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Course Code

CECE 4131

Course Name
Geotechnical Engineering - II
Mr. Jayaram.D.K

Assessment Plan
(The course is a combination of Theoretical and Practical hours (For 2T
+ 2P contact hours)
2/3 x Theoretical part marks + 1/3 x Practical part
marks= Total marks out of 100
MARK DISTRIBUTION
TOTAL MARKS 100
THEORY -100 MARKS (2/3)-

66.67 MARKS

PRACTICAL 100 MARKS (1/3) 33.33 MARKS

THEORY MARKS DISTRIBUTION


1. Assignments 10 marks
2.Quizzes 20 marks
3.Mid term exam 20 marks
4.Final exam -50 marks
All assignments are to be
submitted to the lecturer
with in class time only
Penalities (deduction of
marks) for late submissions

Course code

Course
Title(2T+2p)

Student Details
Sl.No

ID

Course Details
Course Lecturer

Group No

Theory
Name

Gend
er

Course Work
Quiz mark Assign
(Total)
ment
Mark
(Total)

20

10

Academic Year

Semester
Credit points

Practical

Passing Marks

Mid
Term
Exam

Final
Exam

Total
Mark
s

(2/3)
Total
Marks

Part I
Report
s

Part- III Total


Assess Marks
ment

(1/3)
Total
Marks

Total
Course
marks
(TT+TP
)

20

50

100

TT

60

40

TP

100

100

Lette
r
Grad
e

Grad
e
point

R
e
m
ar
k
s

Attendance Policy
10 Minutes late absent and not
allowed in the class
Health & Safety:
-Lab Coat & Safety Shoes are
compulsory in practical classes.

CECE 4131 Geotechnical Engineering II

3 Credit Hours

Prerequisites: CECE 3230


Goal To introduce the student to the principles of soil mechanics and to enable
him/her
to apply such principles to civil engineering problems
Objectives Outcomes

The course should enable the student to:


1. Understand the applications of
Geotechnical Engineering in the design of
footings, retaining walls and in the assessment of
stability of slopes
2. Understand types of deep foundations and their
design principles.

1. Apply basic concept to solve lateral earth

pressure
problems and identify how they affect
structures
2. Solve bearing capacity problems
3. Design retaining walls and footings
4. Apply basic concept to solve slope stability
problems
5. Understand pile foundations and their
design principles.

UNIT-1
EARTH PRESSURE THEORIES

Introduction: In the design of retaining wall, sheet piles


or other earth retaining structures, it is necessary to compute
the lateral pressure exerted by the retained mass of the soil.
A retaining wall is used to for maintaining the ground surfaces
at different elevation on either side of it. The material retained
by the structure is called backfill which may have its top
surface horizontal or inclined. The position of the backfill
lying above a horizontal surface at the elevation of the top of
the wall is called the surcharge and its inclination to the
horizontal is called surcharge angle

FIGURE SHOWS THE RETAINING WALL

Active and Passive earth pressure

Active earth pressure and

Passive earth pressure

During the active state, the wall moves away from backfill and a
certain portion of backfill located immediately behind the wall
breaks away from the rest of the soil mass. This wedge shape
portion of soil is called failure wedge. The resisting force due to
shear strength of soil is developed in an upward direction along the
failure plane (or slip lines) as shown in Fig.

In passive case the wall moves towards the fill, due to


some thrust etc.The magnitude of the lateral earth
pressure depends upon the movement of the wall
relative to the backfill and upon the nature of soil or fill.

When the soil moves away from the backfill, mobilization of the
internal resistance of the soil, which builds up in directions away
from the wall takes place and hence earth pressure on the wall
decreases. The decrease of earth pressure continues upto a point
until the full
resistance has been mobilized. The earth pressure does not
decrease beyond this point with further movement of the wall and
is called as active earth pressure.

If on the other hand, the wall moves towards the fill, the earth pressure increases,
because the shearing resistance builds up in direction towards wall. The
pressure reaches at the point when the shearing resistance of the soil has been fully
mobilized. Any further movement of the wall does not increase the pressure. The
maximum pressure is called the passive earth pressure.

Failure surfaces for active and passive states

Rankines Theory: As originally proposed,


Rankines theory of lateral earth pressure is
applied to uniform cohisionless soil only. Later
it was extended to cohesive soils by Resal
and Bell. The theory has also been extended to
stratified, partially immersed and submerged
soil. This theory is valid when:

The back of the wall is vertical and smooth


The level of the soil behind the wall is horizontal
Soil mass is semi-infinite, homogeneous, dry and
cohesionless
The length of the wall is long in comparison to the height so
that it can be treated two dimensional situations.

Coulombs theory: He highlighted that if the wall is not


friction less unlike assumed in Rankines case the lateral
earth pressure applied by the soil is not normal to the wall
but at an angle or in other word has both horizontal and a
vertical components.
Solutions from the coulomb theory can be obtained from the situations
when the back of the wall is not vertical but is inclined at an angle to
the
horizontal and the soil behind the wall is not horizontal but inclined at
an angle to the horizontal

Assumptions:
The backfill is dry and cohesionless, homogeneous,
istropic and elastically undeformable but breakable.
The slip surface is the plane which passes through the heel
of the wall.
The sliding wedge itself acts as a rigid body and the
value of earth pressure is obtained by considering the
limiting equilibrium of the sliding wedge as a whole.

Bearing Capacity Of Shallow


Foundation

Bearing Capacity Of Shallow


Foundation
* A foundation is required for
distributing the loads of the
superstructure on a large area.
* The foundation should be designed
such that

Basic Definitions :
1)Ultimate Bearing Capacity (qu) :
The ultimate bearing capacity is the
gross pressure at the base of the
foundation at which soil fails in shear.
2)Net ultimate Bearing Capacity
(qnu) :

3) Net Safe Bearing Capacity (qns) :


It is the net soil pressure which can
be safely applied to the soil
considering only shear failure.
Thus, qns = qnu /FOS
FOS - Factor of safety usually taken as
2.00 -3.00

5)Net Safe Settlement Pressure (qnp) :


It is the net pressure which the soil can
carry without exceeding allowable
settlement.
6)Net Allowable Bearing Pressure
(qna ):
It is the net bearing pressure which can
be used for design of foundation.

Modes of shear Failure :


Vesic (1973) classified shear failure
of soil under a foundation base into
three categories depending on the
type of soil & location of
foundation.
1)General Shear failure.
2)Local Shear failure.
3) Punching Shear failure

General Shear failure

Strip footing resting on surface

Load settlement curve

of dense sand or stiff clay


* The load - Settlement curve in case of footing resting on surface of
dense sand or stiff clays shows pronounced peak & failure occurs at
very small stain.
* A loaded base on such soils sinks or tilts suddenly in to the ground
showing a surface heave of adjoining soil
* The shearing strength is fully mobilized all along the slip surface &
hence failure planes are well defined.
* The failure occurs at very small vertical strains accompanied by large
lateral strains.
* ID > 65 ,N>35, > 360, e < 0.55

2) Local Shear failure -

Strip footing resting on surface

Load settlement curve

Of Medium sand or Medium clay


* When load is equal to a certain value qu(1),
* The foundation movement is accompanied by sudden jerks.
* The failure surface gradually extend out wards from the foundation.
* The failure starts at localized spot beneath the foundation & migrates out
ward part by part gradually leading to ultimate failure.
* The shear strength of soil is not fully mobilized along planes & hence
failure planes are not defined clearly.
* The failure occurs at large vertical strain & very small lateral strains.
* ID = 15 to 65 , N=10 to 30 , <30, e>0.75

3) Punching Share failure -

The loaded base sinks into soil like a punch.

* The
* No

failure surface do not extend up to the ground surface.

heave is observed.

* Large

vertical strains are involved with practically no lateral

deformation.
* Failure

planes are difficult to locate 222

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Analysis


Terzaghi (1943) analysed a shallow continuous
footing by making some assumptions

* The failure zones do not extend above the horizontal plane passing through
base of footing
* The failure occurs when the down ward pressure exerted by loads on the soil
adjoining the inclined surfaces on soil wedge is equal to upward pressure.
* Downward forces are due to the load (=qu B) & the weight of soil wedge (1/4
B2 tan)
* Upward forces are the vertical components of resultant passive pressure (Pp)
& the cohesion (c) acting along the inclined surfaces.

