

Or

M

=

[k

H

]/6

2

u

a

Ast= 0.295x1000x400/100 = 1180 mm

#12 @ 90 < 300 mm and 3d ok

119

a

Curtailment of bars-Stem

Curtail 50% steel from

top

(h1/h2)2 = 50%/100%=

(h1/4.75)2 = , h1 =

3.36m

Actual point of cutoff

= 3.36-Ld=3.36-47 bar

= 3.36-0.564 = 2.74m

from top.

Spacing of bars = 180

mm c/c < 300 mm and

Dist.

from

top

h1

Ast/2

Every

alternate

bar cut

h2

h1c

Ldt

Ast

h2

Ast/2

Ast

Ast

Provid

ed

120

Design of stem-Contd.,

Development length (Stem

steel)

Ld=47 bar =47 x 12 = 564

mm

200

H=5200 mm

front

0.12% GA

= 0.12x450 x 1000/100 =

540 mm2

#10 @ 140 < 450 mm and

5d ok

Distribution steel

tp= 750 mm

450

b= 3000 mm

121

#12 @ 180

#10 @ 140

#12 @ 90

#16 @ 190

#10 @ 140

C/S OF WALL

PRINCIPLES

M.Jayaram

Pile Foundations

Based on its function pile foundations are classified as

1. End Bearing Pile

4. Tension piles (or) Uplift piles

2. Friction (Shaft friction) Pile

5. Anchor pile

7.Sheet piles

3. Compaction piles

6. Fender and Dolphins pile 8. Batter piles

Based on Materials: Timber, Concrete, Steel, or combination of any of them.

Types of Soil condition: Gravel, Clay, Sand, Rock

Based on Loads: Vertical load, Horizontal load ( water, soil, earthquake)

Based on construction: Cast in-situ, Pre-cast, Bored piles, Driven piles

BASED ON CONSTRUCTION

Bored Piles

Small Diameter (300-600mm)

Tubed Augured Piles

Continuous Flight Auger (CFA)

Piles

Battered piles

Mini-Piles

Augured Displacement

Driven Piles

Cast in Place

Cast in Place (permanent

casing/shell)

Pre-cast

Steel

Timber

Pile Materials

Concrete: Cast in-situ (cast at site) or

Precast

Wood : (Timber Piles)

Composite

END BEARING

PILES

End bearing piles are those which terminate in relatively hard,

impenetrable stratum such as rock or very dense sand and gravel.

This pile act as a laterally transmitted column. The load being

transmitted to the toe and resisted by the hard soil or rock.

PILES

ROCK

SOFT SOIL

End

Bearing Pile

PILES

SOFT SOIL

ROCK

FRICTION PILES

Friction piles: In this pile the load is transmitted to the soil through

the adhesion or skin frictional resistance along the shaft of the piles.

In cohesionless soils like sands of medium to low relative density

friction piles are often used to increase the density and thus the

shear strength.

PILES

SOFT SOIL

Cased Piles

Uncased Piles

of Wood piles

Advantages:

+The piles are easy to handle

+ Relatively inexpensive where timber availability is more.

+ Sections can be joined together and excess length can be

easily removed.

Disadvantages:

-- The piles will rot above the ground water level. Have a

limited bearing capacity.

-- Can easily be damaged during driving by stones and boulders.

-- The piles are difficult to splice and are attacked by marine

borers in salt water.

+ Soil removed in boring can be inspected and if necessary sampled or in- situ test made.

+ Can be installed in very large diameters.

+ End enlargement up to two or three diameters are possible in clays.

+ Material of piles is not dependent on handling or driving conditions.

+ Can be installed in very long lengths.

+ Can be installed with out appreciable noise or vibrations.

+ Can be installed in conditions of very low headroom.

+ No risk of ground heave.

-- Susceptible to "waisting" or "necking" in squeezing ground.

-- Concrete is not placed under ideal conditions and cannot be subsequently inspected.

-- Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing out cement.

