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# ESSENTIALITIES

AND COMPLEXITIES
IN THESIS WRITING
Evaluating data for
statistical treatment

Sequence of
Presentation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

How important statistics is in research
Dangers of (mis)using statistics
Why data should be statistically treated
Purposes of Statistics (in Research Writing)
The Data Analysis Process
What to measure and how
Levels of Measurement
Matrix for Statistical Treatment of Data
Common Statistical Operations
Statistical Tests

How important
statistics is in
theory they
are very important.
research

In
Without
statistics it is almost impossible to come to an
informed conclusion in any piece of research.
The use of statistics is wide ranging in the field
of research and without the use of statistics it is
virtually impossible to interpret a true meaning
of what the research shows. Not to exaggerate,
statistics is the BACKBONE OF A RESEARCH.

Dangers of (mis)using
statistics
1. Statistics, no matter how carefully collected,
can always be flawed e.g. without a sample
of thousands of people (ensuring they are
representative of the whole population), you
cannot be certain that the results can be
wholly generalized.
2. Statistical information can be easily
manipulated to show very different results.

Why data should be
statistically treated

1. Data come in different volume
and form.
2. Data are subject to different
interpretations.
3. “Words
(data)
differently
arranged
have
different
meanings;
meanings
differently
arranged
have
1
1
att.
to Charles
Babbage,
Father of
different
impacts.”
Modern Computer

Purposes of Statistics
(in Research Writing)
Essentially, statistics
1.helps organize the data. (Tables and
graphs are the essential non-letter cues
for interpretation)
2.makes inferring guided, which yields to
more meaningful interpretations. It
makes use of descriptive statistics for
collection
of
data
and
inferential
statistics for drawing inferences from
this set of data.
3.provides platform for research

What to Measure and
How characteristics
Identify the observable
of the concepts being investigated 
record and order observations of those
behavioral characteristics.
1.Quantitative
measurements
employ
meaningful
numerical
indicators to ascertain the relative
amount of something.
2.Qualitative measurement employ
symbols to indicate the meaning

Levels of Measurement
1.

2.

3.

4.

(N)ominal variables are differentiated on the basis of
type or category.

(O)rdinal measurement scales not only classify a
variable into nominal categories but also rank order
those categories along some dimension. (The number
does not express the size of the difference.)
(I)nterval measurement scales not only categorize a
variable and rank order it along some dimension but also
establish equal distances between each of the adjacent
points along the measurement scale.

(R)atio measurement scales not only categorize and
rank order a variable along a scale with equal intervals
between adjacent points but also establish an absolute,
or true, zero point where the variable being measured
ceases to exist.

Matrix for
Statistical Treatment of Data

Matrix for Statistical
Treatment of Regularly
Gathered
Data
Variables
Treatments
Gender
Age, Height,
Weight,
Mo. Income

f, %
f, %, mean, sd

Educl. Attainment
Perceptions

f, %
WM, Ave. WM, Grand WM

Choice
Correlations

f, %, rank
Pearson, Spearman

Test of Significance

t-test (z-test)
Chi-square
Kendall’s Tau and Coefficient of
Concordance

Rank

Common Statistical
Operations
1.

2.

3.

4.

Measures of Central Tendency indicate what is
typical of the average subject. E.g. Mean,
Median, Mode
Measures of Variance indicate the distribution of
the data around the center.
E.g. standard
deviation and variance
Correlation and regression analysis deals with
the degree (extent) to which two variables move
in sync with one another. E.g. pearson productmoment of correlation and spearman rank.
Test of significant difference/
relationships.

Statistical Tests –
Two-sided vs. one-sided test

These tests for comparison, for instance between methods A
and B, are based on the assumption that there is no
significant difference (the "null hypothesis").
In other words, when the difference is so small that a
tabulated critical value of F or t is not exceeded, we can be
confident (usually at 95% level) that A and B are not different.
Two fundamentally different questions can be asked
concerning both the comparison of the standard deviations s1
and s2 with the F-test, and of the means¯x1, and ¯x2, with the
t-test:
1.
are
A
and
B
different?
(two-sided
test)
2. is A higher (or lower) than B? (one-sided test).

Statistical Tests –
F-test (Fisher’s Test)

The F-test (or Fisher's test) is a comparison of the
spread of two sets of data to test if the sets belong to
the same population, in other words if the precisions
are similar or dissimilar.
The test makes use of the ratio of the two variances:
If Fcal ≤ Ftab one can conclude with 95% confidence
that there is no significant difference in precision (the
"null hypothesis" that s1, = s, is accepted). Thus,
there is still a 5% chance that we draw the wrong
conclusion. In certain cases more confidence may be
needed, then a 99% confidence table can be used.

References