Effect of water table on Bearing


Capacity :
* The equation for ultimate bearing
capacity by Terzaghi has been
developed based on assumption that
water table is located at a great
depth .
* If the water table is located close to

i) When water table is located above the


base of footing -

* The effective surcharge is reduced as the


effective weight below water table is

ii) When water table is located at depth y below


base :

* Surcharge term is not affected.


* Unit weight in term is

= sub +

y ( sub)

B
Thus,
qu = cNc + Df Nq + 0.5B Nr
When y = B ; W.T. at B below base of footing.
qu = cNc + Df Nq + 0.5 B Nr
Hence when ground water table is at b B, the equation is not

Settlement of foundation :
a) Settlement under loads
Settlement of foundation can be classified as1.Elastic settlement (Si): Elastic or immediate
settlement takes place during or immediately
after the construction of the structure. It is also
known as the distortion settlement as it is due
to distortions within foundation soil.
2.Consolidation settlement (Sc): Consolidation
settlement occurs due to gradual expulsion of
water from the voids at the soil. It is

DESIGN OF RETAINING
WALL AND FOUNDATIONS
Design of simple column square footing
Design of simple column rectangular
footing
Design of combined footing
Design of pile foundation
Design of retaining wall
JAYARAM D K

FOUNDATION
The foundation of a structure is the
part of the structure which transfers
the load to the soil on which it rests.
The ground surface in contact with the
lower surface of the foundation is
called the base of the foundation
The ground on which the foundation
rest is called the subgrade or
foundation soil.

SUBSTRUCTURE AND SUPER


STRUCTURE
SUBSTRUCTURE:
The structure below the ground level it
is called sub structure
SUPER STRUCTURE:
The structure above the ground level it
is called as super structure

Types of Foundations
Shallow Foundations
If the depth of the foundation is equal
to or less than its width the foundation
is classified as shallow foundation
(i) Wall Footing
(ii)Column or Isolated Footing
(iii)Combined Footing
(iv)Mat Footing

Deep foundation
If the depth of the foundation is greater than its
width it is called as deep foundation.
(i)Well foundation
(ii)Pile foundation
Bearing Capacity of soil:
Ability of the soil to resists the load with out
failure.
Causes of failure of foundations:
(i)Unequal settlement of subsoil
(ii)Shinkage of soil below the foundation due to
withdrawal of moisture

Safe Bearing capacity of the different


soils
Types of Soil

Safe Bearing
Capacity of soil
( KN/m2)

1.Hard Dry Clay


2.Sand and clay
mixed
3.Firm clay
4.Fine confined wet
sand
5.Fine dry sand
6.Coarse sand
7.Soft rock
8.Hard rock (mixture

350
200
200
200
350
450
650
900
1100
2750

Formula for finding the


depth of the foundation:
2

D- depth of the foundation in m


p- Safe bearing capacity of the soil
r-Specific weight of the soil
0-Angle of repose

Design 1: Find the area and the depth of


foundation required for a column carrying an
axial load of 1250 KN. The safe bearing
capacity of the soil is 120 KN/m2 . The
density of the soil is 18 KN/m3 and has an
angle of repose of 30 degree.
Solution:
Load on the column = 1250 KN
Approximate weight of foundation = 125 KN
( take 10 % of total weight)
Total load = load on the column +
approximate weight of the column.
= 1250 + 125 = 1375 KN

Area of the foundation = total load / safe


bearing
capacity of soil
= 1375/120
= 11.46 m2
Provide a foundation area of 12 m2
Determination of depth of the
foundation:

Minimum depth of
2
the foundation = (p/){(1-sin)/(1+sin )}
= (120/18) {(1-sin30)/(1+sin30)}2
= 0.75 m.

FRAMED STRUCTURE SHOWING FOOTING

WALL FOOTING

ISOLATED FOOTING OR COLUMN FOOTING

COMBINED FOOTING

STRAP FOOTING

CONTINUOUS FOOTING

RAFT FOOTING

WELL FOOTING

PILE FOOTING

Foundation

Pile :
A slender,
structural member
consisting steel or
concrete or
timber.
It is installed in the
ground to transfer
the structural loads
to soils at some
significant depth
below the base of
the structure.

Foundation
Pile caps are thick slabs used
to tie a group of piles together
to support and transmit column
loads to the piles.

Pile Foundations
The term Pile Foundation denotes a construction
for the foundation of a wall or pier which is
supported on piles.
Where Used :
stratum of required bearing capacity is at greater
depth
steep slopes are encountered
Compressible soil or water-logged soil or soil of madeup type

Examples: Piles are used for foundation for buildings,


trestle-bridges and water front installations (piers, docks
etc ).

Advantages:

SOFT
STRATA

HARD
STRATA

PILE FOUNDATION

Foundation
Deep foundation :
Deep foundation consists of
pile and pier foundations.
This consists in carrying
down through the soil a huge
masonry cylinder which may
be supported by the sides of
soil or may be supported on
solid rock (hard stratum).
Pile foundation :
Pile is an element of
construction used as
foundation. It may be driven
in the ground vertically or
with some inclination to
transfer the load safely.

Foundation
Pile foundation
Loads are supported in two
ways.
If the load is supported by
the effect of friction between
the soil and the pile skin, it is
called friction pile.
Friction piles may be made of
cast iron, cement concrete,
timber, steel, wrought iron
and composite materials.
If the load is supported by
resting the pile on a very
hard stratum, it is called load
bearing pile.
Load bearing piles are steel
sheet piles, concrete piles
and timber piles.

Piles may be cast-in-situ or


precast.
They may be cased or
uncased.

Load
Bearing
Pile

Friction
Piles

Load
bearing pile

Friction Pile

TYPES OF PILES
Concrete Piles
i) Cast-In-Situ Concrete Piles
a) Cased cast-in-situ b) Uncased cast-in-situ
ii) Precast Concrete Piles
Steel Piles
i) H-Piles ii) Cylindrical piles iii) Tapered piles
Timber Piles
Composite Piles

TYPES OF PILE CONSTRUCTIO

1. Displacement Piles
It cause the soil to be displaced radially as well as vertically as pile
shaft is driven or jacked into the ground.
b) Non Displacement Piles (Replacement piles)
It cause the soil to be removed and the resulting hole filled with
concrete or a pre cast concrete pile is dropped into the hole and
grouted in.
Displacement Pile Non Displacement pile

METHOD OF INSTALLATION
Dropping Weight or Drop Hammers
- commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles
Diesel Hammers
-Most suitable to drive pile in non cohesive granular soil
Vibratory Hammers or vibratory method of pile driving
-very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soil
Jacking Method Of Insertion

Pile installation using


Drop Hammer

Pile Driving Rig - temporarily


support the pile that being
driven and to support the pile

Design of column footing:


Design 2: A square column 500mm X 500mm carries an axial load of
1500 KN . Design the column and the square footing for the
column. The safe bearing capacity of the column is 225 KN/m2. Use
M20 and Fe 415 steel.
Design of Column:
Load on the column W = 1500 KN
Factored load Pu= 1.5 x 1500 = 2250 KN
Over all area of the column section Ag= 500 x 500 = 250000 mm2
Area of the steel = Asc
Area of the concrete = Ac = Ag- Asc
= 250000-Asc

Ultimate load Pu=0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fy Asc


2250000 = 0.4 X 20 X ( 250000 Asc) + 0.67 X 415 x Asc
Asc= 925.75 mm2
Assume 29 mm dia bars
Provide 4 bars of 20 mm dia
Lateral ties :
diameter of the longitudinal bar
5mm
From the above two take the greater one so provide the
diameter of 6 mm dia bar.
Pitch of lateral ties:
(i)Least lateral dimension of the column = 500mm
(ii)16 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars =16 X 20 =
320 mm

(iii)48 times the diameter of the ties = 48 X6


Provide 6 mm dia ties at 250 mm c/c.
Design of the foundation:
Load on the column = 1500 KN
Approximate weight of the footing at 10 % of the column load
= 150 KN
Total load = 1650 KN
Safe bearing capacity of the soil = 225 KN/m2
Area of foundation = 1650/225 = 7.333 m2
BX B = 7.333

Breadth of foundation B = (7.333) = 2.71 say 2.75 m


So the area of the foundation is 2.75 X 2.75 m
Net upward pressure = load on the column / area of the footing
= 1500000/(2.75 X 2.75) = 198347.11 N/m2.
Depth of the foundation =
Minimum depth of the foundation = (p/r){(1-sin)/(1+sin )} 2
= (225/18) {(1-sin30)/(1+sin30)}2
= 1.4 m
Determination of the depth of the concrete slab below the footing.
Critical section for bending moment is = (2750-500)/2 = 1125 mm = 1.125 m
Maximum bending moment = M = 198347.11 x 2.75 X 1.125 x( 1.125/2)
= 345170 Nm
Factored moment Mu = 1.5 X M
= 1.5 X 345170 = 517755 Nm.