-- Enlarged ends cannot be formed in cohesionless materials without special techniques.

-- Cannot be readily extended above ground level especially in river and marine structures.

-- Boring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils requiring base grouting to achieve

economical base resistance.

Bored and cast in-situ (Nondisplacement Piles) Piles

Types of Pile

has an important influence on the subsequent response

Three categories of piles are classified by method of

installation as below:

Large displacement piles

They encompass all solid driven piles including

precast concrete piles, steel or concrete tubes

closed at the lower end

Small displacement piles

They include rolled steel sections such as H-pile

and open-end tubular piles

Replacement piles

They are formed by machine boring, grabbing or

hand-digging.

Pile

Advantages

Disadvantages

for quality before driving

ground water

headroom

affected by ground water

Noise permit may be required

due to presence of sensitive

structures, utility installation or

machinery

(A/D)

Advantages

Disadvantages

installation

all kinds of obstructions

low headroom

construct

No ground heave

cause ground loss and settlement of

adjacent structures

easily

without special adaptation

Combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment

loading may be applied at the soil surface from the

overlying structure

For the majority of foundations the loads applied to

the piles are primarily vertical

For piles in jetties, foundations for bridge piers, tall

chimneys, and offshore piled foundations the lateral

resistance is an important consideration

The analysis of piles subjected to lateral and moment

loading is more complex than simple vertical loading

because of the soil-structure interaction.

Pile installation will always cause change of adjacent

soil properties, sometimes good, sometimes bad.

V

H

PILES

Load Carrying Capacity Of Piles:

The ultimate load carrying capacity or Ultimate bearing capacity or

Ultimate bearing resistance (Qup ) of a pile is defined as the maximum

load which can be carried by a pile, and at which the pile continues to

sink without further increase of load.

The allowable load (Qa) is the safe load which pile can carry safely and

is determined on the basis of

(1) Ultimate bearing capacity divided by suitable factor of safety.

(2) The permissible settlement and

(3) the Overall Stability of the pile foundation

The load carrying capacity of the pile can be determined by the

following methods:

Dynamic Formulae (1. Engineering News Formula, and 2. Hileys

Formulas)

Static formulae

Pile Load Tests

Penetration Test

bearing capacity as:

Qa = WH/F(S+C) .(1)

Where, Qa = Allowable Load,

S = Final Set (Penetration) per blow, usually taken as average penetration in cm per

blow for the last 5 blows of a Drop Hammer and 20 Blows for a Steam Hammer

C= Empirical Constant (2.5 for Drop Hammer, 0.25 for Single (or) Double acting

steam hammer

(1) for Drop Hammers, Qa = WH/6(S+2.5) .(2)

Where a = effective area of piston and p = mean effective steam pressure (kg/cm 2)

Testing Procedure

The pile load test can be performed either on a working pile or on a test pile.

A rigid steel plate (circular or rectangular steel plate) is placed on the top of pile projection.

A calibrated jack plate is mounted on the plate to measure the applied load. A reaction jack is

borne by the Truss or a Platform. The truss can be anchored to the ground with the help of

anchor piles.

The load is applied in equal increments of about one-fifth of its estimated allowable load. The

settlements were recorded with the help of three dial gauges of sensitive to 0.02mm, arranged

symmetrically over the test plate. For each load increments, the rate settlement becomes less

than 0.02mm per hour. The test piles are loaded until ultimate load is reached.

In general, the test load is increased to a value of 2.5times the values of estimated allowable load

or to a load which cause a settlement of equal al to 1/1o of the pile diameter, whichever occurs

earlier. The ultimate load can be obtained by plotting the graph for Load Vs Settlement curve.

If the ultimate load can not obtained from the plot, then the allowable load can be obtained as

follows:

1. One-half to one-third of the final load which causes settlement equal to 10% of pile diameter.

2. Twothird (2/3) of final load which cause a settlement of 12 mm, or

3. Two-third of final load which causes a net settlement (residual settlement after removal of load)

of 6mm

145

Modes of failure

The soil is always failure by punching

shear.

