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MELJUN CORTES RESEARCH Lectures Evaluating Data Statistical Treatment

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AND COMPLEXITIES

IN THESIS WRITING

Evaluating data for

statistical treatment

Sequence of

Presentation

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

**How important statistics is in research
**

Dangers of (mis)using statistics

Why data should be statistically treated

Purposes of Statistics (in Research Writing)

The Data Analysis Process

What to measure and how

Levels of Measurement

Matrix for Statistical Treatment of Data

Common Statistical Operations

Statistical Tests

How important

statistics is in

theory they

are very important.

research

In

Without

statistics it is almost impossible to come to an

informed conclusion in any piece of research.

The use of statistics is wide ranging in the field

of research and without the use of statistics it is

virtually impossible to interpret a true meaning

of what the research shows. Not to exaggerate,

statistics is the BACKBONE OF A RESEARCH.

**Dangers of (mis)using
**

statistics

1. Statistics, no matter how carefully collected,

can always be flawed e.g. without a sample

of thousands of people (ensuring they are

representative of the whole population), you

cannot be certain that the results can be

wholly generalized.

2. Statistical information can be easily

manipulated to show very different results.

**Why data should be
**

statistically treated

**1. Data come in different volume
**

and form.

2. Data are subject to different

interpretations.

3. “Words

(data)

differently

arranged

have

different

meanings;

meanings

differently

arranged

have

1

1

att.

to Charles

Babbage,

Father of

different

impacts.”

Modern Computer

Purposes of Statistics

(in Research Writing)

Essentially, statistics

1.helps organize the data. (Tables and

graphs are the essential non-letter cues

for interpretation)

2.makes inferring guided, which yields to

more meaningful interpretations. It

makes use of descriptive statistics for

collection

of

data

and

inferential

statistics for drawing inferences from

this set of data.

3.provides platform for research

**What to Measure and
**

How characteristics

Identify the observable

of the concepts being investigated

record and order observations of those

behavioral characteristics.

1.Quantitative

measurements

employ

meaningful

numerical

indicators to ascertain the relative

amount of something.

2.Qualitative measurement employ

symbols to indicate the meaning

Levels of Measurement

1.

2.

3.

4.

**(N)ominal variables are differentiated on the basis of
**

type or category.

**(O)rdinal measurement scales not only classify a
**

variable into nominal categories but also rank order

those categories along some dimension. (The number

does not express the size of the difference.)

(I)nterval measurement scales not only categorize a

variable and rank order it along some dimension but also

establish equal distances between each of the adjacent

points along the measurement scale.

**(R)atio measurement scales not only categorize and
**

rank order a variable along a scale with equal intervals

between adjacent points but also establish an absolute,

or true, zero point where the variable being measured

ceases to exist.

Matrix for

Statistical Treatment of Data

**Matrix for Statistical
**

Treatment of Regularly

Gathered

Data

Variables

Treatments

Gender

Age, Height,

Weight,

Mo. Income

f, %

f, %, mean, sd

Educl. Attainment

Perceptions

f, %

WM, Ave. WM, Grand WM

Choice

Correlations

f, %, rank

Pearson, Spearman

Test of Significance

t-test (z-test)

Chi-square

Kendall’s Tau and Coefficient of

Concordance

Rank

Common Statistical

Operations

1.

2.

3.

4.

**Measures of Central Tendency indicate what is
**

typical of the average subject. E.g. Mean,

Median, Mode

Measures of Variance indicate the distribution of

the data around the center.

E.g. standard

deviation and variance

Correlation and regression analysis deals with

the degree (extent) to which two variables move

in sync with one another. E.g. pearson productmoment of correlation and spearman rank.

Test of significant difference/

relationships.

Statistical Tests –

Two-sided vs. one-sided test

**These tests for comparison, for instance between methods A
**

and B, are based on the assumption that there is no

significant difference (the "null hypothesis").

In other words, when the difference is so small that a

tabulated critical value of F or t is not exceeded, we can be

confident (usually at 95% level) that A and B are not different.

Two fundamentally different questions can be asked

concerning both the comparison of the standard deviations s1

and s2 with the F-test, and of the means¯x1, and ¯x2, with the

t-test:

1.

are

A

and

B

different?

(two-sided

test)

2. is A higher (or lower) than B? (one-sided test).

Statistical Tests –

F-test (Fisher’s Test)

**The F-test (or Fisher's test) is a comparison of the
**

spread of two sets of data to test if the sets belong to

the same population, in other words if the precisions

are similar or dissimilar.

The test makes use of the ratio of the two variances:

If Fcal ≤ Ftab one can conclude with 95% confidence

that there is no significant difference in precision (the

"null hypothesis" that s1, = s, is accepted). Thus,

there is still a 5% chance that we draw the wrong

conclusion. In certain cases more confidence may be

needed, then a 99% confidence table can be used.

References

Retrieved from 4 Aug to 10 Aug 2012

1.http://www.blurtit.com/q799907.html

2.http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_importance_of_stat

istics_in_research

3.http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/researchcourse/data_proce

ss.html

4.http://ion.chem.usu.edu/~sbialkow/Classes/3600/Overhead

s/Stat%20Narrative/statistical.html

5.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/W7295E/w7295e0a.htm#TopOfPa

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