To find the depth of the slab in the foundation.


Mu= 0.138 fck bd2
517755000 = 0.138 X 20 X 500 (width of column) X d2
d= 613 mm
D= 613 + 12/2 +60 = 691 mm
(12- dia of bar , 60 clear cover for footing)
The depth of slab of the foundation is increased by 30 %
D= 691 X ( 0.3 X 691) = 900 mm
d=900 (12/2)- 60 =822 mm.
Determination of quantity of steel required:
Ast = Pt X b x d

Determination of area of main


reinforcement:
Ast= Percentage of steel X b X d
Percentage of steel =
2

Factored moment Mu = 1.5 X M


= 1.5 X 345170 = 517755 Nm
Fck = 20 N/mm2
And
Fe =415 N/mm2

b=500 mm
And
d=822mm
Substitute all the values in the above formula we get
Pt= 0.47 %

Ast = Pt X b x d
= (0.47/100) x 500 x 822 = 1932 mm2
No of bar =Total area/ area of one bar= 1932/ (3.14/4)x12
Assume 12 mm dia bars so provide 18 bars of 12 mm diameter.
Here the column is square so provide the same reinforcement on both
the directions.
2

REINFORCEMENT DETAILS OF COLUMN AND FOOTING:

DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR FOOTING

2. A rectangular column footing 600 mm X 400 mm carries


an axial load of 800 KN . Design a rectangular footing to
support the column . The safe bearing capacity of the soil is
200 KN/m2 . Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.
Load on the column = 800000N
Approximate weight of the foundation take 10 % of the
weight of the column = 80000N
Total load = 880000N
Safe bearing capacity of the soil is given as 200 KN/m2
= 200000N/m2

Area of the foundation = Total load / Safe bearing capacity of


the soil.
= 880000/200000 = 4.40 m2
To find the length and breadth of the foundation
in case of square footing its easy because by taking square
root we get all the values
Area = 4.4
BL = 4.4
B= 4.4 /L
Equating the projections on both sides beyond the footing
( B-0.4) = (L-0.6)
Sub B Value
( {4.4/L}-0.4) = (L-0.6)

Solving the above equation we get L = 2.2 m


Sub this is B value we get
B= 4.4/L = 4.4/ 2.2 = 2 m
Now find the projections on both the axis
= 0.8 m
Net upward pressure = column load / Area of the footing
= 800000/4.4
=181820 N/m2
Determination of reinforcement in section xx axis and YY axis.
Bending moment Myy = 181820 X 2.2X 0.8 X (0.8/2).
= 128000 Nm

Factored Moment Muy = 128000 X 1.5


= 192000 Nm
Determine the depth
Muy = 0.138 Fck bd2
192000 = 0.138 x 20 x 600 x d2
d= 341 mm.
Bending moment Mxx = 181820 X 2 X 0.8 X (0.8/2).
= 116364.8 Nm
Factored Moment Mux = 116364.8 X 1.5
= 174547.2Nm
Determine the depth
Mux = 0.138 Fck bd2
174547.2 = 0.138 x 20 x 400 x d2
d= 398 mm.
From the above two depth take the greater one
d= 398 mm

Providing 10 mm dia bars at a clear cover of 70 mm


D = 398 + (10/2) + 70 = 473 mm
The overall depth may increased by 30%
= 473 + (0.3 X473)
= 614.9 mm
D=620 mm.
Effective Depth of the footing
d= 620 (10/2) 70
= 545 mm.

Take Muy and find Longer direction steel


Factored Moment Muy = 128000 X 1.5
= 192000 Nm
Determination of quantity of steel required:
Ast = Pt X b x d
Sub b= 600mm
d=545mm
Fck=20N/mm2
Fe=415 N/mm2
In the Pt formula and find Pt
Pt=0.32 %
Ast =( 0.32/100) X600 x545=1046.4mm2
2
No of bar =Total area/ area of one bar= 1046.4/ (3.14/4)x12
Assume 12 mm dia bar .
Provide 12 mm dia bars of 10 numbers.

Determination of area of main


reinforcement:
Ast= Percentage of steel X b X d
Percentage of steel =
2

Take Mux and find Shorter direction steel


Factored Moment Factored Moment Mux = 116364.8 X 1.5
= 174547.2Nm
Determination of quantity of steel required:
Ast = Pt X b x d
Sub b= 400mm
d=545mm
Fck=20N/mm2
Fe=415 N/mm2
In the Pt formula and find Pt
Pt=0.45 %
Ast =( 0.45/100) X400 x545=981mm2
2
No of bar =Total area/ area of one bar= 981/ (3.14/4)x12
Assume 12 mm dia bar .
Provide 12 mm dia bars of 9 numbers.

Reinforcement details of rectangular footing:

Combined footing
Whenever two or more columns in a straight line are
carried on a single spread footing, it is called a combined
footing. Isolated footings for each column are generally the
economical.
Combined footings are provided only when it is absolutely
necessary, as
1.When two columns are close together, causing overlap
of adjacent isolated footings
2.Where soil bearing capacity is low, causing overlap of
adjacent isolated footings
3.Proximity of building line or existing building or sewer,
adjacent to a building column

Types of combined footing

1. Slab type

2. Slab and beam type

3. Strap type
53

Design Steps
Locate the point of application of the column
loads on the footing.
Proportion the footing such that the resultant of
loads passes through the center of footing.
Compute the area of footing such that the
allowable soil pressure is not exceeded.
Calculate the shear forces and bending moments
at the salient points and hence draw SFD and
BMD.
Fix the depth of footing from the maximum
bending moment.
Calculate the transverse bending moment and
design the transverse section for depth and
reinforcement. Check for anchorage and shear.

89

Design of combined footing


Slab and Beam type
1. Two interior columns A and B carry 700 kN and
1000 kN loads respectively. Column A is 350 mm
x 350 mm and column B is 400 mm X 400 mm in
section. The centre to centre spacing between
columns is 4.6 m. The soil on which the footing
rests is capable of providing resistance of 130
kN/m2. Design a combined footing by providing a
central beam joining the two columns. Use
concrete
grade
M25
and
mild
steel
reinforcement.
90

Solution: Data
fck = 25 Nlmm2,
fy= 250 N/mm2,
fb = l30 kN/m2 (SBC),
Column A = 350 mm x 350 mm,
Column B = 400 mm x 400 mm,
c/c spacing of columns = 4.6 m,
PA = 700 kN and PB = 1000 kN
Required: To design combined footing with
central beam joining the two columns.
Ultimate loads
PuA= 1.5 x 700 = 1050 kN, PuB = 1.5 x 1000
= 1500 kN
91

Proportioning of base size


Working load carried by column A = PA = 700 kN
Working load carried by column B = PB = 1000 kN
Self weight of footing 10 % x (PA + PB) = 170 kN
Total working load = 1870 kN
Required area of footing = Af = Total load /SBC
=1870/130 = 14.38 m2
Let the width of the footing = Bf = 2m
Required length of footing = Lf = Af /Bf = 14.38/2 = 7.19m
Provide footing of size 7.2m X 2m,Af = 7.2 x 2 = 14.4 m2
92

For uniform pressure distribution the C.G. of


the footing should coincide with the C.G. of
column loads. Let x be the distance of C.G.
from the centre line of column A
Then x = (PB x 4.6)/(PA + PB) = (1000 x 4.6)/(1000 +700)
= 2.7 m from column A.
If the cantilever projection of footing beyond column A is a
then, a + 2.7 = Lf /2 = 7.2/2, Therefore a = 0.9 m
Similarly if the cantilever projection of footing beyond B is 'b'
then, b + (4.6-2.7) = Lf /2 = 3.6 m,
Therefore b = 3.6 - 1.9 = 1.7 m
The details are shown in Figure
93

700 kN

1000 kN

a=900
C

4600 mm
A

b=1700
B

pu=177 kN/m2
wu=354 kN/m
Combined footing with loads

94

DESIGN AND DETAILING


OF RETAINING WALLS
Learning Outcomes:

After this class students will be able to do the


complete design and detailing of different types of
retaining walls.