The failure mode of pile is always in

buckling failure mode.

147

SETTLEMENT REDUCING

PILES

Settlement reducing piles are usually incorporated beneath the

central part of a raft foundation in order to reduce differential

settlement to an acceptable level. Such piles act to reinforce the soil

beneath the raft and help to prevent dishing of the raft in the centre.

Pile foundation

REMEDIES

It

is

widely

used

deep

foundation

for

complex

geologic conditions with kinds

of load conditions, especially

for soft soil foundation.

Pile

foundation

has

large

bearing capacity, well stability

and

small

differential

settlement compared to other

foundation types.

Butpile foundationsmay

also

get damaged and fail specially

during earthquakes.

The failure of the pile foundationmay result

from any of the following causes:

pile foundation:

Early repair such as

Encasement or Replacement of

piles

Removal of partial load

Underpinning

Problems:

Exercise:1

A wooden pile is being driven with a drop hammer weighing 20kN and having a

free fall of 1.0m. The penetration in the last blow is 5 mm. Determine the load

carrying capacity of the pile according to the Engineers news formula.

Solution:1

Given Data:

1.A Wooden Pile is Diriven

2.Weight of Drop Hammer = W=20kN

3.Height of fall H = 1.0m

4.Penetration in the last blow S = 05mm

Solution:1

Load carrying capacity Qa = WH / F(S+C)

= 20*100) / 6(0.5+2.5)

= 111.10kN

Solution:1

To find:

1.Load carrying capacity of the

pile

2. using Engineering News

formula

Exercise:2

A reinforced concrete pile weighing 30kN (inclusive of helmet and dolly) is driven by a

drop hammer weighing 40kN and having an effective fall of 0.8m. The average set per

blow is 1.4cm. The total temporary elastic compression is 1.8cm. Assuming the

coefficient of restitution as 0.25 and factor of safety of 2. Determine the ultimate

bearing capacity and allowable load for the pile.

Exercise:2

Exercise:2

To find:

Given Data:

1.A Reinforced concrete Pile weighing P=30kN

1.Load carrying capacity of the

is Driven

pile

2.Weight of Drop Hammer = W=40kN

2. Allowable Load

3.Height of fall H = 0.80m

4.Penetration in the last blow S = 1.40cm

5.Total elastic compression =C = 1.80 cm

6.Co-efficient of restituion =e = o.25

7.Factor of safety = f = 2

Solution:2

8.W > e*P

Allowable Load (Qa) = Qf / F

= 830 / 2

Solution:2

= 415 kN

= (W+P*e2) / (W+P)

b

= 0.597

Ultimate Bearing Capacity Qf = {(h *H)Wb }/ (S+C/2)

= {80*40)*0.597} / (1.4+1.8/2)

= 830 kN

Exercise:3

Design a friction pile group to carry a load of 3000kN including the weight of the

pile cap at a site where the soil is uniform clay to depth of 20m, underlain by a rock.

Average unconfined compressive strength of the clay is 70kN/m 2 .The clay may be

assumed of normal sensitivity and normally loaded, with liquid limit of 60%. A factor

of safety of 3 is required against shear failure.

Exercise: 3 (1) : Given Data:

Exercise:3 (2) : To find:

1.A Reinforced concrete Pile weighing P=3000kN

1.Design the group piles

is Driven

2.Depth of clay layer = 20 m

3.Average unconfined compressive strength qu =

70kN/cm2 ; (c = qu/2; c=70/2 =35)

Solution:4 (3) General formula Qup = As rf

4.Length of the pile L = 10 m

5.Diameter of the pile D = 0.50 m

Pile acting as a Single pile Qug = n c DL

6.Spacing of pile S =3*d =3 * 0.50 = 1.50m

3000 = n (35/5) *0.5 *10

7.Number piles = n

n = {3*3000}/{35* *0.5 *10} = 16.37 (Adopt 16 Nos.)

8.Factor of safety f = 2

Number of piles n =16 Piles

9.Nc = 9

Modify the Length of pile L have to be increased by the

10.Ap = Area of Piles (B*B)

where, B = 3 * 1.5 + 0.50 = 5.0m

Load taken by group action, As g= {4 * B* L*c}+Ap *cNc

= {4*5 *11*35/3}+{25*35/3*9

= 5191.7 which is more the 3000kN (Hence safe)

the square group is 1.5 m. If c = 50 kN/m2, determine whether the failure would

occur with the pile acting individually, or as a group? Neglect bearing at the tip

of the pile. All the piles are 10 m long. Take m = 0.7 for shear mobilization

around

each

pile.

Exercise:4 (1)

Given Data:

1.16 nos. of Group Pile

2.Diameter D = 600 mm

3.Spacing = 1.20m

4.Length of Pile L = 10m on Soft clay

5.Cohesion c + 30 kN/m2

6.weighing P=30kN is Driven

7.Adhession factor m = 0.60

8.Neglecting the bearing resistance

1.Ultimate

Load

carrying

capacity of the Group pile

Solution:4 (3) General formula Qup = As rf

Pile acting as a Single pile Qun = n Qup

= n As rf

Area of Shaft (As)= D *L; = *0.60*10 = 18.85m2

Unit Skin friction, (rf)= m *c = 0.60 * 30 = 5428.70 kN

As g= {4 * B* L}

where, B = 3 * 1.2 + 0.60 = 4.20m

= {4*4.2 *10}

Solution:4 (4)

and

= 168 m2

(rf)= c = 30 kN/m2

Ultimate Load carrying capacity of the pile (Qug) = Asg*rf

= 168 * 30

= 5040 kN

Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Single pile = Ultimate Bearing Capacity group pile

5428.70 = 5040

(consider lesser of the Two values)

END Pile

END

Pile

foundations

END Pile

foundations

foundations

Basic Concept

The ultimate axial load of (Qu ) of a single pile may

be considered to be the sum of its skin friction and

end-bearing resistances , that are mobilized by the

applied load. i.e

Qu

Qu =Qb+Qs-W .(1)

=Ab*qb +As*qs -W

where

Ab, and As = Area of base and Shaft respectively

qb =Ultimate net bearing capacity of soil at the end of the

pile

qs = Mobilized adhesion OR frictional resistance along the

shaft of the pile and W=weight of the pile (minus)

weight of soil replaced

W = 0.25 d2 L (p ) ; D is diameter and L is length of the pile

p =Average density of pile

Qu = total pile resistance,

Qb is the end bearing resistance (Qu = Cu *Nc* Ab) and

Qs Qs is Shaft resistance capacity (Qs = (Cu *Nc* As)

Nc = 9 for intact clay and 6.75 for fissured clays

Alpha = adhesion factor =0.45

(soft clay =1, Overconsolidated clay = 0.30

General behaviour

Qs

W

Qb

Loading

Loading

Qu

QS

QB

Settlemen

t

Behaviour of Frictional Pile

soils

Important to adopt

good construction

practice to enhance

shaft friction and base

resistance

Shaft and base

grouting useful in

Qu

QB

QS

Settlement

Behaviour of End Bearing Pile

Piles founded on strong stratum

Not much benefit in enhancing

base resistance

Important to adopt good

construction practice to enhance

shaft friction

Shaft grouting useful in

enhancing pile capacity

Design

QT

d

Where FB and FS is the factor of safety of

components of end bearing strength and

shaft friction strength

QU = QB + QsW(3)

ho

D

Qs

Qb=Ab[cbNc+Po(Nq-1)+d/2N+Po] -Wp

Where

Ab = area of the base ,

cb = the cohesion at the base of the pile,

Po = the overburden stress at the base of the pile, and

d = the width (diameter) of the pile.