95

RETAINING WALL
Retaining walls are usually
built to hold back soil mass.
However, retaining walls can
also be constructed for
aesthetic
landscaping
purposes.

GL2

BACK
SOIL
GL1

Gravity retaining wall

96

Cantilever Retaining wall


with shear key

Batter
Drainage Hole
Toe

97

Photos of Retaining
walls

98

Classification of
Retaining walls
Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain
concrete
Cantilever retaining wall-RCC
(Inverted T and L)
Counterfort retaining wall-RCC
Buttress wall-RCC

99

Classification of Retaining
walls
Backfill

Tile
drain

Gravity RW

Backfill

L-Shaped RW

T-Shaped RW

Backfill
Counterfort

Counterfort RW

Buttress

Weep
hole

Buttress RW
100

Earth Pressure (P)


Earth pressure is the pressure
exerted by the retaining material
on the retaining wall. This pressure
tends to deflect the wall outward.
Types of earth pressure :
Active earth pressure or earth
pressure (Pa) and
Passive earth pressure (Pp).
Active earth pressure tends to
deflect the wall away from the
backfill.

GL

Pa

Variation of Earth pressure

101

Factors affecting earth


pressure

Earth pressure depends on type of


backfill, the height of wall and the
soil conditions
Soil conditions: The different soil
conditions are

Dry leveled back fill


Moist leveled backfill
Submerged leveled backfill
Leveled backfill with uniform
surcharge
Backfill with sloping surface

102

Analysis for dry back


fills
Maximum pressure at any height, p=kah
Total pressure at any height from top,
pa=1/2[kah]h = [kah2]/2
Bending moment at any height
M=paxh/3= [kah3]/6
Total pressure, Pa= [kaH2]/2
Total Bending moment at bottom,
M = [kaH3]/6

GL

h
H
Pa

GL

M
kaH
H=stem height
103

Where, ka= Coefficient of active earth pressure


= (1-sin)/(1+sin)=tan2
= 1/kp, coefficient of passive earth

pressure

repose

= Angle of internal friction or angle of


=Unit weigh or density of backfill

If = 30, ka=1/3 and kp=3. Thus ka is 9 times kp


104

Backfill with sloping surface


pa= ka H at the bottom and
is parallel to inclined
surface of backfill

GL

ka =
Where =Angle of
surcharge
Total pressure at bottom
=Pa= ka H2/2

105

Stability requirements of RW

It should not overturn


It should not slide
It should not subside, i.e Max.
pressure at the toe should not
exceed the safe bearing capacity of
the soil under working condition

106

Check against overturning


Factor of safety against
overturning
= MR / MO 1.55 (=1.4/0.9)
Where,
MR =Stabilising moment or
restoring moment
MO =overturning moment
MR>1.2 MO, ch. DL + 1.4 MO,
ch. IL
0.9 MR 1.4 MO, ch IL
107

Check against Sliding


FOS against sliding

= Resisting force to
sliding/

Horizontal force
causing

sliding

= W/Pa 1.55
(=1.4/0.9)

1.4 = ( 0.9W)/Pa

Friction W
SLIDING OF WALL
108

Maximum pressure at the toe

x1

x2

W4

W1

W2

Pa
R
W3

T
x

b/6
b

Pmax

H/3

b/2

Pmin.

Pressure below the


Retaining Wall
109

Let the resultant R due to W and Pa


lie at a distance x from the toe.
X = M/W,
M = sum of all moments about toe.

Eccentricity of the load = e = (b/2-x) b/6


Minimum pressure at heel=
>Zero.
For zero pressure, e=b/6, resultant should cut
the base within the middle third.
Maximum pressure at toe=
SBC of soil.
110

Depth of foundation
Rankines formula:
Df =

Df

111

Preliminary Proportioning

(T
shaped
wall)
Stem: Top width 200 mm to

400 mm
Base slab width b= 0.4H to
0.6H, 0.6H to 0.75H for
surcharged wall
Base slab thickness= H/10 to
H/14
Toe projection= (1/3-1/4)
Base width

200

tp= (1/3-1/4)b

H/10
H/14

b= 0.4H to 0.6H

112

Design of Cantilever RW
Stem, toe and heel acts as cantilever slabs
Stem design: Mu=psf (ka H3/6)
Determine the depth d from Mu = Mu,
2
lim=Qbd
Design as balanced section or URS and
find steel
Mu=0.87 fy Ast[d-fyAst/(fckb)]
113

Curtailment of bars
Effective depth (d) is
Proportional to h

Dist.
from
top

h1
Ast/2

h2

Bending moment is
Every
3
proportional
to
h
alternate
h1c

bar cut

Ldt
Ast

Ast is l to (BM/d) and is


l to h2

h2
Ast/2

Ast
Provided

Ast1 h12
i.e.
2
Ast 2 h2

Ast

Cross section

Curtailment curve
114

Design of Heel and Toe


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Heel slab and toe slab should also be designed


as cantilever. For this stability analysis should
be performed as explained and determine the
maximum bending moments at the junction.
Determine the reinforcement.
Also check for shear at the junction.
Provide enough development length.
Provide the distribution steel

115

Cantilever RW design
Design a cantilever retaining wall (T type) to retain earth for a
height of 4m. The backfill is horizontal. The density of soil is
18kN/m3. Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 kN/m 2. Take the
co-efficient of friction between concrete and soil as 0.6. The
angle of repose is 30. Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

Solution
Data: h' = 4m, SBC= 200 kN/m 2, = 18 kN/m3, =0.6, =30
116

Depth of foundation
To fix the height of retaining
wall [H]
H= h' +Df
Depth of foundation

Df =

200

h1

Df
b

= 1.23m say 1.2m ,


Therefore H= 5.2m

117

Proportioning of
Thicknesswall
of base slab=(1/10

200

to1/14)H
0.52m to 0.43m, say 450 mm
Width of base slab=b = (0.5 to
0.6) H
2.6m to 3.12m say 3m
Toe projection= pj= (1/3 to )H
1m to 0.75m say 0.75m
Provide 450 mm thickness for
the stem at the base and 200

H=5200 mm

tp= 750 mm
450
b= 3000 mm

118

Design of stem
Ph= x 1/3 x 18 x 4.752=67.68 kN
M = Ph h/3 = 0.333 x 18 x 4.753/6

= 107.1 kN-m
Mu= 1.5 x M = 160.6 kN-m
h
P
Taking 1m length of wall,
Mu/bd2= 1.004 < 2.76, URS
M
(Here d=450- eff. Cover=450-50=400
D
mm)
k h
To find steel
Pt=0.295% <0.96%
3
Or
M
=
[k
H
]/6
2
u
a
Ast= 0.295x1000x400/100 = 1180 mm
#12 @ 90 < 300 mm and 3d ok
119
a

Curtailment of bars-Stem
Curtail 50% steel from
top
(h1/h2)2 = 50%/100%=
(h1/4.75)2 = , h1 =
3.36m
Actual point of cutoff
= 3.36-Ld=3.36-47 bar
= 3.36-0.564 = 2.74m
from top.
Spacing of bars = 180
mm c/c < 300 mm and

Dist.
from
top

h1
Ast/2

Every
alternate
bar cut

h2
h1c

Ldt
Ast

h2
Ast/2
Ast

Ast
Provid
ed

120

Design of stem-Contd.,
Development length (Stem
steel)
Ld=47 bar =47 x 12 = 564
mm

200

H=5200 mm

Secondary steel for stem at


front
0.12% GA
= 0.12x450 x 1000/100 =
540 mm2
#10 @ 140 < 450 mm and
5d ok
Distribution steel

tp= 750 mm
450
b= 3000 mm

121

Drawing and detailing


#12 @ 180

#10 @ 140

#12 @ 90
#16 @ 190

#10 @ 140

C/S OF WALL

L/S ELEVATION OF WALL

PILE FOUNDATION AND THEIR DESIGN


PRINCIPLES

M.Jayaram

Pile Foundations
Based on its function pile foundations are classified as
1. End Bearing Pile
4. Tension piles (or) Uplift piles
2. Friction (Shaft friction) Pile
5. Anchor pile
7.Sheet piles
3. Compaction piles
6. Fender and Dolphins pile 8. Batter piles

Some of the important classification of piles


Based on Materials: Timber, Concrete, Steel, or combination of any of them.
Types of Soil condition: Gravel, Clay, Sand, Rock
Based on Loads: Vertical load, Horizontal load ( water, soil, earthquake)
Based on construction: Cast in-situ, Pre-cast, Bored piles, Driven piles

BASED ON CONSTRUCTION
Bored Piles

Large Diameter (>600mm)


Small Diameter (300-600mm)
Tubed Augured Piles
Continuous Flight Auger (CFA)
Piles
Battered piles
Mini-Piles
Augured Displacement

Driven Piles

Cast in Place
Cast in Place (permanent
casing/shell)
Pre-cast
Steel
Timber

Pile Materials

Steel: H- piles, Steel pipe


Concrete: Cast in-situ (cast at site) or
Precast
Wood : (Timber Piles)
Composite

END BEARING
PILES
End bearing piles are those which terminate in relatively hard,
impenetrable stratum such as rock or very dense sand and gravel.
This pile act as a laterally transmitted column. The load being
transmitted to the toe and resisted by the hard soil or rock.