W

QB

Assumptions :

1. The weight of the pile is similar to the weight of the soil displaced of

the pile

=> Wp=AbPo

2. The length (L) of the pile is much greater than its width d

=> Wp=AbPo+ AbdN/2

3. Similarly for Nq approximately equal to Nq-1

Qb=Ab[cbNc+Po(Nq-1)+d/2N+Po] Wp

=>

Qb=Ab[cbNc+PoNq]

pile in granular soils

Due to the natural of granular soil, the c can be assumed

equation to zero. The ultimate end bearing resistance for

bored pile in granular soils may be express in terms of

vertical effective stress, v and the bearing capacity factors

Nq as :

QB=AB Nq v

Nq is generally related to the angle of shearing resistance .

For general design purposed, it is suggested that the N q

value proposed by Berezantze et al (1961) as presented in

Figure ?? are used. However, the calculated ultimate base

stress should conservatively be limited to 10Mpa, unless

higher values have been justified by load tests.

The ultimate shaft friction stress q s for piles may be expressed

in terms of mean vertical effective stress as :

qs =c+Ksvtans

qs =v (when c=0)

Where

Ks= coefficient of horizontal pressure which depends on the relative

density and state of soil, method of pile installation, and material

length and shape of pile. Ks may be related to the coefficient of earth

pressure at rest,

K0=1-sin as shown in Table 1.

Qv = mean vertical effective stress

s = angle of friction along pile/soil interface (see table2)

= shafte friction coefficient (see Table 3)

Qs = pLqs

Where p is the perimeter of the pile and L is the total length of the pile

Analysis

To determine drained or undrained condition,

we may need to consider the following

factors:

Drainage condition in the various soil strata

Permeability of soils

Rate of application of loads

Duration after the application of load

(Tv=cvt/d2)

GROUND

IMPROVEMENT

TECHNIQUES

GROUTING

GROUTING

Grouting is a process of ground improvement

attained by injecting fluid like

cement of stable suspensions

jetting of cement mixtures at

create soil- cement to increase

the strength.

the soil to

APPLICATIONS

Fixing ground anchors for sheet pile walls, concrete pile walls,

retaining walls tunnels etc

Repairing a ground underneath a formation or cracks and

structural

Defects on building masonry or pavement.

Fixing the tendons in prestressed post tensioned concrete

Filling the void between the lining and rock face in tunnel works

GROUTING MATERIAL

(a)Suspension grouts: TYPES

These are multi-phase systems capable of forming sub

systems after being subjected to natural sieving processes,

with chemical properties which must be carefully scrutinized

so as to ensure that they do not militate against controlled

properties of setting and strength. Water in association with

cement, lime, soil, etc., constitute suspensions. Emulsion

(asphalt or bitumen) with water is a two-phase system which

is also included under suspension.

(b) Solution grouts:

These are intimate one-phase system retaining an originally

designed chemical balance until completion of the relevant

reactions. Solutions in which the solute is present in the

colloidal

state are known as colloidal solutions. Chemical

grouts fall into this

category.

MATERIALS USED

FOR GROUTING

Cement and

water

Cement, rock

flour and water

grouts:

1. Calcium chloride

time

3. Sodium silicate

4. Gypsum

Cement, clay and

5. Lime sugar

water

time.

Cement clay,

6. Sodium tannate

sand and water

7. Fine bentonite

Asphalt

8. Clay

Chemicals

]

]-----for retarding setting

]

]

]

reduces grout

GROUTING

GROUTINGMATERIA

LS

Cement and water

Cement, rock flour and

water

Cement, clay and

water

Cement clay, sand and

water

Asphalt

Clay and water

Chemicals

CEMENT

1. Calcium chloride ]

2. Sodium hydroxide ]-----for

accelerating setting time

3. Sodium silicate

]

4. Gypsum

]

5. Lime sugar

]---for retarding setting time.