PILES

ROCK

SOFT SOIL

Fig: End bearing file

End
Bearing Pile
PILES
SOFT SOIL

ROCK

FRICTION PILES
Friction piles: In this pile the load is transmitted to the soil through
the adhesion or skin frictional resistance along the shaft of the piles.
In cohesionless soils like sands of medium to low relative density
friction piles are often used to increase the density and thus the
shear strength.

PILES

SOFT SOIL

Site Cast Concrete Piles


Cased Piles

Uncased Piles

Advantages and Disadvantages


of Wood piles

Advantages:
+The piles are easy to handle
+ Relatively inexpensive where timber availability is more.
+ Sections can be joined together and excess length can be
easily removed.
Disadvantages:
-- The piles will rot above the ground water level. Have a
limited bearing capacity.
-- Can easily be damaged during driving by stones and boulders.
-- The piles are difficult to splice and are attacked by marine
borers in salt water.

+ Length can be readily varied to suit varying ground conditions.


+ Soil removed in boring can be inspected and if necessary sampled or in- situ test made.
+ Can be installed in very large diameters.
+ End enlargement up to two or three diameters are possible in clays.
+ Material of piles is not dependent on handling or driving conditions.
+ Can be installed in very long lengths.
+ Can be installed with out appreciable noise or vibrations.
+ Can be installed in conditions of very low headroom.
+ No risk of ground heave.
-- Susceptible to "waisting" or "necking" in squeezing ground.
-- Concrete is not placed under ideal conditions and cannot be subsequently inspected.
-- Water under artesian pressure may pipe up pile shaft washing out cement.
-- Enlarged ends cannot be formed in cohesionless materials without special techniques.
-- Cannot be readily extended above ground level especially in river and marine structures.
-- Boring methods may loosen sandy or gravely soils requiring base grouting to achieve
economical base resistance.

Advantages and Disadvantages of


Bored and cast in-situ (Nondisplacement Piles) Piles

Precast Concrete Plies

Types of Pile

The pile installation procedure varies considerably, and


has an important influence on the subsequent response
Three categories of piles are classified by method of
installation as below:
Large displacement piles
They encompass all solid driven piles including
precast concrete piles, steel or concrete tubes
closed at the lower end
Small displacement piles
They include rolled steel sections such as H-pile
and open-end tubular piles
Replacement piles
They are formed by machine boring, grabbing or
hand-digging.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Displacement


Pile
Advantages

Disadvantages

Pile material can be inspected


for quality before driving

May break during driving

Construction operation affect by


ground water

Noise and vibration problems

Can driven in very long lengths

Cannot be driven in condition of low


headroom

Construction operation not


affected by ground water

Noise may prove unacceptable.


Noise permit may be required

Soil disposal is not necessary

Vibration may prove unacceptable


due to presence of sensitive
structures, utility installation or
machinery

Advantages and Disadvantages of Replacement Pile


(A/D)
Advantages

Disadvantages

Less noise or vibration problem

Concrete cannot be inspected after


installation

Equipment can break up practically


all kinds of obstructions

Liable to squeezing or necking

Can be installed in conditions of


low headroom

Raking bored pile are difficult to


construct

No ground heave

Drilling a number of pile groups may


cause ground loss and settlement of
adjacent structures

Depth and diameter can varied


easily

Cannot be extended above ground level


without special adaptation

Loads applied to Piles


Combinations of vertical, horizontal and moment
loading may be applied at the soil surface from the
overlying structure
For the majority of foundations the loads applied to
the piles are primarily vertical
For piles in jetties, foundations for bridge piers, tall
chimneys, and offshore piled foundations the lateral
resistance is an important consideration
The analysis of piles subjected to lateral and moment
loading is more complex than simple vertical loading
because of the soil-structure interaction.
Pile installation will always cause change of adjacent
soil properties, sometimes good, sometimes bad.

V
H

LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF


PILES
Load Carrying Capacity Of Piles:
The ultimate load carrying capacity or Ultimate bearing capacity or
Ultimate bearing resistance (Qup ) of a pile is defined as the maximum
load which can be carried by a pile, and at which the pile continues to
sink without further increase of load.
The allowable load (Qa) is the safe load which pile can carry safely and
is determined on the basis of
(1) Ultimate bearing capacity divided by suitable factor of safety.
(2) The permissible settlement and
(3) the Overall Stability of the pile foundation
The load carrying capacity of the pile can be determined by the
following methods:
Dynamic Formulae (1. Engineering News Formula, and 2. Hileys
Formulas)
Static formulae
Pile Load Tests
Penetration Test

Engineering News formula

This formula was proposed by A.M.Wellington (1818) to determine the allowable


bearing capacity as:
Qa = WH/F(S+C) .(1)
Where, Qa = Allowable Load,

W = Weight of Hammer in kg, H = Height of fall of a Hammer (cm)


S = Final Set (Penetration) per blow, usually taken as average penetration in cm per
blow for the last 5 blows of a Drop Hammer and 20 Blows for a Steam Hammer
C= Empirical Constant (2.5 for Drop Hammer, 0.25 for Single (or) Double acting
steam hammer
(1) for Drop Hammers, Qa = WH/6(S+2.5) .(2)

(2) for Single acting Steam Hammers, Qa = WH/6(S+0.25) .(3)

(3) for Double acting Steam Hammers Qa = {(W+ap)H}/6(S+0.25) .(4)

Where a = effective area of piston and p = mean effective steam pressure (kg/cm 2)

Pile Load Test


Testing Procedure
The pile load test can be performed either on a working pile or on a test pile.
A rigid steel plate (circular or rectangular steel plate) is placed on the top of pile projection.
A calibrated jack plate is mounted on the plate to measure the applied load. A reaction jack is
borne by the Truss or a Platform. The truss can be anchored to the ground with the help of
anchor piles.
The load is applied in equal increments of about one-fifth of its estimated allowable load. The
settlements were recorded with the help of three dial gauges of sensitive to 0.02mm, arranged
symmetrically over the test plate. For each load increments, the rate settlement becomes less
than 0.02mm per hour. The test piles are loaded until ultimate load is reached.
In general, the test load is increased to a value of 2.5times the values of estimated allowable load
or to a load which cause a settlement of equal al to 1/1o of the pile diameter, whichever occurs
earlier. The ultimate load can be obtained by plotting the graph for Load Vs Settlement curve.
If the ultimate load can not obtained from the plot, then the allowable load can be obtained as
follows:
1. One-half to one-third of the final load which causes settlement equal to 10% of pile diameter.
2. Twothird (2/3) of final load which cause a settlement of 12 mm, or
3. Two-third of final load which causes a net settlement (residual settlement after removal of load)
of 6mm

Test of 6 diameter Type-I Shaft at UCLA

145

Modes of failure
The soil is always failure by punching
shear.
The failure mode of pile is always in
buckling failure mode.

Test of 6 diameter Type-I Shaft at UCLA

147

SETTLEMENT REDUCING
PILES
Settlement reducing piles are usually incorporated beneath the
central part of a raft foundation in order to reduce differential
settlement to an acceptable level. Such piles act to reinforce the soil
beneath the raft and help to prevent dishing of the raft in the centre.

FAILURE OF PILE FOUNDATION &


Pile foundation
REMEDIES
It
is
widely
used
deep

foundation
for
complex
geologic conditions with kinds
of load conditions, especially
for soft soil foundation.
Pile
foundation
has
large
bearing capacity, well stability
and
small
differential
settlement compared to other
foundation types.