6. Sodium tannate

]

7. Fine bentonite

]

8. Clay

]

9. Ground shale ]--for reducing cost of grout and

reduces the strength of grout

PERMEATION

Grout is injected into the soil at low pressure and fills the voids

without significantly changing the soils structure and volume. Variety of

binders are used with this technique, the choice of which is dictated

mainly by the permeability of the soil.

When the coefficient of permeability is greater than 10-2cm/sec,

water-cement mixes are used and for permeability as low as 10 -5 cm/sec,

the more expensive resin based grouts are used. Soils with K values lower

than 10-6 cm/sec are normally not groutable by permeation.

COMPACTION PERMEATION

Disadvantages

Grouting adjacent to unsupported slopes may be ineffective.

Not suitable in decomposable materials.

Danger of filling underground pipes with grout.

Effectiveness questionable in saturated clays

MICROFINE CEMENT

Thick slurries can not penetrate fine cracks and higher injection

pressures would cause fracturing of ground foundations. Because of

the higher water requirements of micro fine cement, the slurry

remains fluid enough to flow into and penetrate fine sands and small

cracks in rock.

These cements can treat finer grained sands not possible to treat

with Portland cement alone. They are also used to stabilize waste

plumes.

introduce grout into soil pores without any essential change in

the original soil volume and structure, thus changing the

support capability of granular soils without disturbing them.

Another advantage is the ability to be less disruptive and

enable tunneling to proceed without over-excavation. A possible

drawback of chemical grouting is that only certain soil types are

amenable. Another barrier to the use of chemical grouting

techniques in the recent is increasing concern regarding

potential pollution by chemical grouting in urban areas. Two

trends have addressed this issue:

CHEMICAL GROUTING

formulae that enhance the penetrability of particulate

suspensions and meet the strictest specifications for

environmental safety

2. Development of alternative techniques which by-pass the

penetrability restraints, such as jet grouting which allows the

treatment of most types of soil, independent of its grain size

COMPACTION PERMEATION

COMPENSATION GROUTING

1.Compensation (hydrofracture) grouting uses high-mobility grout

to split the ground and thereby create lifting or densification under

structures or other facilities.

2.The ground is deliberately split by injecting stable fluid cementbased grouts at high pressures in order to increase total stress by the

wedging action of successive thin grout lenses, to fill unconnected

voids, and possibly to consolidate the soil locally under injection.

3.This process is often undertaken as a reaction to movements

while tunnel excavation is in progress.

4.It is important to keep in mind that the effects of compensation

(hydrofracture) grouting are difficult to control and the potential danger

of damaging adjacent structures by the use of high pressure may prove

prohibitive

JET GROUTING

1. It is a technology in which high- pressure jets of cement grout are

discharged sideways into the borehole wall to simultaneously

excavate and then mix with the soil.

2. The outstanding feature of jet grouting is the ability to treat a

whole range of soils, from silty sands to cohesive deposits, by

means of simple cement grouts.

3. Jet grouting can be performed in soils with a wide range of

granulometries and permeabilites.

COMPACTION PERMEATION

Disadvantages

Grouting adjacent to unsupported slopes may be ineffective.

Not suitable in decomposable materials.

Danger of filling underground pipes with grout.

Effectiveness questionable in saturated clays

MICROFINE CEMENT

These are special cements used to treat fine grained soil. It is not

possible to treat with Portland cement alone.

Thick slurries can not penetrate fine cracks and higher injection

pressures would cause fracturing of ground foundations. Because of

the higher water requirements of micro fine cement, the slurry

remains fluid enough to flow into and penetrate fine sands and small

cracks in rock.

introduce grout into soil pores without any essential change in

the original soil volume and structure, thus changing the

support capability of granular soils without disturbing them.

Another advantage is the ability to be less disruptive and

enable tunneling to proceed without over-excavation. A possible

drawback of chemical grouting is that only certain soil types are

amenable. Another barrier to the use of chemical grouting

techniques in the recent is increasing concern regarding

potential pollution by chemical grouting in urban areas. Two

trends have addressed this issue:

CHEMICAL GROUTING

formulae that enhance the penetrability of particulate

suspensions and meet the strictest specifications for

environmental safety

2. Development of alternative techniques which by-pass the

penetrability restraints, such as jet grouting which allows the

treatment of most types of soil, independent of its grain size

COMPENSATION GROUTING

1.Compensation (hydrofracture) grouting uses high-mobility grout to

split the ground and thereby create lifting or densification under

structures or other facilities.

2.The ground is deliberately split by injecting stable fluid cementbased grouts at high pressures in order to increase total stress by the

wedging action of successive thin grout lenses, to fill unconnected voids,

and possibly to consolidate the soil locally under injection.

3.This process is often undertaken as a reaction to movements while

tunnel excavation is in progress.

4.It is important to keep in mind that the effects of compensation

(hydrofracture) grouting are difficult to control and the potential danger

of damaging adjacent structures by the use of high pressure may prove

prohibitive

GROUTING

1. In this method, JET

high- pressure

jets of cement grout are discharged

sideways into the borehole wall during excavation to strengthen the

earth wall.

2. The jet grouting is to treat a all range of soils, (silty sands to cohesive

deposits).

3. Jet grouting can be performed in wide range to permeability problem

in soils.

Advantages:

1. the ability to use very small drilling tools (90mm diameter) to create

large elements (1.2m to 2.4m diameter) using pressure and flow;

2. the ability to drill underneath obstacles and solidify zones which are

hard to access;

3. the use of technically sophisticated techniques such as high-powered

pumps and monitoring devices with continuous measurement of all

operational parameters.

JET GROUTING

A grouting plant includes a mixer, an agitator, a pump, and piping

connected to grout holes. Two systems: single line type and circulating

type. In the circulation type, the unused grout is returned to the agitator

and in the single-line type the grout refused is wasted. The basic items

required for a grouting plant and their functions are:

(a) Measuring tank-to control the volume of grout injected.

(b) Mixer-to mix the grout ingredients

(c) Agitator-to keep the solid particles in suspension until pumped

(d) Pump-to draw the grout from the agitator to deliver to the pumping

line.

(e) Control fittings-to control the injection rate and pressure so that the

hole can be regularly blend with water and thin grout.

SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION

PRECAUTIONS

The following are the precautions while mixing a grout:

Water is placed first in the mixer.

Mixer is run at the maximum speed before adding

the cement.

Grout is mixed in batches.

Ingredients have to be measured in volume

Enough water should be maintained to cover the

rotor while it is functioning.

Mixer should not be allowed to run for more than a

few minutes between batches.

Mixers should be cleaned thoroughly after

completion of work.

Drainage Methods

Stone & Perforated Pipe

Dampproofing

Typically, a liquid asphalt

applied with a

roller or sprayer

Not an effective barrier

for water under pressure.

BUT, will prevent ground

moisture from migrating

through a wall.

Typically used in conjunction

will drainage pipe.

Analysis

CECE 4131 Geotechnical Engineering

II

JAYARAM D K

STABILITY OF SLOPES

INTRODUCTION:

Earth embankments are commonly required for Railways, Roadways, Earth

Dams, Levees and River training works. The stability of those embankments or

slopes, should be thoroughly analyzed, since their failure my lead to loss of

human life, as well as economic loss.

I.

The failure of a mass soil located beneath a slope is called slide. It involves the

movement of soil mass either downward or outward from the position.

Types of slopes: 1) Infinite slope 2) Finite slope

1) Infinite slope:

If a slopes represents the boundary surface of a semi-infinite soil mass, and the

soil properties for all depth below the surface are constant, it is called infinite

slope.

2) Finite slope:

If the slope is of limited extent of it s boundary, it is called finite slope

Failure of SLOPE

with the horizontal is called unrestrained slope.

The slope can be natural or man-made.

It can fails in various modes

The failures are classified in to five major categories:

1. Fall

2. Topple

3. Slide 4. Spread

5. Flow

Fall: this is the detachment of Soil and or Rock fragments that fall down a

slope, and large amount of soil mass has slide down a slop.