Butpile foundationsmay
also
get damaged and fail specially
during earthquakes.
The failure of the pile foundationmay result
from any of the following causes:

Remedies to prevent failure of


pile foundation:
Early repair such as
Encasement or Replacement of
piles
Removal of partial load
Underpinning

Problems:
Exercise:1
A wooden pile is being driven with a drop hammer weighing 20kN and having a
free fall of 1.0m. The penetration in the last blow is 5 mm. Determine the load
carrying capacity of the pile according to the Engineers news formula.

Solution:1
Given Data:
1.A Wooden Pile is Diriven
2.Weight of Drop Hammer = W=20kN
3.Height of fall H = 1.0m
4.Penetration in the last blow S = 05mm
Solution:1
Load carrying capacity Qa = WH / F(S+C)
= 20*100) / 6(0.5+2.5)
= 111.10kN

Solution:1
To find:
1.Load carrying capacity of the
pile
2. using Engineering News
formula

Exercise:2
A reinforced concrete pile weighing 30kN (inclusive of helmet and dolly) is driven by a
drop hammer weighing 40kN and having an effective fall of 0.8m. The average set per
blow is 1.4cm. The total temporary elastic compression is 1.8cm. Assuming the
coefficient of restitution as 0.25 and factor of safety of 2. Determine the ultimate
bearing capacity and allowable load for the pile.
Exercise:2
Exercise:2
To find:
Given Data:
1.A Reinforced concrete Pile weighing P=30kN
1.Load carrying capacity of the
is Driven
pile
2.Weight of Drop Hammer = W=40kN
2. Allowable Load
3.Height of fall H = 0.80m
4.Penetration in the last blow S = 1.40cm
5.Total elastic compression =C = 1.80 cm
6.Co-efficient of restituion =e = o.25
7.Factor of safety = f = 2
Solution:2
8.W > e*P
Allowable Load (Qa) = Qf / F
= 830 / 2
Solution:2
= 415 kN
= (W+P*e2) / (W+P)
b

= (40 +30*0.252) / (40+30)


= 0.597
Ultimate Bearing Capacity Qf = {(h *H)Wb }/ (S+C/2)
= {80*40)*0.597} / (1.4+1.8/2)
= 830 kN

Exercise:3
Design a friction pile group to carry a load of 3000kN including the weight of the
pile cap at a site where the soil is uniform clay to depth of 20m, underlain by a rock.
Average unconfined compressive strength of the clay is 70kN/m 2 .The clay may be
assumed of normal sensitivity and normally loaded, with liquid limit of 60%. A factor
of safety of 3 is required against shear failure.
Exercise: 3 (1) : Given Data:
Exercise:3 (2) : To find:
1.A Reinforced concrete Pile weighing P=3000kN
1.Design the group piles
is Driven
2.Depth of clay layer = 20 m
3.Average unconfined compressive strength qu =
70kN/cm2 ; (c = qu/2; c=70/2 =35)
Solution:4 (3) General formula Qup = As rf
4.Length of the pile L = 10 m
5.Diameter of the pile D = 0.50 m
Pile acting as a Single pile Qug = n c DL
6.Spacing of pile S =3*d =3 * 0.50 = 1.50m
3000 = n (35/5) *0.5 *10
7.Number piles = n
n = {3*3000}/{35* *0.5 *10} = 16.37 (Adopt 16 Nos.)
8.Factor of safety f = 2
Number of piles n =16 Piles
9.Nc = 9
Modify the Length of pile L have to be increased by the
10.Ap = Area of Piles (B*B)

ratio of (16.37/16) * 10 = 10.23m (Adopt 11 m)

Pile acting as a group Qug= Asg *rf


where, B = 3 * 1.5 + 0.50 = 5.0m
Load taken by group action, As g= {4 * B* L*c}+Ap *cNc
= {4*5 *11*35/3}+{25*35/3*9
= 5191.7 which is more the 3000kN (Hence safe)

4. In a 16 pile group, the pile diameter is 45 cm and centre to centre spacing of


the square group is 1.5 m. If c = 50 kN/m2, determine whether the failure would
occur with the pile acting individually, or as a group? Neglect bearing at the tip
of the pile. All the piles are 10 m long. Take m = 0.7 for shear mobilization
around
each
pile.

Exercise:4 (1)
Given Data:
1.16 nos. of Group Pile
2.Diameter D = 600 mm
3.Spacing = 1.20m
4.Length of Pile L = 10m on Soft clay
5.Cohesion c + 30 kN/m2
6.weighing P=30kN is Driven
7.Adhession factor m = 0.60
8.Neglecting the bearing resistance

Exercise:4 (2) :To find:


1.Ultimate
Load
carrying
capacity of the Group pile
Solution:4 (3) General formula Qup = As rf
Pile acting as a Single pile Qun = n Qup
= n As rf
Area of Shaft (As)= D *L; = *0.60*10 = 18.85m2
Unit Skin friction, (rf)= m *c = 0.60 * 30 = 5428.70 kN

Pile acting as a group Qug= Asg *rf


As g= {4 * B* L}
where, B = 3 * 1.2 + 0.60 = 4.20m
= {4*4.2 *10}
Solution:4 (4)
and
= 168 m2
(rf)= c = 30 kN/m2
Ultimate Load carrying capacity of the pile (Qug) = Asg*rf
= 168 * 30
= 5040 kN
Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Single pile = Ultimate Bearing Capacity group pile
5428.70 = 5040
(consider lesser of the Two values)

END Pile
END
Pile
foundations

END Pile
foundations
foundations

Basic Concept
The ultimate axial load of (Qu ) of a single pile may
be considered to be the sum of its skin friction and
end-bearing resistances , that are mobilized by the
applied load. i.e

Qu

Qu =Qb+Qs-W .(1)
=Ab*qb +As*qs -W
where
Ab, and As = Area of base and Shaft respectively
qb =Ultimate net bearing capacity of soil at the end of the
pile
qs = Mobilized adhesion OR frictional resistance along the
shaft of the pile and W=weight of the pile (minus)
weight of soil replaced
W = 0.25 d2 L (p ) ; D is diameter and L is length of the pile
p =Average density of pile
Qu = total pile resistance,
Qb is the end bearing resistance (Qu = Cu *Nc* Ab) and
Qs Qs is Shaft resistance capacity (Qs = (Cu *Nc* As)
Nc = 9 for intact clay and 6.75 for fissured clays
Alpha = adhesion factor =0.45
(soft clay =1, Overconsolidated clay = 0.30
General behaviour

Qs

W
Qb

Loading

Loading
Qu
QS
QB

Settlemen
t
Behaviour of Frictional Pile

Piles founded on dense


soils
Important to adopt
good construction
practice to enhance
shaft friction and base
resistance
Shaft and base
grouting useful in

Qu
QB

QS
Settlement
Behaviour of End Bearing Pile
Piles founded on strong stratum
Not much benefit in enhancing
base resistance
Important to adopt good
construction practice to enhance
shaft friction
Shaft grouting useful in
enhancing pile capacity

Ultimate Limit State


Design

QT

QDES = QB/FB + Qs /Fs W(2)

d
Where FB and FS is the factor of safety of
components of end bearing strength and
shaft friction strength

QU = QB + QsW(3)

ho
D

Qs

Qb=Ab[cbNc+Po(Nq-1)+d/2N+Po] -Wp
Where
Ab = area of the base ,
cb = the cohesion at the base of the pile,
Po = the overburden stress at the base of the pile, and
d = the width (diameter) of the pile.

W
QB

End Bearing Resistance


Assumptions :
1. The weight of the pile is similar to the weight of the soil displaced of
the pile
=> Wp=AbPo
2. The length (L) of the pile is much greater than its width d
=> Wp=AbPo+ AbdN/2
3. Similarly for Nq approximately equal to Nq-1

Qb=Ab[cbNc+Po(Nq-1)+d/2N+Po] Wp
=>

Qb=Ab[cbNc+PoNq]

End Bearing resistance for Bore


pile in granular soils
Due to the natural of granular soil, the c can be assumed
equation to zero. The ultimate end bearing resistance for
bored pile in granular soils may be express in terms of
vertical effective stress, v and the bearing capacity factors
Nq as :

QB=AB Nq v
Nq is generally related to the angle of shearing resistance .
For general design purposed, it is suggested that the N q
value proposed by Berezantze et al (1961) as presented in
Figure ?? are used. However, the calculated ultimate base
stress should conservatively be limited to 10Mpa, unless
higher values have been justified by load tests.