Topple: this is a forward rotation of Soil/Rock mass about an axis below

the centre of gravity of mass being displaced.

Slide: It is the downward movement of soil mass occurring on a surface

of rupture

Spread: this is a form of slide by rotation. It occurs by sudden movement

of water bearing seams of sand silts overlain by clays or loaded by

fills.

Flow: this is a downward movement of soil mass similar to a viscous fluid

Seismic forces, Weaken the soil layer from the continuous exposure

of groundwater or Chemical waste leachate, High Groundwater water

level, Excavation for the construction,

FACTOR OF SAFETY

The task of the engineer charged with analysing slope is to determine the factor

of safety. It is defined as

Shear strength of soil consists of Two components: Cohesion and Friction, it can

be writen as f = c + tan

( = normal stress on the potential

failure surface)

analysis

1.

2.

3.

4.

Culmanns method of planar failure surface - Suitable for very steep slope

The Swedish (Slip circle) Circle method

The Friction circle methods

Bishops method

Culmann (1866) considered, a simple failure mechanism of a slope of homogeneous soil with plane

failure surface passing through the toe of the slope.

Let AB be any probable slip plane.

The wedge ADB is in equilibrium under the action of three forces

(2) The cohesive force C along the surface AB, resisting motion Cm*L

(3) The reaction R, inclined at an angle (m) to the normal

Cohesionless Soil

15.7

To get the strength of the soil mass f= c + tan

Assume Porewater pressure is zero

To Evaluate the factor of safety against a possible slope failure along a

plane AB located at a depth H, below the ground surface

The slope failure can occur by the movement of soil above the plane AB

from right to left.

Fs = c/(H cos2tan) + (tan/ tan)

For COHESSIONLESS (granular) soils, c=0, and Fs becomes equal to

(tan/ tan), this indicates that in an infinte slope in sand.

Factor of safety,Fs is independent, and the slope is stable as long as <

For soil possesses Cohesion and friction, the depth of the plane along

which critical equilibirium occurs may be determined by substituting Fs=1,

and H=Hcr.

Hcr = (c/ )*(1/ cos2(tan - tan)

Procedure

1.Mass procedure, 2. Method of Slices

Mass Procedure:

The mass of the soil above the surface of sliding is taken as unit.

The soils that forms the slope is assumed to be homogeneous

This procedure is not considered for the case in most natural slopes

Methods of Slices:

The soil above the surface of sliding is divided into a number of vertical

parallel slices.

The stability of each slice is calculated separately

This method the soil and porewater pressure can be taken into

consideration

The variation of the normal stress along the potential failure surface also

taken into account.

Case Studies

being removed by highway

crew along the Columbia

Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Interstate-70 during Labor

Day weekend, 1994

Anchorage

27 March1964 Alaska Earthquake 1964

scarp of a landslide in decomposed

bedrock that was triggered by the

1995 Kobe earthquake. Several

homes were buried and over 30

people killed by the landslide.

http://cee.engr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/boulanger/geo_photo

_album/Earthquake%20hazards/Landslides/EQ

avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru.

After the 1971 Earthquake

San Fernando EQ

1971

Magnitude: 6.7

Deaths: 48

Injuries: 2000

Damage: $511

million

Crest dropped from

142 ft to 112 ft

http://quake.usgs.gov/prepare/factsheets/LADam

Story/

the Northridge Earthquake

and area of greatest landslide

concentration (shaded)

Failure rates correlated with: (1) shaking severity; (2) slope steepness;

(3) strength and engineering properties of geologic materials; (4) water

saturation; (5) existing landslide areas; and (6) vegetative cover.

17 January 1994

Northridge Earthquake

(M = 6.7)

Landslides in Idaho

U.S. Hwy 95

Bonners Ferry

Landslide

http://www.landslidetechnolo

gy.com/landslides/bonnersfe

rry.htm

Clearwater County

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