Shaft Friction Resistance


The ultimate shaft friction stress q s for piles may be expressed
in terms of mean vertical effective stress as :

qs =c+Ksvtans
qs =v (when c=0)

Where
Ks= coefficient of horizontal pressure which depends on the relative
density and state of soil, method of pile installation, and material
length and shape of pile. Ks may be related to the coefficient of earth
pressure at rest,
K0=1-sin as shown in Table 1.
Qv = mean vertical effective stress
s = angle of friction along pile/soil interface (see table2)
= shafte friction coefficient (see Table 3)

Qs = pLqs

Where p is the perimeter of the pile and L is the total length of the pile

Total and Effective Stress


Analysis
To determine drained or undrained condition,
we may need to consider the following
factors:
Drainage condition in the various soil strata
Permeability of soils
Rate of application of loads
Duration after the application of load

A rough indicator will be the Time Factor


(Tv=cvt/d2)

GROUND
IMPROVEMENT
TECHNIQUES

GROUTING

GROUTING
Grouting is a process of ground improvement
attained by injecting fluid like

material into subsurface soil or rock.

Grouting is the injection specially formulated


cement of stable suspensions

or liquid into pores, fissures or voids, or the


jetting of cement mixtures at

high flow rate and pressure into


create soil- cement to increase

the strength.

the soil to

APPLICATIONS

Producing mass concrete structures and piles


Fixing ground anchors for sheet pile walls, concrete pile walls,
retaining walls tunnels etc
Repairing a ground underneath a formation or cracks and
structural
Defects on building masonry or pavement.
Fixing the tendons in prestressed post tensioned concrete
Filling the void between the lining and rock face in tunnel works

GROUTING MATERIAL
(a)Suspension grouts: TYPES
These are multi-phase systems capable of forming sub
systems after being subjected to natural sieving processes,
with chemical properties which must be carefully scrutinized
so as to ensure that they do not militate against controlled
properties of setting and strength. Water in association with
cement, lime, soil, etc., constitute suspensions. Emulsion
(asphalt or bitumen) with water is a two-phase system which
is also included under suspension.
(b) Solution grouts:
These are intimate one-phase system retaining an originally
designed chemical balance until completion of the relevant
reactions. Solutions in which the solute is present in the
colloidal
state are known as colloidal solutions. Chemical
grouts fall into this
category.

MATERIALS USED FOR GROUTING


MATERIALS USED
FOR GROUTING

Cement and
water

Cement, rock
flour and water

Common admixtures used with cement


grouts:
1. Calcium chloride

2. Sodium hydroxide ]-----for accelerating setting


time
3. Sodium silicate

4. Gypsum
Cement, clay and
5. Lime sugar
water
time.
Cement clay,
6. Sodium tannate
sand and water
7. Fine bentonite
Asphalt

Clay and water

8. Clay

Chemicals

9. Ground shale ]--for reducing cost of grout strength of and

]
]-----for retarding setting
]
]
]

reduces grout

10. Rock flour

MATERIALS USED FOR


GROUTING
GROUTINGMATERIA
LS
Cement and water
Cement, rock flour and
water
Cement, clay and
water
Cement clay, sand and
water
Asphalt
Clay and water
Chemicals

COMMON ADMIXTURES USED WITH


CEMENT
1. Calcium chloride ]
2. Sodium hydroxide ]-----for
accelerating setting time
3. Sodium silicate
]
4. Gypsum
]
5. Lime sugar
]---for retarding setting time.
6. Sodium tannate
]
7. Fine bentonite
]
8. Clay
]
9. Ground shale ]--for reducing cost of grout and
reduces the strength of grout

10. Rock flour

PERMEATION
Grout is injected into the soil at low pressure and fills the voids
without significantly changing the soils structure and volume. Variety of
binders are used with this technique, the choice of which is dictated
mainly by the permeability of the soil.
When the coefficient of permeability is greater than 10-2cm/sec,
water-cement mixes are used and for permeability as low as 10 -5 cm/sec,
the more expensive resin based grouts are used. Soils with K values lower
than 10-6 cm/sec are normally not groutable by permeation.

COMPACTION PERMEATION
Disadvantages
Grouting adjacent to unsupported slopes may be ineffective.
Not suitable in decomposable materials.
Danger of filling underground pipes with grout.
Effectiveness questionable in saturated clays

MICROFINE CEMENT
Thick slurries can not penetrate fine cracks and higher injection
pressures would cause fracturing of ground foundations. Because of
the higher water requirements of micro fine cement, the slurry
remains fluid enough to flow into and penetrate fine sands and small
cracks in rock.
These cements can treat finer grained sands not possible to treat
with Portland cement alone. They are also used to stabilize waste
plumes.

A key advantage of chemical grouting is the ability to


introduce grout into soil pores without any essential change in
the original soil volume and structure, thus changing the
support capability of granular soils without disturbing them.
Another advantage is the ability to be less disruptive and
enable tunneling to proceed without over-excavation. A possible
drawback of chemical grouting is that only certain soil types are
amenable. Another barrier to the use of chemical grouting
techniques in the recent is increasing concern regarding
potential pollution by chemical grouting in urban areas. Two
trends have addressed this issue:

CHEMICAL GROUTING

1. Improvement of grouts through the development of new


formulae that enhance the penetrability of particulate
suspensions and meet the strictest specifications for
environmental safety
2. Development of alternative techniques which by-pass the
penetrability restraints, such as jet grouting which allows the
treatment of most types of soil, independent of its grain size

COMPACTION PERMEATION

COMPENSATION GROUTING
1.Compensation (hydrofracture) grouting uses high-mobility grout
to split the ground and thereby create lifting or densification under
structures or other facilities.
2.The ground is deliberately split by injecting stable fluid cementbased grouts at high pressures in order to increase total stress by the
wedging action of successive thin grout lenses, to fill unconnected
voids, and possibly to consolidate the soil locally under injection.
3.This process is often undertaken as a reaction to movements
while tunnel excavation is in progress.
4.It is important to keep in mind that the effects of compensation
(hydrofracture) grouting are difficult to control and the potential danger
of damaging adjacent structures by the use of high pressure may prove
prohibitive

JET GROUTING
1. It is a technology in which high- pressure jets of cement grout are
discharged sideways into the borehole wall to simultaneously
excavate and then mix with the soil.
2. The outstanding feature of jet grouting is the ability to treat a
whole range of soils, from silty sands to cohesive deposits, by
means of simple cement grouts.
3. Jet grouting can be performed in soils with a wide range of
granulometries and permeabilites.

COMPACTION PERMEATION
Disadvantages
Grouting adjacent to unsupported slopes may be ineffective.
Not suitable in decomposable materials.
Danger of filling underground pipes with grout.
Effectiveness questionable in saturated clays

MICROFINE CEMENT
These are special cements used to treat fine grained soil. It is not
possible to treat with Portland cement alone.
Thick slurries can not penetrate fine cracks and higher injection
pressures would cause fracturing of ground foundations. Because of
the higher water requirements of micro fine cement, the slurry
remains fluid enough to flow into and penetrate fine sands and small
cracks in rock.

A key advantage of chemical grouting is the ability to


introduce grout into soil pores without any essential change in
the original soil volume and structure, thus changing the
support capability of granular soils without disturbing them.
Another advantage is the ability to be less disruptive and
enable tunneling to proceed without over-excavation. A possible
drawback of chemical grouting is that only certain soil types are
amenable. Another barrier to the use of chemical grouting
techniques in the recent is increasing concern regarding
potential pollution by chemical grouting in urban areas. Two
trends have addressed this issue:

CHEMICAL GROUTING

1. Improvement of grouts through the development of new


formulae that enhance the penetrability of particulate
suspensions and meet the strictest specifications for
environmental safety
2. Development of alternative techniques which by-pass the
penetrability restraints, such as jet grouting which allows the
treatment of most types of soil, independent of its grain size

COMPENSATION GROUTING
1.Compensation (hydrofracture) grouting uses high-mobility grout to
split the ground and thereby create lifting or densification under
structures or other facilities.
2.The ground is deliberately split by injecting stable fluid cementbased grouts at high pressures in order to increase total stress by the
wedging action of successive thin grout lenses, to fill unconnected voids,
and possibly to consolidate the soil locally under injection.
3.This process is often undertaken as a reaction to movements while
tunnel excavation is in progress.
4.It is important to keep in mind that the effects of compensation
(hydrofracture) grouting are difficult to control and the potential danger
of damaging adjacent structures by the use of high pressure may prove
prohibitive

GROUTING
1. In this method, JET
high- pressure
jets of cement grout are discharged
sideways into the borehole wall during excavation to strengthen the
earth wall.
2. The jet grouting is to treat a all range of soils, (silty sands to cohesive
deposits).
3. Jet grouting can be performed in wide range to permeability problem
in soils.
Advantages:
1. the ability to use very small drilling tools (90mm diameter) to create
large elements (1.2m to 2.4m diameter) using pressure and flow;
2. the ability to drill underneath obstacles and solidify zones which are
hard to access;
3. the use of technically sophisticated techniques such as high-powered
pumps and monitoring devices with continuous measurement of all
operational parameters.

JET GROUTING

GROUTING PLANT AND EQUIPMENT


A grouting plant includes a mixer, an agitator, a pump, and piping
connected to grout holes. Two systems: single line type and circulating
type. In the circulation type, the unused grout is returned to the agitator
and in the single-line type the grout refused is wasted. The basic items
required for a grouting plant and their functions are:
(a) Measuring tank-to control the volume of grout injected.
(b) Mixer-to mix the grout ingredients
(c) Agitator-to keep the solid particles in suspension until pumped
(d) Pump-to draw the grout from the agitator to deliver to the pumping
line.
(e) Control fittings-to control the injection rate and pressure so that the
hole can be regularly blend with water and thin grout.

SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION

PRECAUTIONS
The following are the precautions while mixing a grout:
Water is placed first in the mixer.
Mixer is run at the maximum speed before adding
the cement.
Grout is mixed in batches.
Ingredients have to be measured in volume
Enough water should be maintained to cover the
rotor while it is functioning.
Mixer should not be allowed to run for more than a
few minutes between batches.
Mixers should be cleaned thoroughly after
completion of work.

Drainage Methods
Stone & Perforated Pipe

Drainage Mat & Perforated Pipe

Dampproofing
Typically, a liquid asphalt
applied with a
roller or sprayer
Not an effective barrier
for water under pressure.
BUT, will prevent ground
moisture from migrating
through a wall.
Typically used in conjunction
will drainage pipe.

Earth Slope Stability


Analysis
CECE 4131 Geotechnical Engineering
II
JAYARAM D K

STABILITY OF SLOPES
INTRODUCTION:
Earth embankments are commonly required for Railways, Roadways, Earth
Dams, Levees and River training works. The stability of those embankments or
slopes, should be thoroughly analyzed, since their failure my lead to loss of
human life, as well as economic loss.
I.

The failure of a mass soil located beneath a slope is called slide. It involves the
movement of soil mass either downward or outward from the position.
Types of slopes: 1) Infinite slope 2) Finite slope
1) Infinite slope:
If a slopes represents the boundary surface of a semi-infinite soil mass, and the
soil properties for all depth below the surface are constant, it is called infinite
slope.
2) Finite slope:
If the slope is of limited extent of it s boundary, it is called finite slope

Failure of SLOPE

Modes of slope failure: An exposed ground surface that stands at an angle


with the horizontal is called unrestrained slope.
The slope can be natural or man-made.
It can fails in various modes
The failures are classified in to five major categories:
1. Fall
2. Topple
3. Slide 4. Spread
5. Flow
Fall: this is the detachment of Soil and or Rock fragments that fall down a
slope, and large amount of soil mass has slide down a slop.
Topple: this is a forward rotation of Soil/Rock mass about an axis below
the centre of gravity of mass being displaced.
Slide: It is the downward movement of soil mass occurring on a surface
of rupture
Spread: this is a form of slide by rotation. It occurs by sudden movement
of water bearing seams of sand silts overlain by clays or loaded by
fills.
Flow: this is a downward movement of soil mass similar to a viscous fluid

II. Causes of Mass Movements

Seismic forces, Weaken the soil layer from the continuous exposure
of groundwater or Chemical waste leachate, High Groundwater water
level, Excavation for the construction,

III. Types of Slope Movements

FACTOR OF SAFETY

The task of the engineer charged with analysing slope is to determine the factor
of safety. It is defined as

Factor of safety with respect to strength (Fs =f / d );

(f = Average shear strength of the soil /

d = Ave. Shear Stress developed along the potential failure surface)

Shear strength of soil consists of Two components: Cohesion and Friction, it can
be writen as f = c + tan
( = normal stress on the potential
failure surface)

Methods of finite slope


analysis

1.
2.
3.
4.

Culmanns method of planar failure surface - Suitable for very steep slope
The Swedish (Slip circle) Circle method
The Friction circle methods
Bishops method

Culmanns method : Planar failure surface:


Culmann (1866) considered, a simple failure mechanism of a slope of homogeneous soil with plane
failure surface passing through the toe of the slope.
Let AB be any probable slip plane.
The wedge ADB is in equilibrium under the action of three forces

(1) Weight of the wedge W = (AB)*h* ; = (L)*h*


(2) The cohesive force C along the surface AB, resisting motion Cm*L
(3) The reaction R, inclined at an angle (m) to the normal

IV. Infinite Slope Stability Analysis

Free Body Diagram of a Representative Slice of Infinite Slope with


Cohesionless Soil

Stability of infinite slopes

Considering the problem of slope stability, of an infinite slope shown in fig.


15.7
To get the strength of the soil mass f= c + tan
Assume Porewater pressure is zero
To Evaluate the factor of safety against a possible slope failure along a
plane AB located at a depth H, below the ground surface
The slope failure can occur by the movement of soil above the plane AB
from right to left.
Fs = c/(H cos2tan) + (tan/ tan)
For COHESSIONLESS (granular) soils, c=0, and Fs becomes equal to
(tan/ tan), this indicates that in an infinte slope in sand.
Factor of safety,Fs is independent, and the slope is stable as long as <
For soil possesses Cohesion and friction, the depth of the plane along
which critical equilibirium occurs may be determined by substituting Fs=1,
and H=Hcr.
Hcr = (c/ )*(1/ cos2(tan - tan)

Types of stability Analysis


Procedure

The slope stability Analysis is divided in to two major classes, namely


1.Mass procedure, 2. Method of Slices
Mass Procedure:
The mass of the soil above the surface of sliding is taken as unit.
The soils that forms the slope is assumed to be homogeneous
This procedure is not considered for the case in most natural slopes
Methods of Slices:
The soil above the surface of sliding is divided into a number of vertical
parallel slices.
The stability of each slice is calculated separately
This method the soil and porewater pressure can be taken into
consideration
The variation of the normal stress along the potential failure surface also
taken into account.

Landslide Overview Map of the Conterminous United States

Case Studies

Earth flow in Cincinnati, OhioThis slide shows material


being removed by highway
crew along the Columbia
Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Debris flows that blocked


Interstate-70 during Labor
Day weekend, 1994

Government Hill School in


Anchorage
27 March1964 Alaska Earthquake 1964

This building hangs over the head


scarp of a landslide in decomposed
bedrock that was triggered by the
1995 Kobe earthquake. Several
homes were buried and over 30
people killed by the landslide.
http://cee.engr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/boulanger/geo_photo
_album/Earthquake%20hazards/Landslides/EQ

In 1970, an earthquake induced rock and snow


avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru.

Cross-Sections Before and


After the 1971 Earthquake

San Fernando EQ
1971
Magnitude: 6.7
Deaths: 48
Injuries: 2000
Damage: $511
million
Crest dropped from
142 ft to 112 ft

http://quake.usgs.gov/prepare/factsheets/LADam
Story/

Limit of landslides triggered by


the Northridge Earthquake
and area of greatest landslide
concentration (shaded)

Failure rates correlated with: (1) shaking severity; (2) slope steepness;
(3) strength and engineering properties of geologic materials; (4) water
saturation; (5) existing landslide areas; and (6) vegetative cover.

17 January 1994
Northridge Earthquake
(M = 6.7)

Landslides in Idaho

U.S. Hwy 95
Bonners Ferry
Landslide
http://www.landslidetechnolo
gy.com/landslides/bonnersfe
rry.htm

Clearwater County
Project